Priscilla Jim Acoma Indian Pottery Christmas Bell Wreath Santa Fe Chile Pepper
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Priscilla Jim Acoma Indian Pottery Christmas Bell Wreath Santa Fe Chile Pepper:
PRISCILLA JIM ACOMA INDIAN POTTERY Christmas BELL WREATH SANTA FE CHILE PEPPER
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NOW FOR YOUR VIEWING PLEASURE…
LARGE Christmas DECOR
ONE OF A KIND / OOAK
AO / ARTIST ORIGINAL
BY ACOMA INDIAN POTTER
aka PRISCILLA JIM
SOLD BY SUSAN'S Christmas SHOPPE
SANTA FE, NEW MEXICO
SOME 70 PLUS PIECES
HAND PAINTED NATIVE AMERICAN INDIANPOTTERY
BELLS, CATS, CHILE PEPPERS
EACH DECORATED WITH A DIFFERENT
THE WREATH IS ABOUT 18"
GREAT HOLIDAY DECOR FOR YOUR
LODGE OR ADOBE...
Acoma Pueblo (Western Keresan: Aa'ku; Zuni: Hakukya; Navajo: Haakʼoh) is a Native American pueblo approximately 60 miles (97 km) west of Albuquerque, New Mexico in the United States. Three villages make up Acoma Pueblo: Sky City (Old Acoma), Acomita, and McCartys. The Acoma Pueblo tribe is a federally recognized tribal entity. The historical land of Acoma Pueblo totaled roughly 5,000,000 acres (2,000,000 ha). Only 10% of this land remains in the hands of the community within the Acoma Indian Reservation.
According to the 2010 United States Census, 4,989 people identified as Acoma. The Acoma have continuously occupied the area for more than 800 years, making it one of the oldest continuously inhabited communities in the United States. Acoma tribal traditions estimate that they have lived in the village for more than two thousand years.
The word "Acoma" is from the Acoma and Spanish word Acoma, or Acú, which means "the place that always was" or "People of the White Rock". "Pueblo" is Spanish for "village" or "town". Pueblo refers to both the people and the unique architecture of the Southwest. Some tribal elders assert that it means “a place that always was".
The Acoma language falls in the Keresan language group. In Contemporary Acoma Pueblo culture, most people speak both Acoma and English. Elders might also speak Spanish.
Origins and early history
Pueblo people are believed to have descended from the Anasazi, Mogollon, and other ancient peoples. These influences are seen in the architecture, farming style, and artistry of the Acoma. In the 1200s the Anasazi abandoned their canyon homelands due to climate change and social upheaval. For upwards of two centuries migrations occurred in the area, and Acoma Pueblo would emerge by the thirteenth century. This early founding date makes Acoma Pueblo one of the earliest continuously inhabited communities in the United States.
The Pueblo lies on a 365 feet (111 m) mesa, about 60 miles (97 km) west of Albuquerque, New Mexico. The isolation and location of the Pueblo has sheltered the community for more than 1,200 years, which sought to avoid conflict with neighboring Navajos and Apaches.
The Acoma Pueblo had contact with Spanish explorers heading north from Central America, all generally recorded as peaceful interactions. Francisco Vásquez de Coronado's expedition described the Pueblo in 1540 as "one of the strongest places we have seen." Upon visiting the Pueblo the expedition "repented having gone up to the place." The only access to the Acoma Pueblo during this time was a set of almost vertical stairs cut into the rock face. It is believed Coronado's expedition was the first European contact with the Acoma.
By 1598, relationships with the Spaniards had declined. In December of that year, the Acoma heard that Juan de Oñate had intended on colonizing the area. The Acoma ambushed a group of Oñate's men, killing 11 of them, including Oñate's nephew. The Spanish took revenge on the Acoma, burning most of the village and killing more than 600 people and imprisoning approximately 500 others. Prisoners of war were forced into slavery and men over 25 years old had their right foot amputated. A row of houses on the north side of the mesa still retain marks from the fire started by a cannon during the Acoma War.
