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1825 Two Antique Engravings "custom House" & "york House" - London Riverfront For Sale
A nice pair of large original engravings concerning prominent buildings in London . Details are as follows: South View of the ruins of the Custom House, London (see below) - (Londina Illustrata, Robert Wilkinson, 1815) - 11 x 8 inchesYork House (see below) -(Londina Illustrata, Robert Wilkinson, 1808) - 13 x 10 inches Good condition with minor spots in the margins - see scansCustom House, City of LondonFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
TheCustom House, on the north bank of theThamesin theCity of Londonwas formerly in use for the collection ofcustoms duties. It was in use for many centuries and rebuilt on a number of style="line-height: 1.5em; list-style-type: none; margin: 0.3em 0px; padding: 0px; list-style-image: none; text-align: left; ">
Until 1814 the Custom House stood in the parish of All Hallows Barking, immediately to the east of the present site.
The site was long known as "Wool Quay", and, from the medieval period, a custom house was necessary there to levy the duty payable on exported wool. Such a building is recorded as early as 1377. The quay and the buildings on it were privately owned. Around 1380, one John Churchman built a custom house there to collect dues for the City of London, and in 1382 the crown came to an agreement to use its facilities.
Churchman’s custom house remained in use until 1559, the freehold passing through various hands. Its replacement was erected under the direction ofWilliam Paulet, Marquess of Winchester, the Lord High Treasurer. A print from 1663 shows it as a three-storey building, with octagonal staircase towers. This structure was destroyed in the Great Fire of 1666.
The Custom House as designed by Thomas Ripley
The post-fire replacement was on a rather larger scale, to the designs ofChristopher Wren. The original estimate was for £6,000, but the eventual cost was more than £10,000. The new building was short- lived: in January 1715 a fire, which began in a nearby house, damaged the it beyond repair, and a new, larger structure was built to the designs ofThomas Ripley, “Master-Carpenter” to the board of Customs. This necessitated the acquisition of ground to the north, fronting onto Thames Street, and the east. The main body of the new building, however, had the same plan as Wren’s, and may have re-used its foundations, but was of three, rather than two storeys.
Present building[edit source|editbeta]Laing's Custom House, before the collapse and rebuilding of the central section
With the growth of trade, the opening of the docks, and the increases in duties during the Napoleonic wars, larger premises became necessary in the early nineteenth century. To meet this need, a new building was begun to the designs ofDavid Laingin October 1813, on a site immediately to the west of Ripleys’s building.Laing had held the position of surveyor to HM Customs since 1810.On 12 February 1814 the old building was destroyed by fire, resulting in the explosion of gunpowder and spirits. As a result papers were retrieved from as far asHackney Marshes.
The northern front of Laing’s new building was plain, but the south front towards the river had wings with Ionic colonnades and a projecting centre section. The attic storey of the latter was decorated with terracotta figures in bas-relief representing the arts and sciences, commerce and industry, and inhabitants of various countries of the world. A clock dial, nine feet in diameter, was supported by colossal figures symbolising Industry and Plenty, and the royal arms by figures of Ocean and Commerce. The river front was 488 feet long, and the building cost £255,000.
As originally built, the interior contained warehouses, cellars, about 170 offices, and a “Long room”, measuring, 190 by 66 feet. On the ground floor was the "Queen’s warehouse", with a rib-vaulted ceiling. The cellars in the basement were fireproof, and used to store wine and spirits seized by the customs.
Partial collapse[edit source|editbeta]
In 1825, the timber pilings which served as foundations for the custom house gave way, leading to a partial collapse of the building.
On investigation, it soon became clear that the building contractorsMiles and Petohad grossly underestimated the cost of the work and had started to cut corners. The foundations were totally inadequate, even though the ground was known to be unstable. Mile and Peto had used beechwood piles in the foundations rather than the oak that had been specified to counter the alternate damp and dry, and where the original plans had required nine piles under the twelve piers supporting the Long Room, they had only provided four under some and three under others - with only two piles under two of the piers. The piles were also found to be too narrow and so crooked they were impossible to drive properly.
Further investigation showed:
that instead of paying the one shilling per pile to the pile drivers as they had claimed, Miles and Peto had only paid 3½d per pile,
although Miles and Peto had invoiced for a total of 104,000 ft of piling, it was discovered that only 53,300 ft had actually been driven,
although Miles and Peto had charged for certain arches as through they were solid brickwork, on investigation they were found to have been filled with chalk lime and stone waste that would have costedlittle more than the labour of conveying it there,
the south front steps were charged as if solid brickwork but were found to be filled with similar stone waste,
stone paving had been charged as if it were 6 inches thick but was found to be only 4½ inches,
the roof boarding under the slates had been charged for asnew and the best materials, but was found to be re-used old boarding.
