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1/700 Built Bb-61 Iowa 1945, Super Finished,especial Collection,very Rare For Sale

1/700  Built Bb-61 Iowa 1945, Super Finished,especial Collection,very Rare

ANCHO 85 mm
ALT0 80 mm
In any case HOURS have been invested into these build up, with attention paid to close detailing, making these Displays one will be PROUD to display. Every attempt will be made to be sure that your item arrives intact,
I COMBINE fires her 16-inch/50-caliber guns on 15 August 1984 during a firepower demonstration after her modernizationCareer (U.S.)Namesake:The State of IowaOrdered:1 July 1939Builder:New York Naval YardLaid down:27 June 1940Launched:27 August 1942Sponsored by:Ilo WallaceCommissioned:22 February 1943Decommissioned:24 March 1949Recommissioned:25 August 1951Decommissioned:24 February 1958Recommissioned:28 April 1984Decommissioned:26 October 1990Struck:17 March 2006Motto:"Our Liberties We Prize, Our Rights We Will Maintain"Nickname:"The Big Stick"Honors and
awards:11battle starsStatus:On display at the Pacific Battleship Center at thePort of Los Angelesas aMuseum shipNotes:Last lead ship of any class of US battleshipBadge:General characteristicsClass & tonsLength:887ft 3in (270.43m)Beam:108ft 2in (32.97m)Draft:37ft 2in (11.33m)Speed:33kn (38mph; 61km/h)Complement:151 officers, 2637 enlistedArmament:1943:
9 ×16in (406mm)/50 cal Mark 7 guns
20 ×5in (127.0mm)/38 cal Mark 12 guns
80 ×40 mm/56 cal anti-aircraft guns
49 ×20 mm/70 cal anti-aircraft cannons
9 ×16in (406mm)/50 cal Mark 7 guns
12 × 5in (127.0mm)/38 cal Mark 12 guns
32 ×BGM-109 Tomahawk cruise missiles
16 ×RGM-84 Harpoon Anti-Ship missiles
4 ×20 mm/76 cal Phalanx CIWSArmor:Belt: 12.1in (307.3mm)
Bulkheads: 11.3in (287.0mm)
Barbettes: 11.6 to 17.3in (294.6 to 439.4mm)
Turrets: 19.7in (500mm)
Decks: 7.5in (190.50mm)Aircraft carried:floatplanes,helicopters, UAVs

During World War II, she carried President Franklin D. Roosevelt across the Atlantic toMers El Kébir, Algeria, en route to a crucial 1943 meeting in Tehran with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Soviet leader Josef Stalin. She has a bathtub— an amenity installed for Roosevelt, along with an elevator to shuttle him between decks.[1]When transferred to thePacific Fleetin 1944,Iowashelled beachheads advance of Allied amphibious landings and screenedaircraft carriersoperating in theMarshall Islands. She also served as the Third Fleet flagship, flyingAdm. William F. Halsey'sflag at the Japanese surrender in Tokyo Bay. During theKorean War,Iowawas involved in raids on theNorth Koreancoast, after which she wasdecommissionedinto theUnited States Navy reserve fleets, better known as the "mothball fleet." She was reactivated in 1984 as part of the600-ship Navyplan and operated in both the Atlantic and Pacific Fleets to counter the recently expandedSoviet Navy. In April 1989,an explosion of undetermined originwrecked her No. 2 gun turret, killing 47 sailors.

Iowawas decommissioned for the last time in 1990, and was initially stricken from theNaval Vessel Registerin 1995. She was reinstated from 1999 to 2006 to comply with federal laws that required retention and maintenance of twoIowa-class battleships. In 2011Iowawas donated to theLos Angeles-based non-profit Pacific Battleship Center and was permanently moved to Berth 87 at thePort of Los Angelesin the summer of 2012, where she was opened to the public to serve as a museum and memorial to battleships.

  • 1Construction
  • 2World War II (1943–1945)
    • 2.1Shakedown and service with the Atlantic Fleet
    • 2.2Service with Battleship Division 7, Admiral Lee
    • 2.3Bombardment of Japan
  • 3Post World War II (1945–1949)
  • 4Korean War (1951–1952)
    • 4.1Post-Korean War (1953–1957)
  • 5Reactivation (1982–1984)
    • 5.1Shakedown and NATO exercises (1984–1989)
    • 5.21989 turret explosion
  • 6Reserve Fleet and museum ship (from 1990)
  • 7Awards
  • 8See also
  • 9Notes
  • 10References
  • 11External links
  • Construction[edit]Main articles:Iowa-class battleshipandArmament of the Iowa class battleship

