1949 Tls- Prime Minister Of Poland In Exile Ww2 Re Communism
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1949 Tls- Prime Minister Of Poland In Exile Ww2 Re Communism :
1 pg. TLS, April 9, 1949, Washington D.C., by Stanisław Mikołajczyk (1901–66) Prime Minister of Polish Government during WW2, and Deputy Prime Minister in postwar Poland before the USSR took political control of Poland. In this letter, Mikolajczk thanks a writer for his "moving words about the fight of the Polish People against our common enemy, Communism." He adds that he does not have the address of General Bor-Komorowski, but gives an alternative address in London by which a book can be sent so that it can be autographed by the General. Mikołajczyk's was born in Westphalia Germany, the son of Polish miners who came to Westphalia along with other Poles to mine. They returned to Poland when he was 10. While a teen he active in Polish patriotic organizations. In 1920 he joined the Polish Army and took part in the Polish-Soviet War. He was discharged after being wounded near Warsaw. He became active in the Polish People's Party "Piast" (PSL) in the early 1920s and was elected to the Sejm (the Polish Parliament) in 1929. By 1937 he had became President of the PSL. When Nazi Germany invaded Poland in Sept. 1939, Mikołajczyk was a private in the Polish army, and served in the defense of Warsaw. When Warsaw fell he fled to Hungary, was caught, and interned. He escaped and made his way to Paris by November, 1939. There he was asked to join the Polish government in exile as deputy Chairman of the Polish National Council. In 1941 he was appointed Minister of the Interior and then became Deputy Prime Minister. In April 1943 the Germans announced that they had discovered the graves of almost 22,000 Polish officers who had been murdered by the Soviets at Katyn Wood. The Soviets blamed the Germans. The Allied government accepted the Soviet's version, but Mikołajczyk's government refused to do so, and Stalin then severed relations with the government in exile. [It was later proven that it really was Stalin and the Soviets]. When Wadislaw Sikorski, then President of Poland in exile was killed in a plane crash in July 1943, Mikołajczyk was appointed as his successor. Winston Churchill tried to reconcile Mikolajczyk with Stalin, but to no avail (Stalin intended to take Poland when the Germans had been kicked out... and Mikolajczyk knew this). Even before the Germans were ousted, Stalin was making claim to Eastern territories in Poland that he said were in the Soviet sphere. Stalin did agree to post war "coalition" government headed by Socialist Edward Morawski as Prime Minister, and two Deputy Prime Ministers, with Mikolajczk being one of them (along with also being Minister for Agriculture), and a Communist plant being the second Deputy P.M.. The allied governments recognized the new coalition government, with the result that the Polish government in exile lost its diplomatic recognition, However, the government in exile did not cease to exist. Mikołajczyk, who did not trust the new coalition government began reviving the old PSL party, which soon became the largest party in Poland. The Communists knew they would never win a free election in Poland, and so they set about preventing one, despite the pledges given by Stalin at Yalta. In preparation for the 1947 general election, the Communist controlled interior ministry cracked down on the PSL and its candidates, preventing hundreds of them from campaigning (hmm, sound familiar, the IRS in the 2012 elections preventing 501(c)(3) status for tea party groups). From 1946-48, military courts sentenced 32,477 people, most of them members of democratic parties for ‘crimes against the state’. Only then the elections were held. In order to be sure that the elections would produce the ‘correct’ results, the Polish security apparatus recruited 47% of the members of electoral committees as agents (hmm, remember ACORN activists ourside polling booths in Philadelphia). In the general election, the Commies won most of the seats. Mikołajczyk, who would have likely become Prime Minister had the election been honest, immediately resigned from the government in protest. Facing arrest, he fled the country for London (Winston Churchill remarked to him when he saw him "I am surprised you made it out alive." In London, the Polish government in exile regarded him as a traitor for having co-operated with the Communists initially as a Deputy Prime Minister. He then emigrated to the U.S. in 1949, where he died in 1966. The letter is in fine condition. Buyer pays $2.50 shipping.