1950 Fine Genuine Leather Art Pentateuch Palestine Map Bible Israel Judaica Rare
This item has been shown 62 times.
1950 Fine Genuine Leather Art Pentateuch Palestine Map Bible Israel Judaica Rare:
DESCRIPTION :Up for sale an original RARE original FINE ART GENUINE LEATHER covered in MINT CONDITION Judaica BIBLE PENTATEUCH BOOK Bound as issued with a SIDDUR . Published in 1952 ( dated ) in ERETZ ISRAEL .TheBOOK was published around 65 years ago in ERETZ ISRAEL right after the establishment of the INDEPENDENT STATE of ISRAEL and its 1948 WAR of INDEPENDENCE. The original GENUINE LEATHER BINDING is a PIECE OF ART. The nicely illustrated MAP of ERETZ ISRAEL is embossed on the FRONT COVER with the embossed GILT HEADINGS - "ERETZ ISRAEL" and GILT " TORAH IM TEFILA" ( "Torah With Prayer" ). The RICHLY ILLUSTRATED SPINE consists of the strongly embossed images of the WAILING WESTERN WALL , RACHEL'S TOMB ,DAVID TOWER ( Also DAVID CITADEL - MIGDAL DAVID )and the TOMB of ABSALOM - All in the HOLY OLD CITY of JERUSALEM. "TORAH" is also embossed in gilt on the spine. The book consists of the COMPLETE 5 BOOKS of the HEBREW PENTATEUCH bound together as issued with a SIDDUR of the HAFTAROT for the PENTATEUCH.Publisher Joshua Chachick in Tel Aviv . Written in HEBREW.The binding is made of FINE GENUINE LEATHER and it is throughout ILLUSTRATED and DECORATED with GILT EMBOSSED HEADINGS.Original illustratedand decoratedGENUINE LEATHER HC. Around 500 pp .3.5 x 5.5 x 1.0".The condition is FINE - EXCELLENT - PRISTINE . Never been used. Perfectly clean. Tightly bound. The GENUINE LEATHER COVERS are intact , Glossy and fresh. ( Please look at scan for actual AS IS images ) .Will be sent protected inside a protective rigid envelope .AUTHENTICITY : Thisis anORIGINALvintage1952 HEBREW PENTATEUCH & SIDDUR bound by ORIGINAL illustrated GENUINE leather binding created in ERETZ ISRAEL , NOT a reproduction , Immitation or a reprint , Itholds alife long GUARANTEE for its AUTHENTICITY and ORIGINALITY.
PAYMENTS : Payment method accepted : Paypal.SHIPPMENT : SHIPP worldwide via registered airmailis $19 .Will be sent protected inside a protective rigid envelope . Handling within 3-5 days after payment. Estimated duration 14 days.
The term Bezalel school describes a group of artists who worked in Israel in the late Ottoman and British Mandate periods. It is named after the institution where they were employed, the Bezalel Academy, predecessor of today’s Bezalel Academy of Art and Design, and has been described as "a fusion of ‘oriental' art and Jugendstil." The Academy was led by Boris Schatz, who left his position as head of the Royal Academy of Arts in Sofia, Bulgaria, to make aliyah 1906 and set up an academy for Jewish arts. All of the members of the school were Zionist immigrants from Europe and the Middle East, with all the psychological and social upheaval that this implies. The school developed a distinctive style, in which artists portrayed both Biblical and Zionist subjects in a style influenced by the European jugendstil ( or art nouveau) movement, by symbolism, and by traditional Persian and Syrian artistry. Like the British Arts and Crafts Movement, Wiener Werkstätte in Vienna, William Morris firm in England, and Tiffany Studios in New York, the Bezalel School produced decorative art objects in a wide range of media: silver, leather, wood, brass and fabric. While the artists and designers were European-trained, the craftsmen who executed the works were often members of the Yemenite community, which has a long tradition of craftsanship in precious metals, and began to make aliyah about 1880. Yemenite immigrants with their colorful traditional costumes were also frequent subjects of Bezalel School artists.Leading members of the school were Boris Schatz, E.M. Lilien,Ya'akov Stark, Meir Gur Arie, Ze'ev Raban, Jacob Eisenberg, Jacob Steinhardt, and Hermann Struck.The artists produced not only paintings and etchings, but objects that might be