    Iowawas the lead ship ofher classof "fast battleship" designs planned in 1938 by the Preliminary Design Branch at theBureau of Construction and Repair. She waslaunchedon 27 August 1942 whichFirst LadyEleanor Rooseveltattended and wassponsoredby native IowanIlo Wallace(wife ofVice PresidentHenry Wallace), andcommissionedon 22 February 1943 with CaptainJohn L. McCreain command.[2]She was the first ship of her class of battleship to be commissioned by the United States.[3]

    Iowa's main battery consisted of nine16" (406.4mm)/50 caliber Mark 7 gun, which could fire 2,700lb (1,200kg) armor-piercing shells some 20nmi (23mi; 37km). Her secondary battery consisted of 205in (130mm)/38 cal gunsin twin mounts, which could fire at targets up to 12nmi (14mi; 22km) away. With the advent of air power and the need to gain and maintainair superioritycame a need to protect the growing fleet of Alliedaircraft carriers; to this end,Iowawas fitted with an array ofOerlikon 20 mmandBofors 40 mmanti-aircraft gunsto defend Allied carriers from enemy airstrikes.[4]

    World War II (1943–1945)[edit]Shakedown and service with the Atlantic Fleet[edit]

    On 24 February 1943,Iowaput to sea for ashakedownin theChesapeake Bayand along the Atlantic coast. She got underway on 27 August forArgentia, Newfoundland, to counter the threat of the German battleshipTirpitzwhich was reportedly operating in Norwegian waters, before returning to the United States on 25 October for two weeks of maintenance at the Norfolk Navy Yard.[5]

    WhenIowawas selected to ferry PresidentFranklin D. Rooseveltto theCairoandTehran Conferences, she was outfitted with a bathtub for Roosevelt's convenience. Roosevelt, who had been paralyzed in 1921, would have been unable to make effective use of a shower facility.[1][5][6]

    After refueling and gathering her escorts,Iowacarried President Roosevelt,Secretary of StateCordell Hull, and World War II military brass toMers El Kébir, Algeria, on the first leg of the journey to theTehran Conference.[7]Among the vessels escortingIowaon this trip was thedestroyerWilliam D. Porterwhich was involved in several mishaps, the most serious of which involved a torpedo drill which went awry when a torpedo fromWilliam D. Porterdischarged from its tube and headed towardIowa.[8]On being warned,Iowaturned hard to avoid being hit by the torpedo and the torpedo detonated in the ship's wake.Iowawas unhurt and trained her main guns onWilliam D. Porter, concerned that the smaller ship may have been involved in some sort of assassination plot.

    Iowacompleted her Presidential escort mission on 16 December by returning the President to the United States.[8]Roosevelt addressed the crew ofIowaprior to leaving by stating, "...from all I have seen and all I have heard, theIowais a 'happy ship,' and having served with the Navy for many years, I know—and you know—what that means." He also touched on the progress made at the conference before concluding his address with "...good luck, and remember that I am with you in spirit, each and every one of you."[9]

    Service with Battleship Division 7, Admiral Lee[edit]Iowain the Pacific;Indianacan be seen in the distance

    On 18 March 1944,Iowa, flying the flag of Vice AdmiralWillis A. Lee(Commander Battleships, Pacific), joined in the bombardment ofMili Atollin the Marshall Islands. Although struck by two Japanese 4.7in (120mm) projectiles,Iowasuffered negligible damage. She then rejoined TF 58 on 30 March, and supported air strikes against thePalau IslandsandWoleaiof the Carolines for several days.[2]

    From 22–28 April,Iowasupported air raids onHollandia(now known as Jayapura),Aitape, andWakdeIslands to support Army forces on Aitape and BaysinNew Guinea. She then joined the Task Force's second strike onTruk, on 29 and 30 April, and bombarded Japanese facilities onPonapein the Carolines on 1 May.[2]

    In the opening phases of theMariana and Palau Islands campaign,Iowaprotected the American carriers during air strikes on the islands of Saipan, Tinian, Guam, Rota, andPagan Islandon 12 June.Iowawas then detached to bombard enemy installations on Saipan and Tinian on 13–14 June, which resulted in the destruction of a Japanese ammunition dump. On 19 June, in an engagement known as theBattle of the Philippine Sea,Iowa, as part of the battle line of TF 58, helped repel four massive air raids launched by the Japanese Middle Fleet. This resulted in the almost complete destruction of Japanese carrier-based air-forces, withIowaclaiming the destruction of three enemy aircraft.Iowathen joined in the pursuit of the fleeing enemy fleet, shooting down onetorpedo planeand assisting in splashing another.[2][5]

    Throughout July,Iowaremained off the Marianas supporting air strikes on the Palaus and landings on Guam. After a month's rest,Iowasailed from Eniwetok as part of the Third Fleet, and helped support thelandings on Peleliuon 17 September. She then protected the carriers during air strikes against the Central Philippines to neutralize enemy air power for the long awaited invasion of the Philippines. On 10 October,Iowaarrived offOkinawafor a series of air strikes on theRyukyu IslandsandFormosa. She then supported air strikes againstLuzonon 18 October and continued this duty during GeneralDouglas MacArthur'slanding on Leyteon 20 October.[2]

