1950 Israel Shavuot Poster Kibbutz Children Judaica Hebrew Jewish Kkl Jnf Bible


1950 Israel Shavuot Poster Kibbutz Children Judaica Hebrew Jewish Kkl Jnf Bible

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1950 Israel Shavuot Poster Kibbutz Children Judaica Hebrew Jewish Kkl Jnf Bible:
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DESCRIPTION : Here for sale is a genuine authentic vintage 60-65 years old JEWISH - JUDAICA - HEBREW ZIONIST POSTER illustrated in a NAIVE STYLE . Lithographic or Litho-Offset printing , Which was issued by the JNF ( Jewish National Fund ) - KKL ( Keren Kayemet Le'Israel ) in the late 1940's up to the mid 1950's right after the establishment of the STATE of ISRAEL in 1948 and its 1948 WAR for INDEPENDENCE . It was issued towards the SHAVUOT Jewish feast with the purpose of commemorating as well as encouraging JEWISH SETTLEMENT in the unsettled areas of ERETZ ISRAEL . The poster depicts a group of Israeli - Jewish - Hebrew Kibbutz children carrying full baskets of BIKKURIM FRUITS and VEGETABLES.A small yet evident image of a Kibbutz in the background.The children are dressed with very typical 1950's Israeli clothes. The text is a BIBLICAL ( Bible ) quotation . It was designed byROTCHILD & LIPMAN of the "ROLI graphic design", Talented graphic designers ofchildrens' booksat that period . The PRINTER is LEVIN - EPSTEIN Tel Aviv . Acolorful STONE LITHOGRAPHIC or Zincography Printing. The poster SIZE is around 19" x 13" . Printed on medium weight stock. Very good used condition . Folding signs. ( Pls look at scan for accurate AS IS images ) Poster will be sent rolled in a special protective rigid sealed tube. AUTHENTICITY : The poster comes from a KKL- JNF old warehouse andis fullyguaranteed ORIGINAL fromthe late 1940's up to the mid 1950's . Please note that copies of this AUTHENTIC posterare beingbought WHOLESALE from my store for RESELLING by the largest and well reputed POSTER GALLERIES in JAFFA ISRAEL and WORLDWIDE. It is NOT a reproduction or a recently made reprint or an immitation ,It holds a life long GUARANTEE for itsAUTHENTICITY and ORIGINALITY.

PAYMENTS : ayment method accepted : Paypal .

SHIPPING : Shipp worldwide via registeredairmail is $18 . Poster will be sent rolled in a special protective rigid sealed tube.Handling within 3-5 days after payment. Estimated duration 14 days.


Passover. TheTorahmandates the seven-week Counting of the Omer, beginning on the second day of Passover, to be immediately followed by Shavuot. This counting of days and weeks is understood to express anticipation and desire for the giving of the Torah. On Passover, the people of Israel were freed from their enslavement toPharaoh; on Shavuot they were given the Torah and became a nation committed to serving God.[2]The word Shavuot means weeks, and the festival of Shavuot marks the completion of the seven-week counting period between Passover and Shavuot. TheyahrzeitofKing Davidis traditionally observed on Shavuot.Hasidic Jewsalso observe the yahrzeit of theBaal Shem Tov.[3] Shavuot is one of the less familiarJewish holidaystosecular Jewsin theJewish diaspora, while those in Israel as well as theOrthodoxcommunity are more aware of it.[4][5]According toJewish law, Shavuot is celebrated inIsraelfor one day and in theDiaspora(outside of Israel) for two days.Reform Judaismcelebrates only one day, even in the Diaspora.[6] Contents[hide] 1 Significance 1.1 Agricultural (wheat harvest) 1.2 Scriptural 1.2.1 Names in the Torah 1.2.2 In the Talmud 2 Biblical observances 2.1 Ceremony of First Fruits,Bikkurim 2.2 Temple in Jerusalem 3 Modern observances 3.1 Akdamut 3.2 Dairy foods 3.3 Book of Ruth 3.4 Greenery 3.5 All-night Torah study 3.5.1 Tikkun Leil Shavuot 4 Confirmation ceremonies 5 Dates in dispute 5.1 Giving of the Torah 5.2 Counting of the Omer 5.3 The Book of Jubilees and the Essenes 5.3.1 The Enoch Seminar 6 Notes 7 References 8 Sources 9 External links Significance[edit] Agricultural (wheat harvest)[edit] Shavuot is not explicitly named as the day on which the Torah was revealed by God to the Israelite nation at Mount Sinai in the Bible, although this is commonly quoted to be its main significance. What is indeed textually connected in the Bible to the Feast of Shavuot, is the season of the grain harvest, specifically of the