sold as Judiaca or souvenirs. In 1915, the New York Times praised the “Exquisite examples of filigree work, copper inlay, carving in and in wood,” in a touring exhibit. In the metalwork Moorish patterns predominated, and the damascene work, in particular, showed both artistic feeling and skill in execution . Bezalel Academy of Art and Design is Israel's national school of art. It is named after the Biblical figure Bezalel, son of Uri (Hebrew: ), who was appointed by Moses to oversee the design and construction of the Tabernacle (Exodus 35:30).It is located on Mount Scopus in Jerusalem and has 1,500 students registered in programs such as: Fine Arts, Architecture, Ceramic Design, Industrial Design, Jewelry, Photography, Visual Communication, Animation, Film, and Art History & Theory. Bezalel offers Bachelor of Fine Arts (B.F.A.), Bachelor of Architecture (B.Arch.), Bachelor of Design (B.Des.) degrees, a Master of Fine Arts in conjunction with Hebrew University, and two different Master of design (M.des) degree. The academy was founded in 1903 by Boris Schatz, and opened in 1906, but was cut off from its supporters in Europe by World War I, and closed due to financial difficulties in 1929. The academy was named "Bezalel" (Hebrew: "in God's shadow") as an illustration of God's creativity being channeled to a man of flesh and blood, providing the source of inspiration to Bezalel ben Uri in the construction of the holy ark.Many early Zionists, including Theodor Herzl, felt that Israel needed to have a national style of art combining Jewish, Middle Eastern, and European traditions. The teachers at the academy developed a distinctive school (or style) of art, known as the Bezalel school, in which artists portrayed both Biblical and Zionist subjects in a style influenced by the European jugendstil (art nouveau) and by traditional Persian and Syrian styles.Like the Wiener Werkstätte in Vienna, William Morris firm in England, and Tiffany Studios in New York, the Bezalel School produced decorative art objects in a wide range of media: silver, leather, wood, brass and fabric. While the artists and designers were European-trained, the craftsmen who executed the works were often members of the Yemenite community, which has a long tradition of craftsanship in precious metals, and whose members had been making aliyah in small groups at least form the beginning of the nineteenth century, forming a distinctive Yeminite community in Jerusalem. Silver and goldsmithing, occupations forofferden to pious Muslims, had been traditional Jewish occupations in Yemen. Yemenite immigrants with their colorful traditional costumes were also frequent subjects of Bezalel school artists.Leading artists of the school include Meir Gur Aryeh, Ze'ev Raban, Boris Schatz, Jacob Eisenberg, Jacob Steinhardt, and Hermann Struck. The School folded because of economic difficulties. It was reopened as the New Bezalel School for Arts and Crafts in 1935, attracting many of its teachers and students from Germany many of them from the Bauhaus school which had been shut down by the Nazis. In 1969 it was converted into a state-supported institution and took its current name. It completed its relocation to the current campus in 1990.***** Hebrew BibleorHebrew Scriptures(Latin:Biblia Hebraica) is the term used bybiblical scholarsto refer to thecanonicalcollection of Jewish texts, which is the common textual source of severalcanonical editionsof theChristianOld Testament. They are composed mainly inBiblical Hebrew, with some passages inBiblical Aramaic(in the books ofDaniel,Ezraand a few others). The content to which theProtestantOld Testamentclosely corresponds does not act as a source for thedeuterocanonicalportions of theRoman Catholicor to theAnagignoskomenaportions of theEastern OrthodoxOld Testaments. The term does not comment upon the naming, numbering or ordering of books, which varies with laterChristian biblical canons. The term Hebrew Bible is an attempt to