    In a last-ditch attempt to halt the United States campaign to recapture the Philippines, theImperial Japanese Navystruck back withShō-Gō1, a three-pronged attack aimed at the destruction of American amphibious forces inLeyte Gulf. The plan called for Vice-AdmiralJisaburō Ozawato use the surviving Japanese carriers as bait to draw US carriers of TF 38 away from the Philippine beachheads, allowing Imperial Japanese AdmiralsTakeo Kurita,Kiyohide Shima, andShōji Nishimurato take surface task forces through theSan Bernardino StraitandSurigao Strait, where they would rendezvous and attack the US TF 38 during attacks against the Japanese Central Force under the command of Admiral Kurita as it steamed through theSibuyan Seatoward San Bernardino Strait. The reported results of these attacks and the apparent retreat of the Japanese Central Force led AdmiralWilliam "Bull" Halseyto believe that this force had been ruined as an effective fighting group; as a result,Iowa, with TF 38, steamed after the Japanese Northern Force offCape Engaño, Luzon. On 25 October 1944, when the ships of the Northern Force were almost within range ofIowa's guns, word arrived that the Japanese Central Force was attacking a group of Americanescort carriersoffSamar. This threat to the American beachheads forced TF 38 to reverse course and steam to support the vulnerable escort carrier fleet. However, the fierce resistance put up by the7th Fleetin theBattle off Samarhad already caused the Japanese to retire andIowawas denied a surface action. Following theBattle of Leyte Gulf,Iowaremained in the waters off the Philippines screening carriers during strikes against Luzon and Formosa. She sailed for the West Coast late in December 1944.[2]

    Iowain drydock in San Francisco, undergoing repairs and modernization after being damaged during Typhoon Cobra

    On 18 December, the ships of TF 38 unexpectedly found themselves in a fight for their lives whenTyphoon Cobraovertook the force—seven fleet carriers, six light carriers, eight battleships, 15 cruisers, and about 50 destroyers—during their attempt to refuel at sea. At the time, the ships were operating about 300mi (480km) east of Luzon in thePhilippine Sea.[12]The carriers had just completed three days of heavy raids against Japanese airfields, suppressing enemy aircraft during the Americanamphibious the Philippines. The task force rendezvoused withCaptainJasper T. Acuff and his fueling group on 17 December with the intention of refueling all ships in the task force and replacing lost aircraft.[13]Although the sea had been growing rougher all day, the nearby cyclonic disturbance gave relatively little warning of its approach. On 18 December, the small but violent typhoon overtook the task force while many of the ships were attempting to refuel. Many of the vessels were caught near the center of the storm and buffeted by extreme seas and hurricane-force winds. Three destroyers–Hull,Monaghan, andSpence–capsized and sank with nearly all hands, while a cruiser, five aircraft carriers, and three destroyers suffered serious damage.[12]Approximately 790 officers and men were lost or killed, with another 80 injured. Fires occurred in three carriers when planes broke loose in their hangars, and some 146 planes on various ships were swept overboard or damaged beyond economical repair by fires or impacts.[13]Iowareported zero injured sailors as a result of the typhoon,[14]but suffered a loss of one of her float planes, and damage to one of her shafts.[5][13]The damaged shaft requiredIowato return to the US, and she arrived at San Francisco on 15 January 1945, for repairs. During the course of the overhaulIowahad her bridge area enclosed, and was outfitted with new search radars and fire-control systems.[5]

    Bombardment of Japan[edit]See also:Allied naval bombardments of Japan during World War IIMissouri(left) transfers personnel toIowain advance of the surrender ceremony planned for 2 September.

    Iowasailed on 19 March 1945 for Okinawa, arriving on 15 April to relieve her sister shipNew Jersey. From 24 April,Iowasupported carrier operations which aimed to establish and maintain air superiority for ground forces during their struggle for the island. She then supported air strikes off southernKyūshūfrom 25 May to 13 June. Afterward, she sailed toward and participated in strikes on the Japanese home islands on 14–15 July by bombardingMuroran, Hokkaidō, destroying steel mills and other targets. The city ofHitachion Honshū was shelled beginning the night of 17 July and lasting to 18 July. On 29 and 30 July,Iowatrained her guns onKahoolawefor a bombardment and continued to support fast carrier strikes until the cessation of hostilities on 15 August as a result of theatomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    On 27 August,Iowaand her sister Bayto oversee the surrender of theYokosuka Naval Arsenal.[2][5]Two days later, she enteredTokyo Baywith the occupation forces. Here, a number of sailors from theMissouriwere temporarily stationed onIowafor the duration of the surrender ceremony which took place aboard theMissouri.[15]After serving as Admiral Halsey's flagship for the surrender ceremony on 2 September,Iowaremained in the bay as part of the occupying force. As part of the ongoingOperation Magic Carpet, she received homeward bound GIs and liberated USprisoners of warbefore departing Tokyo Bay on 20 September, bound for the United States.[2][5]

