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1913 Penny 100 Years Old Coin Retro London England 2013 Vintage Antique Bronze For Sale

1913 Penny 100 Years Old Coin Retro London England 2013 Vintage Antique Bronze

1913 Penny
100 Year OldA One Hundred Year old British Penny from 1913
In Good Condition given it is one hundred years old
Would make an Excellent Gift or Collectable Keepsake souvineer of the world 100 years ago
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The Countries I Send to Include Afghanistan * Albania * Algeria * American Samoa (US) * Andorra * Angola * Anguilla (GB) * Antigua and Barbuda * Argentina * Armenia * Aruba (NL) * Australia * Austria * Azerbaijan * Bahamas * Bahrain * Bangladesh * Barbados * Belarus * Belgium * Belize * Benin * Bermuda (GB) * Bhutan * Bolivia * Bonaire (NL) * Bosnia and Herzegovina * Botswana * Bouvet Island (NO) * Brazil * British Indian Ocean Territory (GB) * British Virgin Islands (GB) * Brunei * Bulgaria * Burkina Faso * Burundi * Cambodia * Cameroon * Canada * Cape Verde * Cayman Islands (GB) * Central African Republic * Chad * Chile * China * Christmas Island (AU) * Cocos Islands (AU) * Colombia * Comoros * Congo * Democratic Republic of the Congo * Cook Islands (NZ) * Coral Sea Islands Territory (AU) * Costa Rica * Croatia * Cuba * Curaçao (NL) * Cyprus * Czech Republic * Denmark * Djibouti * Dominica * Dominican Republic * East Timor * Ecuador * Egypt * El Salvador * Equatorial Guinea * Eritrea * Estonia * Ethiopia * Falkland Islands (GB) * Faroe Islands (DK) * Fiji Islands * Finland * France * French Guiana (FR) * French Polynesia (FR) * French Southern Lands (FR) * Gabon * Gambia * Georgia * Germany * Ghana * Gibraltar (GB) * Greece * Greenland (DK) * Grenada * Guadeloupe (FR) * Guam (US) * Guatemala * Guernsey (GB) * Guinea * Guinea-Bissau * Guyana * Haiti * Heard and McDonald Islands (AU) * Honduras * Hong Kong (CN) * Hungary * Iceland * India * Indonesia * Iran * Iraq * Ireland * Isle of Man (GB) * Israel * Italy * Ivory Coast * Jamaica * Jan Mayen (NO) * Japan * Jersey (GB) * Jordan * Kazakhstan * Kenya * Kiribati * Kosovo * Kuwait * Kyrgyzstan * Laos * Latvia * Lebanon * Lesotho * Liberia * Libya * Liechtenstein * Lithuania * Luxembourg * Macau (CN) * Macedonia * Madagascar * Malawi * Malaysia * Maldives * Mali * Malta * Marshall Islands * Martinique (FR) * Mauritania * Mauritius * Mayotte (FR) * Mexico * Micronesia * Moldova * Monaco * Mongolia * Montenegro * Montserrat (GB) * Morocco * Mozambique * Myanmar * Namibia * Nauru * Navassa (US) * Nepal * Netherlands * New Caledonia (FR) * New Zealand * Nicaragua * Niger * Nigeria * Niue (NZ) * Norfolk Island (AU) * North Korea * Northern Cyprus * Northern Mariana Islands (US) * Norway * Oman * Pakistan * Palau * Palestinian Authority * Panama * Papua New Guinea * Paraguay * Peru * Philippines * Pitcairn Island (GB) * Poland * Portugal * Puerto Rico (US) * Qatar * Reunion (FR) * Romania * Russia * Rwanda * Saba (NL) * Saint Barthelemy (FR) * Saint Helena (GB) * Saint Kitts and Nevis * Saint Lucia * Saint Martin (FR) * Saint Pierre and Miquelon (FR) * Saint Vincent and the Grenadines * Samoa * San Marino * Sao Tome and Principe * Saudi Arabia * Senegal * Serbia * Seychelles * Sierra Leone * Singapore * Sint Eustatius (NL) * Sint Maarten (NL) * Slovakia * Slovenia * Solomon Islands * Somalia * South Africa * South Georgia (GB) * South Korea * South Sudan * Spain * Sri Lanka * Sudan * Suriname * Svalbard (NO) * Swaziland * Sweden * Switzerland * Syria * Taiwan * Tajikistan * Tanzania * Thailand * Togo * Tokelau (NZ) * Tonga * Trinidad and Tobago * Tunisia * Turkey * Turkmenistan * Turks and Caicos Islands (GB) * Tuvalu * U.S. Minor Pacific Islands (US) * U.S. Virgin Islands (US) * Uganda * Ukraine * United Arab Emirates * United Kingdom * United States * Uruguay * Uzbekistan * Vanuatu * Vatican City * Venezuela * Vietnam * Wallis and Futuna (FR) * Yemen * Zambia * Zimbabwe
The penny of the Kingdom of Great Britain and later of the United Kingdom, was in circulation from the early 18th century until February 1971, Decimal Day.
Twelve pence made one shilling; the penny was therefore 1⁄240 of a pound. To express an amount, penny was abbreviated to "d", e.g. 1d, from the Roman denarius.
