1901, Iran, Muzaffar Al-din Shah. Medallic 5 Kran Coin. Brussels Mint Visit For SaleCoinWorldTV
1901, Iran, Muzaffar al-din Shah. Medallic 5 Kran Coin. Brussels Mint Visit!
Mint Place: Brussels
Engraver: A. Michaux
Mint Year. 1901 (AH 1318)
Condition: A rim hit and light scratches in fields, otherwise VF-XF!
Reference: Dupriez 1318, Rabino 73 var. (there in silver), Bruce XM-22 var. (there silver plated). R!
Denomination: 5 Kran - Medallic Presentation Issue, commemorating the Shah's visit to the mint of Brussels.
Obverse: Uniformed bust of Muzaffar al-Din Shah halfright, wearing plummed Karakul hat. Legend at sides.
Reverse: Persian legend in six lines ending with date (AH 1318).
Authenticity unconditionally guaranteed. offer with confidence!
Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar, KG (23 March 1853 – 3 January 1907; Persian: مظفرالدين شاه قاجار Muẓaffari’d-Dīn Shāh Qājār) was the fifth Qajar king of Iran. He reigned between the years 1896 and 1907.
He is credited with the creation of the Iranian constitution, and often wrongly credited with the rise of the Persian Constitutional Revolution which took place immediately after his death.
The son of the Qajar ruler Naser al-Din Shah Qajar, Mozaffar ad-Din was named crown prince and sent as governor to the northern province of Azarbaijan in 1861. He spent his 35 years as crown prince in the pursuit of pleasure; his relations with his father were frequently strained, and he was not consulted in important matters of state. Thus, when he ascended the throne in May 1896, he was unprepared for the burdens of office.
At Mozaffar ad-Din's accession Iran faced a financial crisis, with annual governmental expenditures far in excess of revenues due to the policies of his father. During his reign, Mozzafar ad-Din attempted some reforms of the central treasury; however, the previous debt incurred by the Qajar court, owed to both England and Russia, significantly undermined this effort. He had to make up the existing deficit by contracting more unpopular loans from Russia, which exacted political concessions in return.
Like his father he visited Europe three times. During these periods, on the encouragements of his chancellor Amin-os-Soltan , he borrowed money from Nicholas II of Russia to pay for his extravagant traveling expenses. During his first visit he was introduced to the "cinematographe" in Paris, France. Immediately falling in love with the silver screen the Shah ordered his personal photographer to acquire all the equipment and knowledge needed to bring the moving picture to Iran, thus starting Iranian Cinema. The following is a translated excerpt from the Shah's diary:
....[At] 9:00 P.M. we went to the Exposition and the Festival Hall where they were showing cinematographe, which consists of still and motion pictures. Then we went to Illusion building ....In this Hall they were showing cinematographe. They erected a very large screen in the centre of the Hall, turned off all electric lights and projected the picture of cinematography on that large screen. It was very interesting to watch. Among the pictures were Africans and Arabians traveling with camels in the African desert, which was very interesting. Other pictures were of the Exposition, the moving street, the Seine River and ships crossing the river, people swimming and playing in the water and many others that were all very interesting. We instructed Akkas Bashi to purchase all kinds of it [cinematographic equipment] and bring to Tehran so God willing he can make some there and show them to our servants.
Additionally, in order to manage the costs of the state and his extravagant personal lifestyle Mozzafar ad-din Shah was forced to sign many concessions, providing foreigners with monopolistic control of various Iranian industries and markets. One example being the D'Arcy Oil Concession.
Widespread fears amongst the aristocracy, educated elites, and religious leaders about the concessions and foreign control resulted in some protests in 1906. These resulted in the Shah accepting a suggestion to create a Majles (National Consultative Assembly) in October 1906, by which the monarch's power was curtailed as he granted a constitution and parliament to the people. He died of a heart attack 40 days after granting this constitution.
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