    Post World War II (1945–1949)[edit]

    Iowaarrived inSeattle, Washington, on 15 October 1945, then sailed forLong Beach, California, where she engaged in training operations until returning to Japan in 1946 to serve as flagship for the 5th Fleet. She returned to the United States on 25 March 1946 and resumed her role as a training ship. During her usual routine of drills and maneuvers she also embarked Naval Reserve elements andmidshipmenfor training. In October,Iowaunderwent a period of overhaul and modernization, which resulted in the addition of the SK-2 Radar and the loss of a number of 20mm and 40mm gun mounts. In July, following theBikini atomic experiments, the old battleshipNevadawas selected as a target for alive fire exerciseto be carried out byIowaand other sea and air assets of the navy. The exercise began with separate shellings from adestroyer,heavy cruiser, andIowa, but this did not sink the ship, and soNevadawas finished off with oneaerial torpedohit amidships, sinking her 65mi (105km) fromPearl Harboron 31 July 1948.[16][17]In September 1948, as part of the post World War II draw down of the armed forces,Iowawas inactivated at San Francisco and formally decommissioned into theUnited States Navy reserve fleetson 24 March 1949.[5]

    Korean War (1951–1952)[edit]

    In 1950,North KoreainvadedSouth Korea, prompting NATO members, including the United States, to intervene in the name of the United Nations. PresidentHarry S. Trumanwas caught off guard when the invasion struck, but he quickly ordered US forces stationed in Japan to transfer to South Korea. Truman also sent US based troops, tanks, fighter and bomber aircraft, and a strong naval force to the area to support South Korea. As part of the naval mobilization,Iowawas reactivated on 14 July 1951, and formally recommissioned on 25 August, with Captain William R. Smedberg, III, in command.Iowasailed for Korean waters in March 1952. On 1 April she relieved her sister became the flagship ofVice AdmiralRobert P. Briscoe, Commander of theSeventh Fleet.[5]In her first combat operation of the Korean War,Iowafired her main guns near Wonsan-Sŏngjinon 8 April 1952, with the goal of striking North Korean supply lines. In the company of other naval vesselsIowaagain engaged North Korean forces the following day, this time against enemy troop concentrations, supply areas, and suspected gun positions in and aroundSuwon DanandKojo. In support of South Korea'sI Corps,Iowashelled enemy positions on 13 April, killing 100 enemy soldiers, destroying six gun emplacements, and wrecking a division headquarters. The next day she enteredWonsanHarbor and shelled warehouses, observation posts and railroad marshaling yards before moving out to rejoin the UN flotilla aiding ground forces aroundKosong. On 20 April, in her first combat action above the38th parallel,Iowashelled railroad lines atTanchon, where four railroad tunnels were destroyed, before sailing toChindongand Kosong for a two-day bombardment of North Korean a 16in (410mm) shell towards a North Korean target in 1952.

    On 25 MayIowa, following her sister shipMissouri's example, arrived in the waters offChongjin, a North Korean industrial center approximately 48nmi (55mi; 89km) from the Russian border. Upon arrival,Iowaproceeded to shell the industrial and rail transportation centers in Chongjin, after which she moved south to aid theUS X Corps.En routeto US positions,Iowaagain bombarded Sŏngjin, destroying several railroad tunnels and bridges in the area. On 28 May,Iowarejoined the main body of the US fleet supporting the X Corps, heavily shelling several islands in Wonsan Harbor.[5]

    Throughout June,Iowatrained her guns on targets atMayang-do, Tanchon, Chongjin,Chodo-Sokchoand the ports ofHŭngnamand Wonsan in support of the UN and South Korean forces. On 9 June, a helicopter fromIowarescued a downed pilot from the carrierPrinceton.[5]At the time,Princetonwas operating with TF77, and with other carriers in the task force who were involved in a bombing campaign against North Korean supply lines, troop concentrations, and infrastructure; additionally, the carriers were flyingclose air supportmissions for ground forces fighting against the North Korean forces.[18]In July,Iowareceived a new skipper, Captain Joshua W. Cooper, who assumed command of the battleship for the remainder of her Korean War tour.[5]

    On 20 August,Iowatook aboard nine wounded men from the hit by a Chinese artillery battery while shelling enemy positions at Sŏngjin. At the time,Iowawas operating 16mi (26km) south of Sŏngjin, and after receiving the wounded destroyer she retreated into safer waters.[5][19]

    Iowafires her guns off the coast of Koje on 17 October 1952.