wheat, in the Land of Israel. In ancient times, the grain harvest lasted seven weeks and was a season of gladness It began with the harvesting of the barley during Passover and ended with the harvesting of the wheat at Shavuot. Shavuot was thus the concluding festival of the grain harvest, just as the eighth day ofSukkot(Tabernacles) was the concluding festival of the fruit harvest. During the existence of theTemple in Jerusalem, anofferingof two loaves of bread from the wheat harvest was made on Shavuot. Scriptural[edit] Names in the Torah[edit] In the Bible, Shavuot is called theFestival of Weeks(Hebrew: חג השבועות,Ḥag of Reaping(Hebrew: חג הקציר,Ḥag ha-Katsir,Exodus23:16), andDay of the First Fruits(Hebrew יום הבכורים,Yom ha-Bikkurim,Numbers28:26). Shavuot, the plural of a word meaning "week" or "seven", alludes to the fact that this festival happens exactly seven weeks (i.e. "a week of weeks") after Passover. In the Talmud[edit] TheTalmudrefers to Shavuot literally, "refraining" or "holding back"[8]), referring to the prohibition against work on this holiday[8]and to the conclusion of the holiday and season of Passover.[9]Since Shavuot occurs 50 days after Passover,Hellenistic Jewsgave it the name "Pentecost" (πεντηκοστή, "fiftiethday").[Note 1] Biblical observances[edit] Ceremony of First Fruits,Bikkurim[edit] Shavuot was also the first day on which individuals could bring theBikkurim(first fruits) to theTemple in TheBikkurimwere brought from theSeven Speciesfor which theLand of Israelis anddates(Deut. 8:8). In the largely agrarian society of ancient Israel, Jewish farmers would tie a reed around the first ripening fruits from each of these species in their fields. At the time of harvest, the fruits identified by the reed would be cut and placed in baskets woven of gold and silver. The baskets would then be loaded on oxen whose horns were gilded and laced with garlands of flowers, and who were led in a grand procession toJerusalem. As the farmer and his entourage passed through cities and towns, they would be accompanied by music and parades.[10] Temple in Jerusalem[edit] At theTemple in Jerusalem, each farmer would present hisBikkurimto aKohenin a ceremony that followed the text ofDeut.26:1-10. This text begins by stating: "An Aramean tried to destroy my father," referring toLaban's efforts to weakenJacoband rob him of his progeny (Rashion Deut. 26:5)—or by an alternate translation, the text states "My father was a wandering Aramean," referring to the fact that Jacob was a penniless wanderer in the land ofAramfor 20 years (ioffer.,Abraham ibn Ezra). The text proceeds to retell the history of the Jewish people as they went into exile inAncient Egyptand were enslaved and oppressed; following whichGod redeemed themand brought them to the land of Israel. The ceremony ofBikkurimconveys the Jew's gratitude to God both for the first fruits of the field and for His guidance throughout Jewish history (Scherman, p.1068). Modern observances[edit] Asynagoguesanctuary adorned in greenery in honor of Shavuot Shavuot is unlike other Jewish holidays in that it has no prescribedmitzvot(Torah commandments) other than traditional festival observances of meals and merriment; and the traditional holiday observances of special prayer services and the required abstention from work. However, it is also characterized by manyminhagim(customs). A mnemonic for these customs is the letters of the Hebrew wordacharit(אחרית, "last"). Since the Torah is calledreishit(ראשית, "first") the customs of Shavuot highlight the importance of custom for the continuation and preservation of Jewish religious observance. These customs, largely observed inAshkenaziccommunities, are: אקדמות –Akdamut,the reading of a liturgical poem during Shavuot morning synagogue services חלב –Chalav(milk), the consumption of dairy products like milk and cheese רות –Ruth, the reading of theBook of Ruthat morning services (outside Israel: on the second day) ירק –Yerek, the decoration of homes and synagogues with greenery תורה –Torah, engaging in all-night Torah study. Akdamut[edit] Main article:Akdamut Akdamut (Aramaic: אקדמות) is a liturgical poem extolling the greatness of God, the Torah and Israel that is read publicly in the synagogue right before the morning reading of theTorahon the first day of Shavuot. It