provide specificity with respect to contents but avoid allusion to any particular interpretative tradition or theological school of thought. It is widely used in academic writing andinterfaithdiscussion in relatively neutral contexts meant to include dialogue among all religious traditions but not widely in the inner discourse of the religions that use its text. Contents[hide] 1 Usage 1.1 Additional difficulties 2 Origins of the Hebrew Bible and its components 3 Scholarly editions 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links Usage Hebrew Bible refers to theJewish biblical canon. In itsLatinform,Biblia Hebraica, it traditionally serves as a title for printed editions of theMasoretic Text. Manybiblical studiesscholars advocate use of the term "Hebrew Bible" (or "Hebrew Scriptures") as a neutral substitute to terms with religious connotations (e.g., the non-neutral term "Old of Biblical Literature'sHandbook of Style, which is the standard for major academic journals like theHarvard Theological Reviewand conservative Protestant journals like theBibliotheca Sacraand theWestminster Theological Journal, suggests that authors "be aware of the connotations of alternative expressions such as... Hebrew Bible [and] Old Testament" without prescribing the use of either.McGrath points out that while the term emphasises that it is largely written in Hebrew and "is sacred to the Hebrew people", it "fails to do justice to the way in which Christianity sees an essential continuity between the Old and New Testaments", arguing that there is "no generally accepted alternative to the traditional term "Old Testament." However, he accepts that there is no reason why non-Christians should feel obliged to refer to these books as the Old Testament, "apart from custom of use." Additional difficulties In terms of theology, Christianity has recognised the close relationship between the Old and New Testaments from its very beginnings, although there have sometimes been movements likeMarcionism(viewed as heretical by the early church), that have struggled with it.Modern Christian formulations of this tension Theology,New Covenant theology. All of these formulations, except some forms of Dual-covenant theology, are objectionable to mainstream Judaism and to many Jewish scholars and writers, for whom there is one eternalcovenantbetween God and theIsraelites, and who therefore reject the term "Old Testament" as a form ofantinomianism. In terms ofcanon, Christian usage of "Old Testament" does not refer to a universally agreed upon set of books but, rather,varies depending on denomination.Lutheranismand Protestant denominations that follow theWestminster Confession of Faithaccept the entire Jewish canon as the Old Testament without additions, however in translation they sometimes give preference to theSeptuagintrather than the Masoretic Text; for example, seeIsaiah 7:14. In terms of language, "Hebrew" refers to the original language of the books, but it may also be taken as referring to the Jews of theSecond Templeera andJewish diaspora, and their descendants, who preserved the transmission of the Masoretic Text up to the present day. The Hebrew Bible includes small portions inAramaic(mostly in the books ofDanielandEzra), written and printed inAramaic square-script, which was adopted as theHebrew alphabetafter theBabylonian exile. Origins of the Hebrew Bible and its components Main articles:Dating the BibleandDevelopment of the Hebrew Bible canon The books that constitute the Hebrew Bible developed over roughly a millennium. The oldest texts seem to come from the 11th or 10th centuries BCE, whilst most of the other texts are somewhat later. They are edited works, being collections of various sources intricately and carefully woven together. Since the 19th century, mostbiblical scholarshave agreed that the Pentateuch (the first five books of Scriptures) consists of four sources which have been woven together. These four sources are J (Yahwist), D (Deuteronomist), E (Elohist) and P (Priestly) sources. They were combined to form the Pentateuch sometime in the 6th century BCE. This theory is now known as thedocumentary hypothesis, and has been the dominant theory for the past two hundred with the Pentateuch's book of Deuteronomy is also said to be the source of the books andKings(the Deuteronomistic history, or DtrH) and also in thebook of Jeremiah. Scholarly editions Several editions, all titledBiblia Hebraica, have been produced by various German publishers since 1906. Between 1906 and 1955,Rudolf Kittelpublishednine editionsof it. 1966, theDeutsche Bibelgesellschaftpublished the renamedBiblia Hebraica Stuttgartensiain six editions until 1997. Since 2004 the Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft has published theBiblia Hebraica Quinta, including all variants of theQumranmanuscripts as well as theMasorah Magna. Other projects include: Hebrew University Bible Project Hebrew Bible: A Critical Edition See also Judaism portal Biblical canon Books of the Bible Non-canonical books referenced in the Bible orMikraorHebrew Bibleis thecanonical collectionof Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for theChristianOld Testament. These texts are composed mainly inBiblical Hebrew, with some passages inBiblical Aramaic(in the books ofDaniel,Ezraand a few others). The traditional Hebrew text is known as theMasoretic Text. The Tanakh consists of twenty-four books. Tanakhis anacronymof the firstHebrew letterof each of the Masoretic Text's three traditional also known as the Five Books of Moses),Nevi'im("Prophets") The name "Mikra" (מקרא), meaning "that which is read", is another Hebrew word for theTanakh. The books of the Tanakh were passed on by each generation, and according to rabbinic tradition were accompanied by an oral tradition, called theOral Torah. Contents[hide] 1 Terminology 2 Development and codification 3 Language and pronunciation 4 Books of the Tanakh 4.1 Torah 4.2 Nevi'im 4.3 Ketuvim 4.3.1 Poetic books 4.3.2 Five scrolls (Hamesh Megillot) 4.3.3 Other books 4.3.4 Order 5 Translations 6 Jewish commentaries 7 See also 8 References 9 External links Terminology The three-part division reflected in the acronym "Tanakh" is well attested inliterature of the Rabbinic period.During that period, however, "Tanakh" was not used. Instead, the proper title wasMikra(orMiqra, מקרא, meaning "reading" or "that which is read") because the biblical texts were read publicly.Mikracontinues to be used in Hebrew to this day, alongside Tanakh, to refer to the Hebrew scriptures. In modern spokenHebrew, they are interchangeable. Development and codification Main article:Development of the Hebrew Bible canon There is no scholarly consensus as to when the Hebrew Bible canon was fixed: some scholars argue that it was fixed by theHasmonean dynasty,while others argue it was not fixed until the second century CE or even later. According to theTalmud, much of the Tanakh was compiled by the men of theGreat Assembly(Anshei K'nesset HaGedolah) (a task completed in 450BCE) and has remained unchanged ever since. The twenty-four book canon is mentioned in theMidrash Koheleth12:12. Language and pronunciation The originalwriting systemof the Hebrew text was with some applied vowel letters ("matres lectionis"). During the earlyMiddle Agesscholars known as theMasoretescreated a single formalized system ofvocalization. This was chiefly done byAaron ben Moses ben Asher, in theTiberiasschool, based on the oral tradition for reading the Tanakh, hence the nameTiberian vocalization. It also included some innovations ofBen Naftaliand theBabylonian exiles.Despite the comparatively late process of codification, some traditional sources and some Orthodox Jews hold the pronunciation andcantillationto derive fromthe revelation at Sinai, since it is impossible to read the original text without pronunciations and cantillation pauses.The combination of a text (מקראmikra), pronunciation (ניקודniqqud) and cantillation (טעמיםte`amim) enable the reader to understand both the simple meaning and the nuances in sentence flow of the text. Books of the Tanakh Complete set of scrolls, constituting the entire Tanakh. The Tanakh consists of twenty-four books: it counts as one book each Samuel, Kings, Chronicles andEzra–Nehemiahand counts theTwelve Minor Prophets(תרי עשר) as a single book. In Hebrew, the books are often referred to by theirprominent first word(s). Torah Main article:Torah The Torah (תּוֹרָה, literally "teaching"), also known as thePentateuch, or as the "Five Books of Moses". Printed versions (rather than scrolls) of the Torah are often calledChamisha Chumshei Torah(חמישה חומשי תורה "five fifth-sections of the Torah"), and informally aChumash. Bereshit (בְּרֵאשִׁית, literally "In the beginning")—Genesis Shemot (שִׁמוֹת, literally "Names")—Exodus Vayikra (ויקרא, literally "And He called")—Leviticus Bəmidbar (במדבר, literally "In the desert [of]")—Numbers Devarim (דברים, literally "Things" or "Words")—Deuteronomy Nevi'im Books ofNevi'im Former Prophets JoshuaJudgesSamuelKings Latter Prophets (major) IsaiahJeremiahEzekiel Latter Prophets (Twelve minor) Hebrew Bible vte Main article:Nevi'im "Prophets") is the second main division of the Tanakh, between the Torah andKetuvim. It contains two sub-groups, the Former Prophets (Nevi'im Rishonimנביאים ראשונים, the narrative books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel and Kings) and the Latter Prophets (Nevi'im Aharonimנביאים אחרונים, the books of Isaiah, Jeremiah and Ezekiel and theTwelve Minor Prophets). This division includes the books which cover the time from the entrance of the Israelites into theLand of Israeluntil theBabylonian captivityof Judah (the "period of prophecy"). Their distribution is not chronological, but substantive. (יְהוֹשֻעַ / Yĕhôshúa‘)—Joshua (שופטים / Shophtim)—Judges (שְׁמוּאֵל / Shmû’ēl)—Samuel (מלכים / M'lakhim)—Kings (יְשַׁעְיָהוּ / Yĕsha‘ăyāhû)—Isaiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ / Yirmyāhû)—Jeremiah (יְחֶזְקֵיאל / Yĕkhezqiēl)—Ezekiel TheTwelve Minor Prophets(תרי עשר,Trei Asar, "The Twelve") are considered one book. (הוֹשֵׁעַ / Hôshēa‘)—Hosea (יוֹאֵל / Yô’ēl)—Joel (עָמוֹס / ‘Āmôs)—Amos (עֹבַדְיָה / ‘Ōvadhyāh)—Obadiah (יוֹנָה / Yônāh)—Jonah (מִיכָה / Mîkhāh)—Micah (נַחוּם / Nakḥûm)—Nahum (חֲבַקּוּק /Khăvhakûk)—Habakkuk (צְפַנְיָה / Tsĕphanyāh)—Zephaniah (חַגַּי / Khaggai)—Haggai (זְכַרְיָה / Zkharyāh)—Zechariah (מַלְאָכִי / Mal’ākhî)—Malachi Ketuvim Main article:Ketuvim Books of theKetuvim Three poetic books PsalmsProverbsJob FiveMegillot(Scrolls) Song of SongsRuthLamentationsEcclesiastesEsther Other books Daniel Ezra–Nehemiah(EzraNehemiah) Chronicles Hebrew Bible vte Ketuvim(כְּתוּבִים, "Writings") consists of eleven books, described below. Poetic books Inmasoreticmanuscripts (and some printed editions), Psalms, Proverbs and Job are presented in a special two-column form emphasizing the parallelstichsin the verses, which are a function of theirpoetry. Collectively, these three books are known asSifrei Emet(an acronym of the titles in Hebrew, איוב, משלי, תהלים yieldsEmetאמ"ת, which is also the Hebrew for "truth"). These three books are also the only ones in Tanakh with a special system ofcantillationnotes that are designed to emphasize parallel stichs within verses. However, the beginning and end of the book of Job are in the normal prose system. Five scrolls (Hamesh Megillot) The five relatively short books of theSong of Songs, theBook of Ruth, theBook of theBook of Estherare collectively known as theHamesh Megillot(Five Megillot). These are the latest books collected and designated as "authoritative" in the Jewish canon, with the latest parts having dates ranging into the 2nd century BCE. These scrolls are traditionally read over the course of the year in many Jewish communities. The list below presents them in the order they are read in the synagogue on holidays, beginning