    On 23 September,GeneralMark Wayne Clark, the Commander-In-Chief of United Nations Forces in Korea, came aboardIowa. Clark observedIowain action as her guns shelled the Wonsan area for a third time, accounting for the destruction of a major enemyammunition dump. On 25 September,Iowafired her guns at an enemy railroad and 30-car train.[5]The following month,Iowawas part of the force involved in Operation Decoy, afeintto draw enemy troops into Kojo and bring them within striking distance of the battleships' big guns. During the operation,Iowaprovided anti-aircraft support toMount McKinley, an amphibious force command ship.[5]

    Post-Korean War (1953–1957)[edit]

    Iowaembarked midshipmen for at-sea training to Northern Europe in July 1953, and shortly afterwards took part in Operation Mariner, a major NATO exercise, serving as flagship of Vice AdmiralEdmund T. Wooldridge, commander of the2nd Fleet. Upon completion of this exercise,Iowaoperated in theVirginia Capesarea. Later, in September 1954, she became the flagship of Rear Admiral R. E. Libby, Commander, Battleship Cruiser Force, United States Atlantic Fleet.[2]

    From January–April 1955,Iowamade an extended cruise to theMediterranean Seaas the flagship of the Commander,6th Fleet. She departed on a midshipman training cruise on 1 June, and upon her return entered Norfolk for a four-month overhaul. Afterward,Iowacontinued intermittent training cruises and operational exercises, until 4 January 1957 when she departed Norfolk for duty with the 6th Fleet in the Mediterranean. Upon completion,Iowaembarked midshipmen for a South American training cruise and joined in the InternationalNaval ReviewoffHampton Roads,Virginiaon 13 June.[2]

    On 3 September,Iowasailed for Scotland for NATO'sOperation Strikeback. She returned to Norfolk on 28 September, and departed Hampton Roads for thePhiladelphia Naval Shipyardon 22 October. She was decommissioned on 24 February 1958 and entered the Atlantic Reserve Fleet at Philadelphia.[2]

    Reactivation drydock undergoing modernization

    As part of PresidentRonald Reagan's andSecretary of the NavyJohn F. Lehman's effort to create an expanded600-ship Navy,Iowawas reactivated and moved under tow toAvondale ShipyardnearNew Orleans,Louisiana, for refitting and equipment modernization in advance of her planned recommissioning.[2]During the refit,Iowahad all of her remainingOerlikon 20 mmandBofors 40 mmanti-aircraft guns removed, due to their ineffectiveness against modernfighter jetsandanti-ship missiles. Additionally, the two 5in (130mm) gun mounts located at mid-ship and in theafton of the battleship were removed.[20]

    Iowawas then towed toIngalls Shipbuilding,Pascagoula, Mississippi,[5]where over the next several months the battleship was upgraded with the most advanced weaponry available. Among the new weapons systems installed were four MK 141 quad cell launchers for 16AGM-84 Harpoonanti-ship missiles, eightArmored Box Launchermounts for 32BGM-109 Tomahawkmissiles, and a quartet ofPhalanxClose-in weapon systemGatling gunsfor defense against enemy anti-ship missiles and enemy aircraft.[20]Iowawas the first battleship to receive theRQ-2 PioneerUnmanned Aerial Vehicle. She could carry up to eight of the remotely controlled drones, which replaced the helicopters previously used to spot for her nine 16inch (410mm)/50 cal Mark 7 guns.[21][22]Also included in her modernization were upgrades toradarandfire-control systemsfor her guns and missiles, and improvedelectronic as such,Iowawas formally recommissioned on 28 April 1984, ahead of schedule, within her budget at a cost of $500million, and under the command of Captain Gerald E. Gneckow.[5]In order to expedite the schedule, many necessary repairs toIowa's engines and guns were not completed and the mandatory NavyBoard of Inspection and Survey(InSurv) inspection was skipped.[23]

    Shakedown and NATO exercises (1984–1989)[edit]

    From April–August 1984,Iowaunderwent refresher training and naval gunfire support qualifications in the Atlantic Ocean. She spent the rest of 1984 on ashakedowncruise in the area around Central America. During this cruise she aided in several humanitarian operations, including inCosta returning to the United States in April 1985 for a period of routine maintenance.[5]

    Iowafires a full broadside of nine 16-inch (410mm)/50-caliber and six 5-inch (130mm)/38 cal guns during a target exercise nearVieques Island,Puerto Rico, on 1 July 1984. Note theshock wavesin the water.

