Benito Mussolini 1936 Signed & Dated Document Note Slip [rare]


Benito Mussolini 1936 Signed & Dated Document Note Slip [rare]

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Benito Mussolini 1936 Signed & Dated Document Note Slip [rare]:
$199


BENITO MUSSOLINI 1936 Signed & Dated Document Note Slip [RARE]
  • Spectacular, amazing high-valued original fountain penned signature acquired during the Spanish Civil War period!
  • Acquired from a longtime, reputable Historical government/presidential memorabilia dealer.
  • In excellent preserved condition and measures 4 1/4" x 8 1/2"
  • Guaranteed authentic with COA & psa quickopinion included.
  • Expedited protective shipping.
  • Payment expected within 5 days of sale please!

His Excellency
Duce
Benito MussoliniPrime Minister of ItalyIn office
31 October 1922– 25 July 1943MonarchVictor Emmanuel IIIPreceded byLuigi FactaSucceeded byPietro BadoglioDuce of the Italian Social RepublicIn office
23 September 1943– 25 April 1945Preceded byPosition establishedSucceeded byPosition abolishedDuce of FascismIn office
23 March 1919– 28 April 1945Preceded byPosition establishedSucceeded byPosition abolishedshowFurther offices heldPersonal detailsBornBenito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini
29 July 1883
Predappio,Kingdom of ItalyDied28 April 1945(aged61)
Giulino di Mezzegra, Kingdom of ItalyCauseofdeathExecution by firing squadResting placeSan Cassiano partyNational Fascist Party(1921–1943)Other political
affiliations
  • Italian Socialist Party(1901–1914)
  • Fasces of Revolutionary Action(1914–1919)
  • Italian Fasces of Combat(1919–1921)
  • Republican Fascist style="list-style: none none; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; line-height: inherit;">
Ida Dalser​(m.1914)​
    Rachele Guidi​(m.1915)​Domestic partner
    • Margherita Sarfatti
    • Clara Petacci
    Children
    • Benito Albino Mussolini
    • Edda Mussolini
    • Vittorio Mussolini
    • Bruno Mussolini
    • Romano Mussolini
    • Anna Maria Mussolini
    Parents
    • Alessandro Mussolini
    • Rosa Maltoni
    RelativesMussolini familyProfessionPolitician, journalist, novelist, teacherSignatureMilitary serviceAllegianceKingdom of ItalyBranch/serviceRoyal Italian ArmyYearsof service1915–1917 (active)Rank
    • First Marshal of the Empire
    • First World War
    • Pacification of Libya
    • Second Italo-Ethiopian War
    • Spanish Civil War
    • Italian invasion of Albania
    • Second World War
    This article is part of
    a series about
    Benito Mussolini
    • Political views
    • Duce of Fascism
    • Fascist Manifesto
    • Italian Fascism
    • Spazio vitale
    • Economic policies
    • Racist policies
    • Fascist Propaganda
    • Model of masculinity
    • Parties
    • Italian Socialist Party(1901–1914)
    • Fasces of Revolutionary Action(1915–1919)
    • Italian Fasces of Combat(1919–1921)
    • National Fascist Party(1921–1943)
    • Republican Fascist Party(1943–1945)
    • Elections
    • 1924
    • 1929
    • 1934
    • Historical events
    • Red Biennium
    • March on Rome
    • Mussolini Cabinet
    • Italy under Fascism
    • Corfu incident
    • Murder of Giacomo Matteotti
    • Aventine Secession
    • Battle for Grain
    • Battle for Land
    • Battle for the Lira
    • Battle for Births
    • Pacification of Libya
    • Abyssinia Crisis
    • Second Italo-Ethiopian War
    • Foundation of the Empire
    • Spanish Civil War
    • Munich Agreement
    • Invasion of Albania
    • Rome-Berlin Axis
    • Pact of Steel
    • World War II
    • Fall of the regime
    • Italian Social Republic
    • Italian Civil War
    • Death of Mussolini
    • v
    • t
    • e

    Benito Amilcare Andrea mussoˈliːni];[1]29 July 1883– 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who founded and led theNational Fascist Party. He wasPrime Minister of Italyfrom theFascist coup d'étatin 1922 tohis depositionin 1943, andDuce("Leader") ofItalian Fascismfrom the establishment of theItalian Fasces of Combatin 1919 tohis execution in 1945during theItalian Civil War. Asdictatorof Italy and founder of the fascist movement, Mussolini inspired othertotalitarianrulers such asAdolf Hitler,Francisco Franco, andAntónio de Oliveira Salazar.[2][3][4][5]