The poor quality of some of the workmanship prompted questions in Parliament in 1825 with the Chancellor of the Exchequer declaringthe most scandalous frauds had been practised. Miles and Peto were censured for neglect and poor workmanshipthat a good builder would carefully have avoided.
The central section was rebuilt on new foundations, to a new design with Ionic columns byRobert Smirke, at a cost of £180,000.
Current use[edit source|editbeta]
The building is now used byHer Majesty's Revenue and Customs. The address is 20Lower Thames Street.
York House, StrandFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
York Housein theStrandin London was one of a string of mansions which once stood along the route from theCity of Londonto the royal court atWestminster. It was built as the London home of theBishops of Norwichnot later than 1237, and around 300 years later it was acquired byKing Henry VIII. It came to be known as York House when it was granted to theArchbishop of Yorkin 1556 and retained that name for the rest of its existence. Its neighbors were Suffolk House (laterNorthumberland House), on the west andDurham House, London residence of the Bishop of Durham, to the east. For about seventy years from 1558 it was leased to various Lord Keepers of theGreat Seal of England. In the 1620s it was acquired by the royal favouriteGeorge Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham,and after an interlude during theEnglish Civil Warit was returned toGeorge Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, who sold it to developers for £30,000 in 1672. He made it a condition of the sale that his name and full title should be commemorated by George Street,Villiers Street, Duke Street, Of Alley, and Buckingham Street. Some of these streets are extant, though Of Alley has been renamed York Place, Duke Street is now John Adam Street and George Street is now York Buildings. Villiers Street runs along the Eastern side ofCharing Cross railway Water Gate, built about 1626 (2009)
The mansions facing in the Strand were built where they were partly because they had direct access from their garden fronts to theThames, which was then a preferred transport artery. TheYork Watergate(also known asBuckingham Watergate), built ca. 1626, survives, now marooned 150 yards (137m) from the river, within theEmbankment Gardens, due to the construction of theThames Embankment. With theBanqueting Houseit is one of the few surviving reminders in London of the Italianate court style ofCharles I. Its boldlyrusticated designin a confidentSerlian mannerhas been attributed to SirBalthazar Gerbier,toInigo Joneshimselfand to the sculptor and master-masonNicholas Stone.The design is modelled closely on that of theMedici Fountainin theJardin du Luxembourgin Paris.It was restored in the 1950s.
Sampson and a Philistine, byGiambologna
TheYork House Conferencethat assembled there in February 1626 ended unsatisfactorily with the final rupture of Puritan members of Parliament with Buckingham. York House was the setting for amasquepresented before their majesties in May 1627, in which Buckingham appeared followed by "Envy, with divers open-mouthed dogs' heads representing the people’s barking, while next came Fame and Truth", just before his departure for his unsuccessful second foray against France.
The first Duke granted lodgings at York House to the painterOrazio Gentileschi, and to SirBalthazar Gerbier, diplomat and sometime painter; though after the Duke's assassination in 1628, the Duchess tried to expel him, it was in Gerbier's lodgings thatPeter Paul Rubenssoujourned during his visit to London this following year.An inventory of the contents of York House drawn up in 1635is mined by scholars both for the light it sheds on one of the handful of great art collectionsformed in the circle ofCharles I, and the furnishings of a fashionable Early Stuart nobleman's residence. In the 'Great Chamber' twenty-two paintings were displayed with fifty-nine pieces of Roman sculpture, many of which were heads. In the 'Gallery' were a further thirty-one further heads and statues. Apparently the only modern sculpture at York House wasGiambologna'sSamson and a Philistine, a royal gift fromPhilip IV of Spainto Charles I, who passed it to his favourite, Buckingham.
In the early 19th century the designationYork Housewas revived by the palatial York House, built in the Stable Yard,St. James's Palace, for the Duke of York, brother ofGeorge IVand heir apparent. Foundations were begun for a designs byRobert Smirke, who was quickly replaced byBenjamin Dean Wyattand his brotherPhilip; when the Duke died in 1827, deeply in debt and the house unfinished, it was subsequently completed asStafford House; its gilded interiors by SirCharles Barryfor Stafford's heir, the Duke of Sutherland, inspired Queen Victoria's famous remark about "coming from my house to your palace".
The name is carried today by a commercial building in Portugal Street, Kingsway, London.
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1825 Two Antique Engravings "custom House" & "york House" - London Riverfront : $15