    In August 1985,Iowajoined 160 other ships for Exercise Ocean Safari, a NATO naval exercise aimed at testing NATO's ability to control sea lanes and maintain free passage of shipping. Owing to bad weather,Iowaand the other ships were forced to ride out rough seas, butIowamade use of the time to practice hiding herself from enemy forces. While serving with the exercise force,Iowacrossed theArctic Circle.[25]In October, she took part in Baltic operations, and fired her phalanx guns, 5in (130mm) guns, and 16in (410mm) guns in theBaltic Seaon 17 October while operating with US and other allied ships.[26]After these operations she returned to the United States.[5]

    Beginning on 17 March 1986,Iowaunderwent her overdueInSurvinspection. The inspection, whichIowaultimately failed, was conducted under the supervision of Rear AdmiralJohn D. Bulkeley. Bulkeley found that the ship was unable to achieve her top speed of 33kn (38mph; 61km/h) during a full-power engine run, and recommended to theChief of Naval Operationsand Lehman thatIowabe taken out of service immediately. Rejecting this advice, Lehman instead instructed the leaders of the Atlantic Fleet to ensure thatIowa's deficiencies were corrected.[27]

    On 17 August,Iowaset sail for the North Atlantic, and in September she participated in Exercise Northern Wedding by ferryingMarinesashore and assisting helicopter gunships. During the exerciseIowafired her main guns atCape Wrathrange in Scotland in support of a simulatedamphibious assaulton 5–6 September, firing a total of 19 16-inch (410mm) shells and 32 5-inch (130mm) shells during a 10-hour period and operating in rough seas. During the live fire exercise, a small number ofIowamarines were put ashore to monitor the fall of shot and advise the battleship of gunnery ports in England and Germany before returning to the United States in October.

    Crewmen recover an RQ-2 PioneerUnmanned Aerial VehicleaboardIowa.

    In December, the ship became the testbed for the Aerial Vehicle(UAV). The drone was designed to serve as an aerial spotter for the battleship's guns, thereby allowing the guns to be used against an enemy without the need for an airplane or helicopter spotter. Pioneer passed its tests and made its first deployment that same month aboardIowa.[22]

    From January–September 1987Iowaoperated in the waters in and around Central America and participated in several exercises until sailing for theMediterranean Seaon 10 September to join the 6th Fleet based there. She remained in the Mediterranean until 22 October, when she was detached from the 6th Fleet and departed for operations in the North Sea. On 25 November, as part ofOperation Earnest Will,Iowatransited theSuez Canaland set sail for thePersian Gulf, which at the time was one of the battlefields of the first Gulf War (also referred to as theIran–Iraq War).[5]The presence of US naval vessels in the gulf was in response to a formal petition fromKuwait,[31]whose ships were being raided by Iranian forces who were attempting to cut off weapons shipments from the United States and Europe toSaddam Hussein's regime in Iraq, via Kuwaiti territory. This phase of the war would later be called the "Tanker War" phase of the Iran-Iraq War.[32]Iowaand other vessels operating in the gulf were assigned to escort Kuwaiti tankers from Kuwaiti ports to the open sea, but because US law forbade military escorts for civilian ships flying a foreign flag, the tankers escorted by the United States were reflagged as US merchant vessels and assigned American names.[32]For the remainder of the yearIowaescorted Kuwaiti gas and oil tankers reflagged as US merchant ships from the Persian Gulf through theStrait of Hormuz.[5]

    On 20 February 1988,Iowadeparted from the Persian Gulf, transited the Suez Canal, and set sail for the United States, arriving at Norfolk on 10 March for routine maintenance. In April, she participated in the annual Fleet Week celebrations before returning to Norfolk for an overhaul. On 26 May,Fred Moosallyreplaced Larry Seaquist as Captain of theIowa.[33]After the overhaul, Moosally tookIowaon a shakedown cruise aroundChesapeake Bayon 25 August. Encountering difficulty in conning the ship through shallow water, Moosally narrowly missed colliding with thefrigateMoinester, destroyerFarragut, and the cruiserSouth Carolinabefore running aground in soft mud outside the bay's main ship channel near the Thimble Shoals. After one hour,Iowawas able to extricate herself without damage and return to port.[34]Iowacontinued with sea trials throughout August and September, then began refresher training in the waters around Florida and Puerto Rico in October, during which the ship passed an Operation Propulsion Program Evaluation.[5][35]

    On 20 January 1989, during an improperly authorized gunnery experiment offVieques Island,Iowafired a 16-inch (410mm) shell 23.4nmi (26.9mi; 43.3km), setting a record for the longest-ranged 16in (410mm) shell ever fired. In February, the battleship sailed forNew Orleansfor a port visit before departing for Norfolk. On 10 April, the battleship was visited by the commander of the 2nd Fleet, and on 13 April she sailed to participate in a fleet exercise.[5][36]

    1989 turret explosion[edit]Main article:USS Iowa turret explosionHeavy smoke pours from Turret Two following an internal explosion on 19 April 1989.