with the Song of Solomon atPassover. Other books Besides the three poetic books and the five scrolls, the remaining books in Ketuvim Chronicles. Although there is no formal grouping for these books in the Jewish tradition, they nevertheless share a number of distinguishing characteristics. Their narratives all openly describe relatively late events (i.e. the Babylonian captivity and the subsequent restoration of Zion). The Talmudic tradition ascribes late authorship to all of them. Two of them (Daniel and Ezra) are the only books in Tanakh with significant portions inAramaic. Order The following list presents the books of Ketuvim in the order they appear in most printed editions. It also divides them into three subgroups based on the distinctiveness ofSifrei EmetandHamesh Megillot. The three poetic books (Sifrei Emet) Tehillim (Psalms) תְהִלִּים Mishlei (Book of Proverbs) מִשְלֵי Iyyôbh (Book of Job) אִיּוֹב TheFive Megillot(Hamesh Megillot). These books are read aloud in the synagogue on particular occasions, the occasion listed below in parenthesis. Shīr Hashīrīm (Song of Songs) or (Song of Solomon) שִׁיר הַשִׁירִים (Passover) Rūth (Book of Ruth) רוּת (Shavuot) Eikhah (Lamentations) איכה (Tisha B'Av) [Also calledKinnotin Hebrew.] Qōheleth (Ecclesiastes) קהלת (Sukkot) Estēr (Book of Esther) אֶסְתֵר (Purim) Other books Dānî'ēl (Book of Daniel) דָּנִיֵּאל ‘Ezrā (Book of Ezra—Book of Nehemiah) עזרא Divrei ha-Yamim (Chronicles) דברי הימים The Jewish textual tradition never finalized the order of the books in Ketuvim. TheBabylonian Talmud(Bava Batra14b — 15a) gives their order as Ruth, Psalms, Job, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon, Lamentations of Jeremiah, Daniel, Scroll of Esther, Ezra, Chronicles. In TiberianMasoretic codices, including theAleppo Codexand theLeningrad Codex, and often in old Spanish manuscripts as well, the order is Chronicles, Psalms, Job, Proverbs, Ruth, Song of Solomon, Ecclesiastes, Lamentations of Jeremiah, Esther, Daniel, Ezra. Translations Further information:Jewish English Bible Testament, andBible translations The Holy Scriptures According to the Masoretic Text: A New Translation with the aid of Previous Versions & with the Constant Consultation of Jewish Authoritieswas published in 1917 by the Jewish Publication Society. It was replaced by theirTanakhin 1985 Tanakh, Jewish Publication Society, 1985,ISBN 0-8276-0252-9 Tanach: The Stone Edition, Hebrew with English translation, Mesorah Publications, 1996,ISBN 0-89906-269-5, named after benefactorIrving I. Stone. Tanakh Ram, an ongoing translation to Modern Hebrew (2010–) by Avraham Ahuvya (RAM Publishing House Ltd. and Miskal Ltd.) Jewish commentaries This sectiondoes helpimprove this sectionbyadding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged andremoved.(April 2014)(Learn how and when to remove this template message) Main article:Jewish commentaries on the Bible There are two major approaches towards study of, and commentary on, the Tanakh. In the Jewish community, the classical approach is religious study of the Bible, where it is assumed that the Bible is divinely inspired. Another approach is to study the Bible as a human creation. In this approach, Biblical studies can be considered as a sub-field of religious studies. The later practice, when applied to the Torah, is considered heresy by theOrthodox Jewishcommunity. As such, much modern day Bible commentary written by non-Orthodox authors is considered forofferden by rabbis teaching in Orthodox yeshivas. Some classical rabbinic commentators, such as Abraham Ibn Ezra, Gersonides, and Maimonides, used many elements of contemporary biblical criticism, including their knowledge of history, science, andphilology. Their use of historical and scientific analysis of the Bible was considered acceptable by historic Judaism due to the author's faith commitment to the idea that God revealed the Torah to Moses on Mount Sinai. TheModern Orthodox Jewishcommunity