The penny of King Edward VII (1901–1910) is of the same technical standards as the late Victorian issues. The head on the obverse is by George William de Saulles (1862–1903), facing right, with the inscription EDWARDVS VII DEI GRA BRITT OMN REX FID DEF IND IMP. The reverse shows the seated Britannia surrounded by ONE PENNY and over the date, which remained the standard design until 1970, although there is a variety of some 1902 pennies known as the low tide penny, where the sea appears exceptionally low on Britannia's leg. Pennies were produced for all years of Edward VII's reign.
King George V (1910–1936) pennies were produced to the same standard until 1922, but after a three-year gap in production the alloy composition was changed in 1925 to 95.5% copper, 3% tin, and 1.5% zinc, although the weight remained at ⅓ oz (9.45 grams) and the diameter 31 millimetres. The inscription around the three variations of the left-facing king's head remained GEORGIVS V DEI GRA BRITT OMN REX FID DEF IND IMP, while Britannia remained on the reverse, as before. In addition to the Royal Mint in the Tower of London, in 1912, 1918 and 1919 some coins were produced at the Heaton Mint in Birmingham, and are identified by an "H" to the left of the date, and in 1918 and 1919 some were also produced at the Kings Norton Metal Co. Ltd, also in Birmingham, and are identified by "KN" to the left of the date. Pennies were produced in 1911–1922 inclusive, and 1926–1936 inclusive bearing George V's effigy, however the 1933 penny is the greatest British numismatic rarity of the 20th century - only seven coins were minted, specifically for the king to lay under the foundation stones of new buildings; one of these coins was stolen when a church in Leeds was demolished in the 1960s, and its whereabouts is currently unknown.
Before decimalisation brought about a new currency with new coinage, the sum of three pence was pronounced variously /ˈθrʊpəns/throop-ence, /ˈθrɛpəns/threpp-ence or /ˈθrʌpəns/thrupp-ence, reflecting different pronunciations in the various regions and nations of Great Britain. Likewise, the coin was usually referred to in conversation as a /ˈθrʊpni/throop-nee, /ˈθrɛpni/threpp-nee or /ˈθrʌpni/thrupp-nee bit.
British coinageCurrent circulation One penny Two pence Five pence Ten pence Twenty pence Fifty pence One pound Two poundsCommemorative and bullion Twenty-five pence Five pounds Maundy money Quarter sovereign Half sovereign Sovereign BritanniaWithdrawn (decimal) Half pennyWithdrawn (pre-decimal,selected coins) Quarter-farthing Third-farthing Half-farthing Farthing Halfpenny Penny Threepence Groat Sixpence One shilling Two shillings (florin) Half crown Double florin (four shillings) Crown Half guinea GuineaSee also Pound sterling Coins of the pound sterling List of British banknotes and coins Scottish coinage Coins of Ireland List of people on coins of the United KingdomEnglish, Scottish and British monarchsMonarchs of England before 1603 Monarchs of Scotland before 1603Æthelstan Edmund the Magnificent Eadred Eadwig Edgar the Peaceful Edward the Martyr Æthelred the Unready Sweyn Forkbeard Edmund Ironside Cnut the Great Harold Harefoot Harthacnut Edward the Confessor Harold Godwinson Edgar the Ætheling William I William II Henry I Stephen Matilda Henry II Henry the Young King Richard I John Henry III Edward I Edward II Edward III Richard II Henry IV Henry V Henry VI Edward IV Edward V Richard III Henry VII Henry VIII Edward VI Jane Mary I and Philip Elizabeth IKenneth I MacAlpin Donald I Constantine I Áed Giric Eochaid Donald II Constantine II Malcolm I Indulf Dub Cuilén Amlaíb Kenneth II Constantine III Kenneth III Malcolm II Duncan I Macbeth Lulach Malcolm III Canmore Donald III Duncan II Donald III Edgar Alexander I David I Malcolm IV William I Alexander II Alexander III Margaret First Interregnum John Second Interregnum Robert I David II Edward Robert II Robert III James I James II James III James IV James V Mary I James VIMonarchs of England and Scotland after the Union of the Crowns in 1603James I & VI Charles I Commonwealth Charles II James II & VII Mary II and William III & II AnneBritish monarchs after the Acts of Union 1707Anne George I George II George III George IV William IV Victoria Edward VII George V Edward VIII George VI Elizabeth II
2013Millennium: 3rd millenniumCenturies: 20th century – 21st century – 22nd centuryDecades: 1980s 1990s 2000s – 2010s – 2020s 2030s 2040sYears: 2010 2011 2012 – 2013 – 2014 2015 2016Jan – Feb – Mar – Apr – May – JunJul – Aug – Sep – Oct – Nov – DecArtsArchitecture – Art – Comics – Film – Home video – Literature (Poetry) – Music (Country, Metal, UK) – Radio – Television – Video gamingPoliticsElections – Int'l leaders – Politics – State leaders – Sovereign statesScience and technologyArchaeology – Aviation – Birding/Ornithology – Meteorology – Palaeontology – Rail transport – Science – SpaceflightSportsSport – Athletics (Track and Field) – Australian Football League – Baseball – Basketball – Football (soccer) – Cricket – Ice Hockey – Motorsport – Tennis – Rugby leagueBy placeAlgeria – Argentina – Australia – Belgium - Brazil – Canada – People's Republic of China – Denmark – El Salvador – Egypt – European Union – France – Georgia – Germany – Ghana – Hungary – India – Iraq – Iran – Ireland – Israel – Italy – Japan – Kenya – Lithuania – Luxembourg – Malaysia – Mexico – New Zealand – Norway – Pakistan – Palestinian territories – Philippines – Poland – Romania – Russia – Singapore – South Africa – South Korea – Spain – Sri Lanka – United Arab Emirates – United Kingdom – United StatesOther topicsAwards – Law – Religious leadersBirth and death categoriesBirths – DeathsEstablishments and disestablishments categoriesEstablishments – DisestablishmentsWorks and introductions categoriesWorks – IntroductionsWorks entering the public domain2013 in other calendarsGregorian calendar 2013MMXIIIAb urbe condita 2766Armenian calendar 1462ԹՎ ՌՆԿԲAssyrian calendar 6763Bahá'í calendar 169–170Bengali calendar 1420Berber calendar 2963British Regnal year 61 Eliz. 2 – 62 Eliz. 2Buddhist calendar 2557Burmese calendar 1375Byzantine calendar 7521–7522Chinese calendar to calendar 1729–1730Ethiopian calendar 2005–2006Hebrew calendar 5773–5774Hindu calendars - Vikram Samvat 2069–2070- Shaka Samvat 1935–1936- Kali Yuga 5114–5115Holocene calendar 12013Iranian calendar 1391–1392Islamic calendar 1434–1435Japanese calendar Heisei 25(平成25年)Juche calendar 102Julian calendar Gregorian minus 13 daysKorean calendar 4346Minguo calendar ROC 102民國102年Thai solar calendar 2556Unix time 1356998400–13885343992013 (MMXIII) will be a common year starting on a Tuesday. In the Gregorian calendar, it will be the 2013th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations; the 13th year of the 3rd millennium and of the 21st century; and the 4th of the 2010s decade. It will also be the first year to be denoted by four different digits in 26 years (since 1987).
Predicted and scheduled events
MarchMarch 31 – The last day (13 Ahau) of the last Tzolk'in calendar to begin before the end of the current creation's 13th b'ak'tun. Some believe that this date is more significant than that of December 21, 2012 (4 Ahau) because both calendar cycles will be complete.JuneJune 12 – 15 – An international academic conference will be held in the U.S. Navy Academy in Annapolis, Maryland, to recognize and celebrate two centuries of peace among Canada, the United States and Great Britain following the War of 1812.[1]JulyJuly 1 – Croatia is set to join the European Union. Croatia will be the first country that entered the EU alone (since other countries entered together in 2004 and 2007), although Greece acceded to the European Community alone in 1981.NovemberPlanned launch of the Indian Mars probe Mangalyaan.[2][3]Date unknownThe space program of the People's Republic of China will attempt its first unmanned Moon landing with the Chang'e 3 mission.[4]NASA's Venus In-Situ Explorer mission to Venus (part of the New Frontiers program).The first products using memristor technology are expected to become available.[5]The MAVEN spacecraft, part of NASA's Mars Scout Program, is set to launch in 2013.[6]China's Tiangong 2 to be launched.[7]Australia will withdraw its troops from Afghanistan.[8]The Megatons to Megawatts Program between Russia and the United States will expire.Major religious holidays
January 6 – Christmas – (Celebrated by the Armenian Church)January 7 – ChristmasEastern Orthodox Churches.February 1 – Imbolc, a Cross-quarter day (Celebrated on February 2 in some places).March 20 – Spring Equinox, also known as Ostara.March 31 – Easter (Western Christianity).May 1 – Beltane, a Cross-quarter day.May 5 – Easter (Eastern Christianity).May 9 – Feast of the Ascension (Western Christianity).May 19 – Pentecost (Western Christianity).June 21 – Summer solstice, also known as Midsummer.July 9 – Ramadan, Muslims holy month of fasting beginsAugust 1 – Lammas, a Cross-quarter day.September 22 – Autumn Equinox, also known as Mabon.November 1 – Samhain, a Cross-quarter day and Neopagan new year.November 3 – Diwali.November 28 – Chanukah.December 8 – Feast of the Immaculate Conception (Catholicism).December 21 – Winter solstice, also known as Yule.December 25 – Christmas (Western Christianity).In fiction
Comic booksX-Men: The X-Men try to overthrow the dystopian rule of the robot Sentinels in the Days of Future Past storyline (1980).In the comic book Legion of Super-Heroes (Number 6, July 2005, DC Comics), Cosmic Boy avers that the Bar Code on the cover of comic books is "destined to become outlawed in the Design Aesthetic Wars of 2013."Computer and video gamesGrand Theft Auto 2 (1999): Game is possibly set in this year.Shattered Union (2005): The District of Columbia is destroyed this year by a low-yield nuclear weapon.Tom Clancy's Ghost Recon Advanced Warfighter (2006)Gyakuten Saiban 3 (2007): Flashbacks to this year occur.Manhunt 2 (2007): Present day missions are possibly set in this year while flashbacks are set in 2007.Call of Duty: Black Ops (2010): The events of Call of the Dead occur in March.Metro 2033 (2010): A nuclear war occurs in this year.Resident Evil 6 (2012): The next virus outbreak in China and America is confirmed to be set in this yearFilmEscape from L.A. (1996)The Postman (1997)A Scanner Darkly (2006)The Book of Eli (2010)TelevisionIn the BBC mockumentary Time Trumpet, British retail chain Tesco launches an invasion of Denmark on January 21 of this year.The last few minutes of the Season 4 finale and Season 5 of Desperate Housewives is set in this year.BBC Drama Spooks: Code 9 is set in this year.The Simpsons episode "Future-Drama" is set in this year since it aired in 2005 as the Simpsons siblings, Bart and Lisa, are shown where they will be eight years into the future.Smallville's season 9 finale, Salvation, depicted a vision of this year.The final episodes of the television show Death Note takes place during January of this year.