Survivors of the Acoma Massacre would recover and rebuild their community and Oñate would proceed to force the Acoma and other local Indians to pay taxes in crops, cotton, and labor. Spanish rule also brought Catholic missionaries into the area. The Spanish renamed the pueblos with the names of saints and started to construct churches at them. New crops also were introduced to the Acoma, including peaches, peppers, and wheat. A royal decree in 1620 created civil offices in each pueblo, including Acoma, with a governor to go along with the office. In 1680 the Pueblo Revolt took place, with Acoma participating. The revolt brought refugees from other pueblos. Those who eventually left Acoma would go on to form Laguna Pueblo.
The Acoma then suffered from smallpox epidemics and raiding from the Apache, Comanche, and Ute. On occasion, the Acoma would side with the Spanish to fight against nomadic tribes. The Acoma proceeded to practice their religion in secrecy. Intermarriage and interaction also became common among the Acoma, other pueblos, and Hispanic villages. These communities would intermingle to form the culture of New Mexico.
San Esteban Del Rey Mission
Between 1629 and 1641 Father Juan Ramirez oversaw construction of the San Estevan Del Rey Mission Church church. The Acoma were ordered to build the church, moving 20,000 short tons (18,000 t) of adobe, straw, sandstone, and mud to the mesa for the church walls. Ponderosa pine was brought in by community members from Mount Taylor, over 40 miles (64 km) away. At 6,000 square feet (560 m2), with an altar flanked by 60 feet (18 m)-high wood pillars hand carved in red and white designs representing Christian and Indigenous beliefs, the structure is considered a cultural treasure by the Acoma, despite the slave labor used to build it. In 1970 it was placed on the National Register of Historic Places and in 2007 it became the 28th designated National Trust Historic Site; the only Native American site designated with the latter title.
19th and 20th century
During the nineteenth century, the Acoma people, while trying to uphold traditional life, also adopted aspects of the once-rejected Spanish culture and religion. By the 1880s, railroads brought the pueblos out of isolation. In the 1920s, the All Indian Pueblo Council gathered for the first time in more than 300 years. Responding to congressional interest in appropriating Pueblo lands, the U.S. Congress passed the Pueblo Lands Act in 1924. Despite successes in retaining their land, the twentieth century proved difficult for the survival of cultural traditions for the Acoma. Protestant missionaries and schools came into the area and the Bureau of Indian Affairs forced Acoma children into boarding schools. By 1922, most children from the community were in boarding schools.
Today, about 300 two- and three-story adobe buildings reside on the mesa, with exterior ladders used to access the upper levels where residents live. Access to the mesa is by a road blasted into the rock face during the 1950s. Approximately 30 or so people live permanently on the mesa, with the population increasing on the weekends as family members come to visit and tourists, some 55,000 annually, visit for the day.
Acoma Pueblo has no electricity, running water, or sewage disposal. A reservation surrounds the mesa, totaling 600 square miles (1,600 km2). Tribal members live both on the reservation and outside it. contemporary Acoma culture remains relatively closed, however. According to the 2000 United States census, 4,989 people identify themselves as Acoma.
Many Acoma people disapprove of Juan de Oñate being called New Mexico's founder. In 1998, after a statue was erected as a tribute to Oñate at the Oñate Monument Center in Alcalde, someone cut off the bronze right foot of his statue with a chainsaw.
At Acoma, pottery remains one of the most notable artforms. Men created weavings and silver jewelry, as well.
Acoma pottery dates back to more than 1,000 years ago. Dense local clay, dug up at a nearby site, is essential to Acoma pottery. The clay is dried and strengthened by the addition of pulverized pottery shards. The pieces then are shaped, painted, and fired. Geometric patterns, thunderbirds, and rainbows are traditional designs, which are applied with the spike of a yucca. Upon completion, a potter would lightly strike the side of the pot, and hold it to their ear. If the pot does not ring, then the pot will crack during firing. If this was found, the piece would be destroyed and ground into shards for future use.
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