was composed by Rabbi Meir ofWorms, whose son was murdered during theCrusadeof 1096. Rabbi Meir was forced to defend the Torah and his Jewish faith in a debate with local priests, and successfully conveyed his certainty of God's power, His love for the Jewish people, and the excellence of Torah. Afterwards he wroteAkdamut, a 90-line poem inAramaicwhich stresses these themes. The poem is written in a doubleacrosticpattern according to the order of theHebrew alphabet. In addition, each line ends with the syllable"ta"(תא), the last and first letters of the Hebrew alphabet, alluding to the endlessness of Torah. The traditional melody which accompanies this poem also conveys a sense of grandeur and triumph. Sephardim do not readAkdamut, but before the evening service they sing a poem calledAzharotwhich sets out the613 Biblical commandments. The positive commandments are recited on the first day and the negative commandments on the second day. The liturgical poem of Yatziv Pitgam (Aramaic: יציב פתגם) is recited by some synagogues in the Diaspora on the second day of Shavuot. The author and his father's name appear in an acrostic at the beginning of the poem's 15 lines. Dairy foods[edit] Cheeseblintzes, typically eaten byAshkenazi Jewson Shavuot. Dairy foods such ascheesecake, cheeseblintzes,[11]and (cheeseravioli),[14]and atayef (a cheese-filled pancake)[15]amongSyrian Jews; kahee (a dough that is buttered and sugared) amongIraqi Jews;[15]and a seven-layer cake calledsiete cielos(seven heavens) amongTunisianandMoroccan Jews[15][16]are traditionally consumed on the Shavuot holiday.Yemenite Jewsdo not eat dairy foods on Shavuot.[15] In keeping with the observance of otherYom Tovs, there is both a nightmealand a day meal on Shavuot. Meat is usually served at night and dairy is served either for the day meal[12]or for a morningkiddush.[17] Among the explanations given in rabbinic literature for the consumption of dairy foods on this holiday are:[18][19] Before they received the Torah, the Israelites were not obligated to follow its laws, which includeshechita(ritual slaughter of animals) andkashrut. Since all their meat pots and dishes now had to be made kosher before use, they opted to eat dairy foods. The Torah is compared to milk by KingSolomon, who wrote: "Like honey and milk, it lies under your tongue" (Song of Songs4:11). Thegematriaof the Hebrew wordchalav(חלב, milk) is 40, corresponding to the 40 days and 40 nights thatMosesspent onMount Sinaibefore bringing down the Torah. According to theZohar, each day of the year correlates to one of the Torah's365 negative commandments. Shavuot corresponds to the commandment "Bring the first fruits of your land to the house of God your Lord; do not cook a kid in its mother's milk" (Exodus34:26). Since the first day to bringBikkurim(the first fruits) is Shavuot, the second half of the verse refers to the custom to eat two separate meals – one milk, one meat – on Shavuot. ThePsalmistcalls Mount SinaiHar Gavnunim(הר גבננים, mountain of majestic peaks, Psalm 68:16-17/15-16 ), which is etymologically similar togevinah(גבינה, cheese). Book of Ruth[edit] RuthinBoaz's Field byJulius Schnorr von Carolsfeld, oil on canvas, 1828; National Gallery, London This sectiondoes help improve this section byadding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged andremoved.(May 2016)(Learn how and when to remove this template message) There are five books inTanakhthat are known asMegillot(Hebrew: מגילות, "scrolls") and are publicly read in the synagogues of some Jewish communities on different Jewish holidays.[20]TheBook of Ruth(מגילת רות,Megillat Ruth) is read on Shavuot because: (1) King David, Ruth's descendant, was born and died on Shavuot (Jerusalem TalmudHagigah2:3); (2) Shavuot is harvest time [Exodus 23:16], and the events of Book of Ruth occur at harvest time; (3) Thegematria(numerical value) of Ruth is 606, the number of commandments given at Sinai in addition to the 7 Noahide Laws already given, for a total of 613; (4) Because Shavuot is traditionally cited as the day of the giving of the Torah, the entry of the entire Jewish people into the covenant of the Torah is a major theme of the day. Ruth's conversion to Judaism, and consequent entry into that covenant, is described in the book. This theme accordingly resonates with other themes of the day; (5) Another central theme of the book ishesed(loving-kindness), a major theme of the Torah. Greenery[edit] According to theMidrash, Mount Sinai suddenly blossomed with flowers in anticipation of the giving of the Torah on its summit. Greenery also figures in the story of the babyMosesbeing found among thebulrushesin awatertight cradle(Ex.2:3) when he was three months old (Moses was born on 7 Adar and placed in theNile Riveron 6 Sivan, the same day he later brought the Jewish nation to Mount Sinai to receive the Torah).