1913From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaThis article is about the year 1913. For the number (and other uses), see 1913 (number).Millennium: 2nd millenniumCenturies: 19th century – 20th century – 21st centuryDecades: 1880s 1890s 1900s – 1910s – 1920s 1930s 1940sYears: 1910 1911 1912 – 1913 – 1914 1915 19161913 in other calendarsGregorian calendar 1913MCMXIIIAb urbe condita 2666Armenian calendar 1362ԹՎ ՌՅԿԲAssyrian calendar 6663Bahá'í calendar 69–70Bengali calendar 1320Berber calendar 2863British Regnal year 2 Geo. 5 – 3 Geo. 5Buddhist calendar 2457Burmese calendar 1275Byzantine calendar 7421–7422Chinese calendar to calendar 1629–1630Ethiopian calendar 1905–1906Hebrew calendar 5673–5674Hindu calendars - Vikram Samvat 1969–1970- Shaka Samvat 1835–1836- Kali Yuga 5014–5015Holocene calendar 11913Iranian calendar 1291–1292Islamic calendar 1331–1332Japanese calendar Taishō 2(大正2年)Juche calendar 2Julian calendar Gregorian minus 13 daysKorean calendar 4246Minguo calendar ROC 2民國2年Thai solar calendar 2456This box: view talk edit Wikimedia Commons has media related to: 1913Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar.
Events
JanuaryMain article: January 1913January 1 – The British Board of Film Censors receives the authority to classify and censor films.January 13 – Edward Carson founds the Ulster Volunteer Force by unifying several existing loyalist militias to resist home rule for Ireland.[1]January 23 – General election in Tasmania.January 30 – The British House of Lords rejects an Irish Home Rule BillFebruaryMain article: February 1913February 1: New York's Grand Central building as rebuilt (c.1911).February 1 – New York City's Grand Central Terminal, having been rebuilt, reopens as the world's largest railroad station.February 3 – The 16th Amendment to the United States Constitution is ratified, authorizing the Federal government to impose and collect income taxes.February 9 – Mexican Revolution: Beginning of La Decena Trágica, the rebellion of some military chiefs against the President Francisco I. Madero.February 18 – Mexican Revolution: President Francisco I. Madero and Vice President José María Pino Suárez are forced to resign. Pedro Lascuráin serves as President for less than an hour before General Victoriano Huerta, leader of the coup, takes officeFebruary 22 – Mexican Revolution: Assassination of Francisco I. Madero and José María Pino Suárez.MarchMain article: March 1913MarchThe House of Romanov celebrates the 300th anniversary of its succession to the throne, amidst an outpouring of monarchist sentiment in Russia.Following the assassination of his rival Song Jiaoren, Yuan Shikai uses military force to dissolve China's parliament and rules as a dictator.March 3 – The Woman Suffrage Parade of 1913 takes place in Washington D.C. led by Inez Milholland on horseback.March 4Woodrow Wilson succeeds William Howard Taft as the 28th President of the United States.The U.S. Department of Commerce and U.S. Department of Labor are established by splitting the duties of the 10-year-old Department of Commerce and Labor. The Census Bureau, U.S. Bureau of Fisheries and U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey form part of the Department of Commerce.March 4: Wilson sworn in as the 28th president of the United States.March 7 – The British freighter Alum Chine, carrying 343 tons of dynamite, explodes in Baltimore harbour.[2]March 12 – Australia begins building the new federal capital of Canberra.March 13 – Mexican Revolution: Pancho Villa returns to Mexico from his self-imposed exile in the United States.March 17 – The Uruguayan Air Force is founded.March 18 – King George I of Greece is assassinated after 50 years on the throne. He is succeeded by his son Constantine.March 20 – Sung Chiao-jen, a founder of the Chinese nationalist party (Kuomintang), is wounded in an assassination attempt and dies two days later.March 26 – Mexican Revolution: Venustiano Carranza announces his Plan of Guadalupe, and begins his rebellion against Victoriano Huerta's government as head of the Constitutionals.March 26 – Balkan War: Bulgarian forces take Adrianople.March 12: Australia begins building the new capital of Canberra.AprilMain article: April 1913April 8 – The Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution is passed, dictating the direct election of senators.April 21 – Cunard ocean liner RMS Aquitania, built by John Brown & Company, is launched on the River Clyde.MayMay 3 – Raja Harishchandra, the first full-length Indian feature film is released, marking the beginning of the Indian film industry.May 13 – Igor Sikorsky becomes the first person to pilot a 4-engine aircraft.May 14 – New York Governor William Sulzer approves the charter for the Rockefeller Foundation, which begins operations with a $100,000,000 donation from John D. Rockefeller.May 29 – The ballet The Rite of Spring, with music by Igor Stravinsky conducted by Pierre Monteux, choreography by Vaslav Nijinsky and design by Nicholas Roerich, is premièred by Sergei Diaghilev's Ballets Russes at the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées in Paris; its modernism provokes one of the most famous classical music riots in history.