allows for a wider array of biblical criticism to be used for biblical books outside of the Torah, and a few Orthodox commentaries now incorporate many of the techniques previously found in the academic world, e.g. theDa'at Miqraseries. Non-Orthodox Jews, including those affiliated with Conservative Judaism and Reform Judaism, accept both traditional and secular approaches to Bible studies. "Jewish commentaries on the Bible", discusses Jewish Tanakh commentaries from theTargumsto classicalrabbinic literature, themidrashliterature, the classical medieval commentators, and modern day commentaries. See also Judaism portal 613 mitzvot, formal list of Jewish 613 commandments 929: Tanakh B'yachad Dead Sea Scrolls#Biblical books found Jewish English Bible translations JPS Tanakh Mikraot Gedolot Non-canonical books referenced in the Bible Rashi**** Rachel's Tomb(Hebrew:קבר רחל translit.Kever Rakhel,Arabic:قبر راحيل translit.Qubr Raheel)is the site revered as the burial place of The tomb, located at the northern entrance ofBethlehem, is considered holy toJews,Christians, andMuslims.Since the mid-1990sthe site has been referred to by Palestinians as theBilal bin Rabah mosque(Arabic:مسجد بلال بن رباح).The burial place of the matriarchRachelas mentioned in the JewishTanakhand ChristianOld Testament, and in Muslim literatureis contested between this site and several others to the north. Although this site is considered unlikely to be the actual site of the grave,it is by far the most recognized candidate. The earliest extra-biblical records describing this tomb as Rachel's burial place date to the first decades of the 4th century CE. The structure in its current form dates from theOttomanperiod, and is situated in an Ottoman-period Muslim cemetery.WhenSir Moses Montefiorerenovated the site in 1841 and obtained the keys for the Jewish community,he also added anantechamber, including amihrabfor Muslim prayer, to ease Muslim fears.According to the 1947United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine, the tomb was to be part of theinternationally administered zoneof Jerusalem, but the area was occupied by The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, which prohibitedJewsfrom entering the area. Following the Israeli occupation of the West Bank in 1967, though not initially falling withinArea C, the site has come under the control of theIsraeli Ministry of Religious Affairs. Rachel's tomb is the third holiest site inJudaismand has become one of the cornerstones of Jewish-Israeli identity.According toGenesis 35:20, amazzebahwas erected at the site of Rachel's grave inancient Israel, leading scholars to consider the site to have been a place of worship inancient Israel.According toMartin Gilbert, Jews have made pilgrimage to the tomb since ancient times.The first historically recorded pilgrimages to the site were byearly Christians, and Christian witnesses wrote of the devotion shown to the shrine by local Muslims and then later also by Jews. Throughout history, the site was rarely considered a shrine exclusive to one religion and is described as being "held in esteem equally by Jews, Muslims, and Christians". Following a 1929 British memorandumin 1949 the UN ruled that theStatus Quo, an arrangement approved by the 1878Treaty of Berlinconcerning rights, privileges and practices in certain Holy Places, applies to the site.In 2005, following Israeli approval on 11 September 2002, theIsraeli West Bank barrierwas built around the tomb, effectively annexing it to Jerusalem.A 2005 report fromOHCHRSpecial RapporteurJohn Dugardnoted that: "Although Rachel’s Tomb is a site holy to Jews, Muslims and Christians, it has effectively been closed to Muslims and Christians."On October 21, 2015,UNESCOadopted a controversial resolution reaffirming a 2010 statementthat Rachel's Tomb was: "an integral part of Palestine."On 22 October 2015, the tomb was separated from the rest of Bethlehem with a series of concrete barriers. 4012aa