    During a gunnery exercise, at 0955[37]on 19 April 1989, an explosion ripped through the Number Two 16-inch (410mm) gun turret, killing 47 crewmen. A gunner's mate in the powder magazine room quickly flooded the No. 2 powder magazine, likely preventing catastrophic damage to the ship.[38]At first,Naval Investigative Service(N.I.S., later renamed Naval Criminal Investigative Service or NCIS) investigators theorized that one of the dead crewmen,Clayton Hartwig, had detonated an explosive device in a suicide attempt after the end of an alleged affair with another sailor.[38][39]To support this claim, naval officials pointed to several different factors, including Hartwig's life insurance policy, which named Kendall Truitt as the sole beneficiary in the event of his death,[40]the presence of unexplained materials inside Turret II,[41]and his mental state, which was alleged to be unstable.[42][43]

    Although the Navy was satisfied with the investigation and its results,[39]others were unconvinced,[42]and in October 1991, amid increasing criticism,Congressforced the Navy to reopen the investigation.[38]This second investigation, handled by independent investigators, was hampered by the fact that most of the original debris fromIowahad been cleaned up or otherwise disposed of by the Navy before and after the first investigation,[39][40][44]but it did uncover evidence pointing to an accidental powder explosion rather than an intentional act of sabotage.[38][43][45]

    WhileIowawas undergoing modernization in the early 1980s, her sister shipNew Jerseyhad been dispatched to Lebanon to provide offshore fire support.[46]At the time,New Jerseywas the only commissioned battleship anywhere in the world, and it was found that, in an effort to get another battleship commissioned to relieveNew Jersey, the modernization ofIowawas stepped up, leaving her in poor condition when she recommissioned in 1984.[40]It was also determined that Captain Fred Moosally was more concerned with the maintenance of the missiles than the training and manning of guns.[47]

    Powder from the same lot as the one under investigation was tested at theNaval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division.Spontaneous combustionwas achieved with the powder, which had been originally milled in the 1930s and improperly stored in a barge at the Navy'sYorktown, VirginiaNaval Weapons Station during a 1988 dry-docking ofIowa.[38][39][40][43]As it degrades, gunpowder gives offethergas, which is highly flammable and could be ignited by a spark. This revelation resulted in a shift in the Navy's position on the incident, and AdmiralFrank Kelso, theChief of Naval Operationsat the time, publicly apologized to the Hartwig family, concluding that there was no real evidence to support the claim that he had intentionally killed the other Fred Moosally was severely criticized for his handling of the matter, and as a result of the incident the Navy changed the powder-handling procedures for its battleships.[45]The incident remains one of the surface Navy's worst losses of life during peacetime operations, surpassing the loss of life incurred from theattack of an Iraqi Air Force jet ontheOliver Hazard Perry-classguided missile Fleet and museum ship (from 1990)[edit]See also:United States Naval Gunfire Support debateA flag hoist lies on the deck near the bow ofIowafollowing the ship's decommissioning ceremony atNorfolk, Virginia

    With thecollapse of the Soviet Unionin the early 1990s and the lack of a perceived threat against the United States came drastic cuts to the defense budget, and the high cost of maintaining battleships as part of the active fleet became uneconomical; as a result,Iowawas decommissioned again on 26 October 1990. She was the first of the reactivated battleships to be decommissioned, and this was done earlier than originally planned as a result of the damaged turret.Iowawas berthed at theNaval Education and Training Centerin Newport from 24 September 1998 to 8 March 2001, when the ship began her journey under tow to California. The ship arrived inSuisun Baynear San Francisco on 21 April 2001 and joined thereserve fleetthere, where she remained in reserve until struck again from theNaval Vessel Registerin March 2006. She and her sister ships had been struck previously in 1995.[20]

    Section 1011 of theNational Defense Authorization Actof 1996 required the United States Navy to reinstate to the Naval Vessel Register two of theIowa-class battleships that had been struck by the Navy in 1995; these ships were to be maintained in the United States Navy reserve fleets (or "mothball fleet"). The Navy was to ensure that both of the reinstated battleships were in good condition and could be reactivated for use in the Marine Corps' amphibious operations.[50]Due toIowa’s damaged turret, the Navy selectedNew Jerseyfor placement into the mothball fleet, even though the training mechanisms onNew Jersey's 16-inch (406mm) guns had been welded down. The cost to fixNew Jerseywas considered less than the cost to fixIowa;[20]as a result,New reinstated to the Naval Vessel Register and placed back in the reserve fleet.[50]

    New Jerseyremained there until the Strom Thurmond National Defense Authorization Act of 1999 required theUnited States Secretary of the Navyto list and the Naval Vessel Register. The Act also required the Secretary of the Navy to strikeNew Jerseyfrom the Naval Vessel Register and transfer the battleship to a not-for-profit entity in accordance with section 7306 ofTitle 10, United States Code. It also required the transferee to locate the battleship in theState of New Jersey.[51]The Navy made the switch in January 1999, allowingNew Jerseyto open as a museum ship in her namesake state.[52]