[3]May 30 – First Balkan War: The Treaty of London is signed, ending the war. Greece is granted those parts of southern Epirus which it does not already control.JuneJune 1 – The Greek-Serbian Treaty of Alliance is signed, paving the way for the Second Balkan War.June 4 – Emily Davison, a British suffragette, runs out in front of the King's horse, Anmer, at the Epsom Derby. She is trampled and dies 4 days later in hospital, never having regained consciousness.[4]June 8 – The Deutsches Stadion in Berlin is dedicated with the release of 10,000 pigeons, in front of an audience of 60,000 people. It has been constructed especially for the 1916 Summer Olympics, which will be cancelled as a result of World War I.June 11 – Bud Bagsak Massacre: U.S. troops under General John J. "Black Jack" Pershing kill at least 2,000 civilians in Bud Bagsak in the Philippines.June 18 – The Arab Congress of 1913 opens, during which Arab nationalists meet to discuss desired reforms under the Ottoman Empire.June 19 – The Parliament of South Africa foroffers blacks from owning or buying land from whites.June 24 – Joseph Cook becomes the 6th Prime Minister of Australia.June 29 – The Second Balkan War begins.JulyJuly 10 – Death Valley, California hits 134 °F (~56.7 °C), the highest temperature recorded in the world (as of 2012).Romania declares war on Bulgaria.July 27 – Foundation of the town of San Javier, Uruguay,[5] by Russian settlers.AugustAugust 4 – In China, the province of Chungking declares independence; Chinese Republican forces crush the rebellion in a couple of weeks.August 10 – Second Balkan War: The Treaty of Bucharest is signed, ending the war. Macedonia is divided and Northern Epirus is assigned to Albania.August 13 – Invention of stainless steel by Harry Brearley in Sheffield.[6]August 20 – 700 feet (210 m) above Buc, France, parachutist Adolphe Pegoud jumps from an airplane and lands safely.August 26 – Dublin Lock-out in Ireland: Members of James Larkin's Irish Transport and General Workers' Union employed by the Dublin United Tramways Company begin strike action in defiance of the dismissal of trade union members by its chairman.[7]August 31Dublin Lock-out: "Bloody Sunday": The dispute escalates when the Dublin Metropolitan Police kill one demonstrator and injure 400 in dispersing a demonstration.[1][7]SeptemberSeptember 9 – In Germany, BASF starts the world's first plant for the production of fertilizer based on the Haber-Bosch process, feeding today about a third of the worlds population.September 17 – In Chicago, the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith is founded, with Sigmund Livingston as its first president.September 23 – French aviator Roland Garros crosses the Mediterranean in an airplane flying from Fréjus, France to Bizerte, Tunisia.September 29 – Second Balkan War: The Treaty of Constantinople is signed in Istanbul between the Ottoman Empire and the Kingdom of Bulgaria.OctoberOctober 1 – Mexican Revolution: Pancho Villa's troops take Torreón after a 3-day battle, when government troops retreat.October 10 – U.S. President Woodrow Wilson triggers the explosion of the Gamboa Dike, ending construction on the Panama Canal.Yuan Shikai installed as 1st president of China.October 14 – Senghenydd Colliery Disaster: An explosion at the Universal Colliery, Senghenydd in South Wales kills 439 miners, the worst mining accident in the United Kingdom.[6]October 16 – HMS Queen Elizabeth launched at Portsmouth Dockyard as the first oil-fired battleship.[8]October 19 – The DLRG (German Life-Saving Society) is founded.October 26 – Victoriano Huerta elected president of Mexico.October 31 – The Lincoln Highway, the first automobile road across the United States, is dedicated.NovemberNovember 5 – The insane King Otto of Bavaria is deposed by his cousin, Prince Regent Ludwig, who assumes the title Ludwig III.November 6 – Mohandas Gandhi is arrested while leading a march of Indian miners in South Africa.November 7–11 – The Great Lakes Storm of 1913 claims 19 ships and more than 250 lives.DecemberDecember 1The Ford Motor Company introduces the first moving assembly line, reducing chassis assembly time from 12½ hours in October to 2 hours, 40 minutes. Although Ford is not the first to use an assembly line, his successful adoption of one sparks an era of mass production.Crete, having obtained self rule from Turkey after the first Balkan War, is annexed by