1902 Meeting Society Of War Of 1812 Veterans Hotel Somerset Boston Massachusetts
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1902 Meeting Society Of War Of 1812 Veterans Hotel Somerset Boston Massachusetts:
1902 SOCIETY OF THE WAR OF 1812 PROGRAM
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Rare January 8, 1902 program for the 8th annual meeting of the Society of the War of 1812 in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 4 printed sides. Signature of owner on cover - G. L. Richardson.
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TheWar of 1812was a 32-month military conflict between theUnited States of Americaand theUnited Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, itsNorth American coloniesand its Indian allies. The outcome resolved many issues which remained from theAmerican War of Independence, but involved no boundary changes. The United States declared war in 1812 for several reasons, including trade restrictions brought about by Britain's continuingwar with France, theimpressmentof American merchant sailors into theRoyal Navy, British support ofAmerican Indiantribes against American expansion, outrage over insults to national honour after humiliations on the high seas, and possible American interest in annexingBritish North Americanterritory (part of modern dayCanada) which had been denied to them in the settlement ending theAmerican Revolutionary War.
The war was fought in three principal theatres. Firstly, at sea, warships andprivateersof each side attacked the other's merchant ships, while the Britishblockadedthe Atlantic coast of the United States and mounted large-scale raids in the later stages of the war. Secondly, both land and naval battles were fought on the American–Canadian frontier, which ran along theGreat Lakes, theSaint Lawrence Riverand the northern end ofLake Champlain. Thirdly, the American South andGulf Coastalso saw major land battles in which the American forces defeated Britain's Indian allies and a British invasion force atNew Orleans. Some invasions or counter strikes were unsuccessful, while others successfully attacked enemy objectives and took possession of opposition territory. At the end of the war both sides signed theTreaty of Ghent, and all parties returned occupied land to its pre war owner.
With the majority of its army and naval forces tied down in Europe fighting theNapoleonic Warsuntil 1814, the British at first used a defensive strategy, repelling multiple American invasions of the provinces ofUpper and Lower Canada. The Americans gained control overLake Eriein 1813, seized parts ofwestern Ontario, and ended the prospect of anIndian confederacyand an independent Indian state in the Midwest under British sponsorship. In September 1814, a British forceinvaded and occupied Eastern Maine. This territory, along with parts of Michigan and Wisconsin, were seized and held by the British and their Indian allies for the duration of the war. In thesouthwest, GeneralAndrew Jacksondestroyed the military strength of theCreek nationat theBattle of Horseshoe Bendin 1814. With thedefeat of Napoleon in 1814on April 6, the British adopted a more aggressive strategy, sending in three large invasion armies. The British victory at theBattle of Bladensburgin August 1814 allowed them to capture andburn Washington, D.C, but they were repulsed inan attempt to take Baltimore. American victories in September 1814 repulsed the British invasion ofNew York, and the British suffered a major defeat at New Orleans in January 1815.
In the United States, late victories over invading British armies at the battles their national anthem, "The Star-Spangled Banner"), andNew Orleansproduced a sense of euphoria over a "second war of independence" against Britain.Peace brought an "Era of Good Feelings" to the U.S. in which partisan animosity nearly vanished.
In Upper and Lower Canada, British andCanadian militiavictories over invading American armies became iconic and promoted the development of a distinct Canadian identity which included strong loyalty to Britain. Today, particularly inloyalist-founded Ontario, memory of the war retains its significance because the defeat of the invasions ensured that the Canadas would remain part of the British Empire rather than be annexed by the United States. In Canada, numerous ceremonies took place in 2012 to commemorate the war, offer historical lessons and celebrate 200 years of peace across the border.The war is scarcely remembered in Britain today, as it regarded the conflict as a sideshow to the much larger Napoleonic Wars raging in Europe.
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