    On 17 March 2006, theSecretary of the Navyexercised his authority to the NVR, which cleared the way for both ships to be donated for use asmuseum ships, but the United States Congress remained "deeply concerned" over the loss of the naval surface gunfire support that the battleships provided, and noted that "navy efforts to improve upon, much less replace, this capability have been highly problematic."[53]As a partial consequence, Congress passedPub.L. 109–163, the National Defense Authorization Act 2006, requiring that the battleships be kept and maintained in a state of readiness should they ever be needed again.[54]Congress ordered that measures be implemented to ensure that, if need be,Iowacould be returned to active duty.[54]These measures closely mirrored the original three conditions that the National Defense Authorization Act of 1996 laid out for the maintenance ofIowawhile she was in the "mothball fleet".[20][55][56]

    Iowa's superstructure is decked out in red, white, and blue banners following her official opening as a museum ship in Los Angeles. A display of herribbons and awards earned during her careercan be seen below and to the right of thePhalanx CIWSmount.

    In March 2007, the Historic Ships Memorial at Pacific Square (HSMPS) ofVallejo, site of the formerMare Island Naval Shipyard, and aStocktongroup submitted proposals.[57]The HSMPS, which had attempted to place the ship in San Francisco, supported the Mare Island—Vallejo site. In October 2007 the Navy informed HSMPS that they were the only viable candidate to acquireIowa, and their application would be further reviewed after evidence was presented that financing was in place, and when the Stockton and San Francisco groups withdrew or failed to submit a final application respectively.[58][59]On 25 April 2009, Iowa Senate Resolution No. 19 was approved, endorsing HSMPS as USSIowa's custodian and supporting the battleship's placement at Mare Island.[60]

    In February 2010, the Pacific Battleship Center (PBC)[61]was behind efforts to have the ship berthed inSan Pedro, Los Angeles, California.[62]In late February thePort of Los Angeles(which includes the San Pedro area) rejected a proposal by the PBC to berth the battleship at its facilities because the battleship was not yet available.[63]On 12 April 2010, the Governor of Iowa signed into law Bill SJR2007, which officially formed a 10-member committee to raise about $5million for the group awarded the USSIowa.[64]The statement supporting the Vallejo group in the original Iowa State Senate's version SR19 was struck in favor of supporting any group actually awarded the battleship.[60]

    On 13 May 2010, the Navy announced it would reopen the offerding process, citing HSMPS's lack of progress as the reason.[65]On 24 May 2010 the Federal Register officially reopened the offerding process for the USS Iowa to a California-based city or non-profit organization.[66][67]

    On 18 November 2010, the Port of Los Angeles Harbor Commissioners voted unanimously on a resolution to support Berth 87 as the future home of the USSIowa, clearing the way for The Pacific Battleship Center to send its completed application to the Navy.[68]On 6 September 2011, the USSIowawas awarded to Pacific Battleship Center for placement at the Port of Los Angeles. After rehabilitation at thePort of Richmond, California, (beginning in October 2011), the ship was designated to be towed to and berthed in the Port of Los Angeles.[69][70]

    Starting 10 December 2011, the USSIowawas open for weekend tours. The Battleship Expo at the Port of Richmond included shipboard access and other exhibits such as 16-inch shells, a short film about the battleship, and other exhibits.[71]On 30 April 2012, the USSIowawas officially donated to the Pacific Battleship Center in Los Angeles by the United States Navy.[72]

    The USSIowabegan her journey to the Port of Los Angeles on 26 May 2012 under tow by tugboats. After being anchored off the Southern California coast to have her hull scrubbed to remove any invasive species or contaminants, she was permanently anchored on 9 June 2012 in San Pedro at Berth 87, along the Main Channel, directly south of theWorld Cruise Center. The museum opened to the public on 7 July.[73][74]


    Iowaearned ninebattle starsfor World War II service and two forKorean Warservice.[2]She has also earned the following awards:[67][75]

    Navy Meritorious Unit CommendationNavy E Ribbonw/ 3Battle E deviceAmerican Campaign MedalAsiatic-Pacific Campaign Medalw/ 9service starsWorld War II Victory MedalNavy Occupation Service MedalNational Defense Service Medalw/ starKorean Service Medalw/ 2 service starsArmed Forces Expeditionary MedalNavy Sea Service Deployment RibbonPhilippine Presidential Unit CitationKorean Presidential Unit CitationPhilippine Liberation MedalUnited Nations Korea Medal

    1/700  Built Bb-61 Iowa 1945, Super Finished,especial Collection,very Rare

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