Greece.December 12 – Vincenzo Perugia tries to sell the Mona Lisa in Florence and is arrested.December 23 – The Federal Reserve System is created as the central banking system of the United States by Woodrow Wilson's signature of the Federal Reserve Act.December 30 – Italy returns the Mona Lisa to France.Date unknownEstablishment of Ahmadiyya Muslim Community in BangladeshWomen's suffrage is enacted in Norway.The British steamship Calvadas disappears in the Marmara Sea with 200 hands on board.French physicist Georges Sagnac shows that light propagates at a speed independent of the speed of its source.The Camel cigarette brand is introduced by R. J. Reynolds in the United States, the first packaged cigarette.The United States Soccer Federation is formed.The value of world trade reaches roughly $38 1 – Shek Kin, Hong Kong veteran actor (d. 2009)January 2 – Anna Lee, English actress (d. 2004)January 6Edward Gierek, Polish politician (d. 2001)Loretta Young, American actress (d. 2000)January 9 – Richard M. Nixon, 37th President of the United States (d. 1994)January 10 – Gustáv Husák, Slovak politician (d. 1991)January 15Eugène Brands, Dutch painter (d. 2002)Lloyd Bridges, American actor (d. 1998)Alexander Marinesko, captain of the S-13 submarine which sank the German ship Wilhelm Gustloff with 10,000 casualties (d. 1963)January 18Danny Kaye, American actor (d. 1987)George Unwin, British fighter ace of WWII (d. 2006)January 22William Conway, Irish cardinal (d. 1977)Carl F. H. Henry, American theologian and publisher (d. 2003)Henry Bauchau, Belgian novelist, poet, and psychoanalyst (d. 2012)January 23Jean-Michel Atlan, French painter (d. 1960)Wally Parks, founder of the NHRA (d. 2007)January 25Witold Lutosławski, Polish composer (d. 1994)Huang Hua, Foreign Minister of China (d. 2010)January 29 – Peter von Zahn, German journalist and writer (d. 2001)February 2 – Poul Reichhardt, Danish actor (d. 1985)February 4 – Rosa Parks, American civil rights activist (d. 2005)February 6 – Mary Leakey, British anthropologist (d. 1996)February 10 – Douglas Slocombe, British cinematographerFebruary 13George Barker, British poet (d. 1991)Frank Tashlin, American animation director (d. 1972)February 14Mel Allen, American sports reporter (d. 1996)Jimmy Hoffa, American labor leader (disappeared 1975)Woody Hayes, American college football coach (d. 1987)February 20 – Tommy Henrich, American baseball player (d. 2009)February 25Jim Backus, American actor (d. 1989)Gert Fröbe, German actor (Goldfinger) (d. 1988)February 27T. B. Ilangaratne, Sri Lankan author, dramatist, actor and politician (d. 1992)Paul Ricoeur, French philosopher (d. 2005)Irwin Shaw, American writer (d. 1984)Kazimierz Sabbat, leader of Polish government-in-exile (d. 1989)March–AprilMarch 1 – R. S. R. Fitter, British writer (d. 2005)March 2 – Godfried Bomans, Dutch writer (d. 1971)March 3 – Carl-Henning Pedersen, Danish painter (d. 2007)March 4 – John Garfield, American actor (d. 1952)March 13William Casey, American Central Intelligence Agency director (d. 1987)Smoky Dawson, Australian singer (d. 2008)Sergey Mikhalkov, Russian writer and lyricist (d. 2009)March 18René Clément, French film director (d. 1996)Werner Moelders, German fighter pilot (d. 1941)March 21 – George Abecassis, English race car driver (d. 1991)March 26Paul Erdős, Hungarian mathematician (d. 1996)Jacqueline de Romilly, French philologist (d. 2010)March 29 – R. S. Thomas, Welsh poet (d. 2000)March 30Richard Helms, American Central Intelligence Agency director (d. 2002)Frankie Laine, American singer (d. 2007)Ċensu Tabone, Maltese politician (d. 2012)March 31 – Etta Baker, American musician (d. 2006)April 3 – Per Borten, Premier of Norway (d. 2005)April 7 – Charles Vanik, American politician (d. 2007)April 8Benedict J. Semmes, Jr., American admiral (d. 1994)Carlton Skinner, Governor of Guam (d. 2004)April 11 – Oleg Cassini, American fashion designer (d. 2006)April 14 – Jean Fournet, French conductor (d. 2008)April 16 – Les Tremayne, British-born American actor (d. 2003)April 21 – Doctor Richard Beeching, Chairman of British Rail (d. 1985)April 27 – Philip Hauge Abelson, American physicist, writer, and editor (d. 2004)May–JuneMay 1Louis Nye, American comedian and actor (d. 2005)Walter Susskind, Czech conductor (d. 1980)May 4 – Hisaya Morishige, Japanese actor (d. 2009)May 5 – Tyrone Power, American actor (d. 1958)May 8Saima Harmaja, Finnish poet (d. 1937)Bob Clampett, American "Looney Tunes" director (d. 1984)May 11 – Robert Jungk, Austrian journalist (d. 1994)May 13 – William R. Tolbert, Jr., President of Liberia (d. 1980)May 16 – Woody Herman, American musician and band leader (d. 1987)May 20 – William Hewlett, American businessman (d. 2001)May 24 – Peter Ellenshaw, American matte designer (d. 2007)May 26 – Peter Cushing, English actor (d. 