    Mussolini was originally a socialist politician and a journalist at theAvanti!newspaper. In 1912, he became a member of the National Directorate of theItalian Socialist Party(PSI),[6]but was expelled from the PSI for advocating military intervention inWorld War I, in opposition to the party's stance on neutrality. In 1914, Mussolini founded a new journal,Il Popolo d'Italia, and served in theRoyal Italian Armyduring the war until he was wounded and discharged in 1917. Mussolini denounced the PSI, his views now centering onItalian nationalisminstead of socialism, and later founded the fascist movement which came to conflict, instead advocating "revolutionary nationalism"transcending class lines.[8]Following theMarch on Romein October 1922, Mussolini became the youngest Italian prime minister up to that time. After removing all political opposition through his secret police and outlawing labor strikes,[9]Mussolini and his followers consolidated power through a series of laws that transformed the nation into aone-party dictatorship. Within five years, Mussolini had established dictatorial authority by both legal and illegal means and aspired to create atotalitarianstate. In 1929, Mussolini signed theLateran Treatywith the Vatican, ending decades of struggle between the Italian state and the Papacy, and recognized the independence ofVatican City.

    Mussolini's foreign policy aimed to expand the sphere of influence of Italian fascism. In 1923, he began the "Pacification of Libya" andordered the bombing of Corfuin retaliation for the murder of an Italian general. In 1936, Mussolini formedItalian East Africa(AOI) by theAbyssinian crisisand theSecond Italo–Ethiopian War. In 1939, Italian forces occupiedAlbania. Between 1936 and 1939, Mussolini ordered the successfulItalian military intervention in Spainin favor ofFrancisco Francoduring theSpanish civil war. Mussolini's Italy initially tried to avoid the outbreak of a second global war, sending troops at theBrenner Passto delayAnschlussand taking part in theStresa front, theLytton Report, theTreaty of Lausanne, theFour-Power Pactand theMunich Agreement. However, Italy then alienated itself from Britain and France byaligningwith Germany and Japan. Germanyinvaded Polandon 1 September 1939, resulting in declarations of war by France and the UK and the start ofWorld War II.

    On 10 June 1940—with theFall of Franceimminent—Italy officially entered the war and eventually occupiedparts of south-east France,Corsica, andTunisia. Mussolini planned to concentrate Italian forces on a major offensive against theBritish Empirein Africa and the Middle East, known as the "parallel war", while expecting the collapse of the UK in theEuropean theatre. The Italiansinvaded Egypt,bombed Mandatory Palestine, andoccupied British Somalilandwith initial success. However, the British government refused to accept proposals for a peace that would involve acceptingAxisvictories in Europe; plans for an invasion of the UK did not proceed and the war continued. In October 1940, Mussolini sent Italian forces into Greece, starting theGreco-Italian War. TheRoyal Air Forceprevented the Italian invasion and allowed the Greeks to push the Italians back to Albania. Despite this, the Greek counter-offensive in Italian Albania ended in a stalemate that allowed the Germans to by-pass Greek defences and invade the country. Italy subsequently took part in theAxis occupation of style="margin: 0.5em 0px;">TheGerman invasion of the Soviet Unionled Mussolini tosend an Italian army to Russia, and the JapaneseAttack on Pearl Harborimpelled Italy todeclare war on the United States.[11]Although Mussolini was aware that Italy, whose resources were reduced by the campaigns of the 1930s, was not ready for a long war against three superpowers, he opted to remain in the conflict to not abandon the occupied territories and the fascist imperial ambitions.[12]In 1943, Italy suffered major disasters: by February theRed Armyhad completely destroyed theItalian Army in Russiaand in May theAxis collapsed in North Africadespite previous Italian resistance at thesecond battle of El Alamein. On 9 July theAllies invaded Sicilyand by the 16th it became clear theGerman summer offensivein the USSR had failed. As a consequence, early on 25 July, theGrand Council of Fascismpassed a motion of no confidence in Mussolini; later that daythe Kingdismissed him ashead of governmentand had him placed in custody, appointingPietro Badoglioto succeed him as Prime Minister.

    After the king agreed the armistice with the allies, on 12 September 1943 Mussolini was rescued from captivity in theGran Sasso by MajorOtto-Harald Mors. Hitler, after meeting with the rescued former dictator, then put Mussolini in charge of a puppet regime in northern Italy, theItalian Social Republic(Italian:Repubblica Sociale Italiana, RSI),[13]informally known as theSalò Republic. In late April 1945, in the wake of near total defeat, Mussolini and his mistressClara Petacciattempted to flee to Switzerland,[14]but both were captured by Italian executedbyfiring squadon 28 April 1945 nearLake Como. The bodies of Mussolini and his mistress were then taken toMilan, where they were hung upside down at aservice stationto publicly confirm their demise.[15]


    Benito Mussolini 1936 Signed & Dated Document Note Slip [rare]:
    $199

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