1196, Hungary, Bela Iii. Beautiful Medieval Copper Scyphate Follis Coin. Xf
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1196, Hungary, Bela Iii. Beautiful Medieval Copper Scyphate Follis Coin. Xf:
1196, Hungary, Bela III. Beautiful Medieval Copper Scyphate Follis Coin. XF!
Reference: Huszar 72. R!
Mint Period: 1172-1196 AD
Condition: A small scrape in reverse, otherwis eXF for this crude issue!
Obverse: Crowned and throned King Bela III and and St. Stephen, both holding sceptre and globus cruciger.
Comment: Cross inside arc above, crescent with three lines below.
Legend: + REX BELA-REX STS
Reverse: Stylized nimbate Virgin, holding scepter and infant (stylized). Cross in upper left field.
Legend: + SANCTA MARIA +
At your attention a wonderful medieval copper follis coin, struck under Bela III of Hungary. The coinÃ‚Â´s design immitates the scyphate coinage of the Byzantine empire, which was widely accepted as a curency during this era. A beautiful specimen of this early medieval coin!
Authenticity unconditionally guaranteed. offer with confiedence!
BÃƒÂ©la III (Hungarian: III. BÃƒÂ©la, Croatian: Bela III, Slovak: Belo III), (c. 1148 Ã¢â‚¬â€œ 23 April 1196), King of Hungary (1172Ã¢â‚¬â€œ1196). He was educated in the court of the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I who was planning to ensure his succession in the Byzantine Empire till the birth of his own son. Following the death of his elder brother, who had been fighting against the Byzantine Empire, BÃƒÂ©la could only ascend to the throne with the assistance of the Emperor Manuel I and Pope Alexander III, because a significant part of the Hungarian aristocracy led by his own mother and the Archbishop of Esztergom preferred his younger brother's succession. BÃƒÂ©la was one of the most powerful rulers of Hungary and he was also one of the most wealthy monarchs of Europe of his age. It was probably he who began to organise the Royal Chancellery in Hungary.
BÃƒÂ©la was the second son of King GÃƒÂ©za II by his wife Euphrosyne of Kiev. In 1161, his father granted him the Duchies of Croatia and Dalmatia as appanage, which was later confirmed by his brother, King Stephen III who ascended the throne after their father's death on 31 May 1162.
n 1164, the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Komnenos concluded a treaty with King Stephen III, and according to the treaty, BÃƒÂ©la was sent to Constantinople to be educated at the imperial court. The emperor, who had no legitimate sons, intended that BÃƒÂ©la should marry his daughter, Maria Comnena, and eventually succeed him as Emperor. BÃƒÂ©la received a Greek name, Alexius, and the newly created courtly title of despotes which enjoyed the highest position of honor below the emperor.
In 1164 and 1165, BÃƒÂ©la followed the Emperor Manuel I on his campaigns against Hungary which aimed at the occupation of BÃƒÂ©la's "paternal inheritance", i.e., Croatia, Dalmatia and the SzerÃƒÂ©msÃƒÂ©g. However, when King Stephen III transferred the three provinces to Manuel I, they were incorporated into the Byzantine Empire. In the autumn of 1165, MÃƒÂ¡nuel officially assigned his daughter and BÃƒÂ©la as his heirs. In the beginning of 1166, Manuel I and BÃƒÂ©la co-chaired the synod of the Byzantine Church in Constantinople.
When Alexius was born as a son of Manuel and his second wife Maria of Antioch in 1166, BÃƒÂ©la's engagement to Maria was cancelled. BÃƒÂ©la was deprived also of his title, and he was granted the lower title of kaisar. But Manuel helped negotiate another marriage for him, this time to Agnes of Antioch, who was the half-sister of Maria of Antioch; therefore by this marriage Manuel I and BÃƒÂ©la became brothers-in-law.
After their marriage, BÃƒÂ©la (Kaisar Alexius) and his wife went on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem where he made a donation for the Knights Hospitaller.
When his brother, King Stephen III died childless on 4 March 1172, BÃƒÂ©la became his rightful heir. However, some barons preferred his younger brother, the Prince GÃƒÂ©za, as did their mother Euphrosyne. BÃƒÂ©la concluded an agreement with the Emperor Manuel, who provided him with a large amount of money, while he promised that he would never attack the Byzantine Empire during the reign of the emperor or his son.
When BÃƒÂ©la arrived in Hungary, Lukas, Archbishop of Esztergom refused to crown him because he had given a present to the archbishop's envoy, and the archbishop considered the gift as an attempt at simony. Thus, BÃƒÂ©la was obliged to seek assistance from Pope Alexander III, who authorised the Archbishop of Kalocsa to crown BÃƒÂ©la on 13 January 1173.
Following his coronation, BÃƒÂ©la had his brother arrested, but GÃƒÂ©za managed to escape and fled to Austria. Henry II did not extradite GÃƒÂ©za to Hungary; therefore BÃƒÂ©la made an alliance with Duke Sobeslav II of Bohemia and they attacked Austria. GÃƒÂ©za tried to flee to the court of Emperor Frederick I but he was arrested by the Czechs who gave him to BÃƒÂ©la. In 1178, BÃƒÂ©la provided assistance to the Duke of Bohemia to force back the attacks of the Duke of Austria.
BÃƒÂ©la wanted to amend the administration of his kingdom and ordered that all the issues discussed by the king had to be put down in writing. This order led to the establishment of the Royal Chancellery in Hungary. In 1179, after Archbishop Andrew of Kalocsa had insulted him, BÃƒÂ©la persuaded Lukas, Archbishop of Esztergom to excommunicate him and he occupied the estates of the archdiocese. Shortly afterwards, through the intercession of Pope Alexander III, BÃƒÂ©la was reconciled with Archbishop Andrew.
After the death of Emperor Manuel I on 24 September 1180, Bela retook Croatia, Dalmatia and the Srem from the Byzantine Empire. In the same year, ZÃƒÂ¡ra refused allegiance to Venice and accepted his rule. In 1184, BÃƒÂ©la occupied Beograd, BraniÃ„ï¿½evo and the valley of the Morava River which had been held by the Byzantine Empire. In 1185, BÃƒÂ©la made peace with the new emperor, Isaac II Angelos, who married BÃƒÂ©la's daughter Margaret and received the territories on the Morava River as her dowry.
After his first wife's death, BÃƒÂ©la planned to marry Theodora Comnene, one of Emperor Manuel I's nieces, but the Byzantine Church prohibited their marriage. Thus, BÃƒÂ©la married Marguerite of France, the sister of King Philip II of France and widow of Henry, the eldest son of King Henry II of England in 1186.
In 1188, Prince Vladimir II Yaroslavich of Halych, who had been dethroned by his boyars, sought refuge in his court. BÃƒÂ©la led his armies against Halych and occupied it, but afterwards he granted the principality to his second son, Andrew and he had prince Vladimir arrested.
On 31 May 1189, BÃƒÂ©la welcomed Frederick I who was making his Crusade to the Holy Land, and on the emperor's request he set his brother, GÃƒÂ©za free, who then left for the Byzantine Empire. Afterwards, when Emperor Frederick I entered into a controversy with Emperor Isaac II, BÃƒÂ©la mediated between them. However, in the meantime Prince Vladimir II escaped from Hungary and he reoccupied his principality.
In the autumn of 1191, BÃƒÂ©la had a meeting with his son-in-law, the Emperor Isaac II, whom he helped against Stefan Nemanja, the ruler of the Serbs.
Before his death, he took an oath to lead a Crusade to the Holy Land.
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