1994)Pierre Daninos, French writer and humorist (d. 2005)Josef Manger, German weightlifter (d. 1991)May 29 – Tony Zale, American boxer (d. 1997)June 6 – Carlo L. Golino, American scholar (d. 1991)June 10 – Benjamin Shapira, a German-born Israeli biochemist and recipient of the Israel Prize (d. 1993)June 11Vince Lombardi, American football coach (d. 1970)Risë Stevens, American mezzosopranoJune 18Robert Mondavi, American winemaker (d. 2008)Sylvia Field Porter, American economist and journalist (d. 1991)June 25 – Cyril Fletcher, British comedian (d. 2005)June 26Aimé Césaire, French Martinican poet and politician (d. 2008)Maurice Wilkes, British computer scientist (d. 2010)June 27 – Richard Pike Bissell, author of short stories and novels (d. 1977)June 28 – Franz Antel, Austrian filmmaker (d. 2007)June 30 – Alfonso López Michelsen, President of Colombia (d. 2007)July–AugustJuly 3 – Dorothy Kilgallen, American newspaper columnist (d. 1965)July 7 – Pinetop Perkins, American blues musician (d. 2011)July 10 – Salvador Espriu, Catalan poet (d. 1985)July 12Philip Mayer Kaiser, American diplomat (d. 2007)Willis Lamb, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2008)July 13 – Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller, Danish shipping magnate (d. 2012)Kay Linaker, American actress (d. 2008)July 14 – Gerald Ford, 38th President of the United States (d. 2006)July 15 – Abraham Sutzkever, Yiddish language poet and memoirist (d. 2010)July 17 – Roger Garaudy, French Holocaust denier (d. 2012)July 18 – Red Skelton, American comedian (d. 1997)July 22Gorni Kramer, Italian bandleader and songwriter (d. 1995)Licia Albanese, Italian-born sopranoJuly 23 – Michael Foot, British politician (d. 2010)July 24 – Robert Emhardt, American actor (d. 1994)July 29 – Erich Priebke, Former Hauptsturmführer (Captain) in the Waffen SSJuly 30 – Lou Darvas, American artist and cartoonist (d. 1987)August 8John Facenda, American sports announcer (d. 1984)Robert Stafford, Governor of Vermont, U.S Representative and U.S. Senator (d. 2006)August 10Wolfgang Pauli, German physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1993)Noah Beery Jr., American actor (d. 1994)August 13Fred Davis, English snooker and billiards player (d. 1998)Makarios III, Archbishop and first President of Cyprus (d. 1977)August 16 – Menachem Begin, Prime Minister of Israel, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1992)August 17W. Mark Felt, American Federal Bureau of Investigation Associate Director and Deep Throat Watergate informant (d. 2008)Rudy York, American baseball player (d. 1970)August 19 – Richard Simmons, American actor (d. 2003)August 20 – Roger Wolcott Sperry, American neurobiologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1994)August 27 – Nina Schenk von Stauffenberg, German wife of freedom fighter Claus Schenk von Stauffenberg (d. 2006)August 28Robertson Davies, Canadian novelist (d. 1995)Richard Tucker, American tenor (d. 1975)Boris Pahor, Slovenian writerAugust 29 – Jan Ekier, Polish pianist and composerAugust 30 – Richard Stone, British economist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1991)August 31Helen Levitt, American photographer (d. 2009)Bernard Lovell, British radio astronomer (d. 2012)September–OctoberSeptember 1 – Ludwig Merwart, Austrian painter and graphic artist (d. 1979)September 2Israel Gelfand, Russian mathematician (d. 2009)Bill Shankly, Scottish football manager (d. 1981)September 4Stanford Moore, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1982)Boone Guyton, American test pilot (d. 1996)September 10 – Lincoln Gordon, American diplomat (d. 2009)September 11Paul "Bear" Bryant, American football coach (d. 1983)Eugenia Rawls, American actress (d. 2000)September 12Jesse Owens, American athlete (d. 1980)Eiji Toyoda, Japanese industrialistSeptember 13 – Roy Engel, American actor (d. 1980)September 14Jacobo Arbenz, President of Guatemala (d. 1971)Annalisa Ericson, Swedish actress (d. 2011)September 15 – John N. Mitchell, United States Attorney General and convicted Watergate criminal (d. 1988)September 19 – Frances Farmer, American actress (d. 1970)September 23 – Carl-Henning Pedersen, Danish artist, member of the CoBrA movement (d. 2007)September 24Wilson Rawls, American author (d. 1984)Herb Jeffries, American jazz singerSeptember 25 – Terence Patrick O'Sullivan, engineer (d. 1970)September 28 – Warja Honegger-Lavater, Swiss artist and illustrator (d. 2007)September 29Trevor Howard, English actor (d. 1988)Stanley Kramer, American film producer, director, and writer (d. 2001)Silvio Piola, Italian footballer (d. 1996)September 30 – Bill Walsh, American movie producer and writer (d. 1975)October 10Claude Simon, French writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2005)Alice Chetwynd Ley, British romance writer (d. 2004)October 11 – Joe Simon, American comic book artist and writer (d. 2011)October 18 – Evelyn Venable, American actress (d. 1993)October 20 – Barney Phillips, American actor (d. 1982)October 22Robert Capa, Hungarian-born photojournalist (d. 1954)Tamara Desni, German-born British actress (d. 2008)October 27 – Joe Medicine Crow, American tribal historian and 2 – Burt Lancaster, American actor (Elmer Gantry) (d. 1994)November 5 – Vivien Leigh, British actress (Gone With The Wind) (d. 1967)November 7Albert Camus, French writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1960)Elizabeth Bradford Holbrook, Canadian sculptor (d. 2009)November 9 – Hedy Lamarr, Austrian actress (d. 2000)November 10 – Álvaro Cunhal, Portuguese politician (d. 2005)November 13 – Alexander Scourby, American actor (d. 1985)November 15 – Arthur Haulot, Belgian journalist (d. 2005)November 18 – Endre Rozsda, Hungarian-French painter (d. 1999)November 21John Boulting, English film director (d. 1985)Roy Boulting, English film director and producer (d. 2001)November 22Benjamin Britten, English composer (d. 1976)Cecilia Muñoz-Palma, first female Philippine Supreme Court Justice (d. 2006)November 25 – Lewis Thomas, American physician and essayist (d. 1993)December 6Nikolai Amosov, Ukrainian heart surgeon, inventor, best-selling author, and exercise enthusiast (d. 2002)Eleanor Holm, American swimmer (d. 2004)December 8 – Delmore Schwartz, American poet (d. 1966)December 10Morton Gould, American composer (d. 1996)Harry Locke, British character actor (d. 1987)December 13 – Arnold Brown, Salvation Army general (d. 2002)December 15 – Muriel Rukeyser, American poet (d. 1980)December 16 – George Ignatieff, Canadian diplomat, recipient of the 1984 Pearson Medal of Peace (d. 1989)December 18Alfred Bester, American author (d. 1987)Willy Brandt, Chancellor of Germany, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1992)December 21 – Arnold Friberg, American artist (d. 2010)December 30 – Elyne Mitchell, Australian author (d. 2002)Date unknownHalil-Salim Jabara, Israeli Arab politician (d. 1999)Deaths
January–JuneJanuary 2 – Léon Teisserenc de Bort, French meteorologist (b. 1855)January 4 – Alfred von Schlieffen, German field marshal (b. 1833)January 16 – Thaddeus S. C. Lowe, American aeronaut, scientist, and inventor (b. 1832)February 17 – Edward Stanley Gibbons, English philatelist and founder of Stanley Gibbons Ltd (b. 1840)February 22 – Francisco I. Madero, President of Mexico (b. 1873)February 26 – Felix Draeseke, German composer (b. 1835)March 10 – Harriet Tubman, American abolitionist (b. 1820)March 11 – John Shaw Billings, American military and medical leader (b. 1838)March 18 – King George I of Greece (b. 1845)March 22 – Sung Chiao-jen, Chinese revolutionary (b. 1882)March 25 – Garnet Wolseley, 1st Viscount Wolseley, British field marshal (b. 1833)March 31 – J. P. Morgan, American financier and banker (b. 1837)May 1 – John Barclay Armstrong, Texas Ranger and U.S. Marshal (b. 1850)May 16 – Louis Perrier, member of the Swiss Federal Council (b. 1849)June 2 – Alfred Austin, English Poet Laureate (b. 1835)June 5 – Chris von der Ahe, German-born brewer and baseball ownerJune 8 – Emily Davison, British suffragette (b. 1872)June 28 – Manoel Ferraz de Campos Salles, Brazilian president (b. 1841)July–DecemberJuly 3 – Horatio Nelson Young, American Civil War naval hero (b. 1845)July 13 – Edward Burd Grubb, Jr., American Civil War Union Brevet Brigadier General (b. 1841)July 19 – Clímaco Calderón, President of Colombia (b. 1852)July 29 – Tobias Michael Carel Asser, Dutch jurist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (b. 1838)August 7 – Samuel Franklin Cody, American/British aviation pioneer (b. 1867)September 30 – Rudolf Diesel, German engine inventor (b. 1858)October 5 – Hans von Bartels, German painter (b. 1856)October 16 – Ralph Rose, American athlete (b. 1885)November 7 – Alfred Russel Wallace, Welsh biologist (b. 1823)November 22 – Tokugawa Yoshinobu, the 15th and the last shogun of the Tokugawa Shogunate of Japan (b. 1837)December 1 – Juhan Liiv, Estonian poet and short story writer (b. 1864)December 7Luigi Oreglia di Santo Stefano, Italian Catholic churchman and last surviving cardinal of Pius IX (b. 1828)Aaron Montgomery Ward, American businessman, inventor of mail order (b. 1844)December 12 – Menelik II, Emperor of Ethiopia (b. 1844)Nobel PrizesPhysics – Heike Kamerlingh-OnnesChemistry – Alfred WernerMedicine – Charles RichetLiterature – Rabindranath TagorePeace – Henri La FontaineReferences
1913 Penny 100 Years Old Coin Retro London England 2013 Vintage Antique Bronze

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1913 Penny 100 Years Old Coin Retro London England 2013 Vintage Antique Bronze :
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