[18] For these reasons, many Jewish families traditionally decorate their homes andsynagogueswith plants, flowers and leafy branches in honor of Shavuot. Some synagogues decorate thebimahwith a canopy of flowers and plants so that it resembles achuppah, as Shavuot is mystically referred to as the day the matchmaker (Moses) brought the bride (the nation of Israel) to the chuppah (Mount Sinai) to marry the bridegroom (God); theketubah(marriage contract) was the Torah. Some Eastern Sephardi communities actually read out aketubahbetween God and Israel as part of the service.[citation needed] TheVilna Gaoncancelled the tradition of decorating with trees because it too closely resembles the Christian decorations for their holidays.[citation needed] All-night Torah study[edit] The practice of staying up all Shavuot night to study Torah – known asTikkun Leil Shavuot(Hebrew:תקון ליל שבועות‎‎) – has its source in theMidrash, which relates that the night before the Torah was given, the Israelites retired early to be well-rested for the momentous day ahead. They overslept andMoseshad to wake them up because God was already waiting on the mountaintop.[21]To rectify this perceived flaw in the national character, many religious Jews stay up all night to learn Torah.[22] The custom of all-night Torah study goes back to 1533 when RabbiJoseph Caro, author of theShulchan Aruch, then living inOttomanSalonika, invited RabbiShlomo Halevi Alkabetzand otherKabbalisticcolleagues to hold Shavuot-night study vigils for which they prepared for three days in advance, just as the Israelites had prepared for three days before the giving of the Torah. During one of those study sessions, an angel appeared and taught themJewish law.[23][24][25] The mass-consumption ofcoffeein theOttoman empireis thought to be one factor in the emergence of the practice of all-night Torah study on Shavuot.[26][27] Any subject may be studied on Shavuot night, althoughTalmud,Mishnah, andTorahtypically top the list. People may learn alone or with achavruta(study partner), or attend late-nightshiurim(lectures) and study groups.[28] InJerusalem, tens of thousands of people finish off the nighttime study session by walking to theWestern Wallbefore dawn and joining the practice began in 1967. One week before Shavuot of that year, the Israeli army recaptured theOld Cityin theSix-Day War, and on Shavuot day, the army opened the Western Wall to visitors. Over 200,000 Jews came to see and pray at the site that had been off-limits to them since1948. The custom of walking to the Western Wall on Shavuot has continued every year since.[28][29][30][32] Tikkun Leil Shavuot[edit] In keeping with the custom of engaging in all-night Torah study, theArizal, a leadingKabbalistof the 16th century, arranged a special service for the evening of Shavuot. TheTikkun Leil Shavuot("Rectification for Shavuot Night") consists of excerpts from the beginning and end of each of the 24 books ofTanakh(including the reading in full of several key sections such as the account of the days ofcreation,The Exodus, the giving of theTen Commandmentsand theShema) and the 63 books of Mishnah. This is followed by the reading ofSefer Yetzirah, the 613 commandments as enumerated byMaimonides, and excerpts from theZohar, with opening and concluding prayers. The whole reading is divided into thirteen parts, after each of which aKaddish di-Rabbananis recited when the Tikkun is studied in a group of at least ten Jewish, Bar Mitzvahed men. This service is printed in a special book, and is widely used in Eastern Sephardic, some German and Hasidic communities. There are similar books for the vigils before the seventh day ofPesachandHosha'ana Rabbah. Spanish and Portuguese Jewsdo not observe this custom. Confirmation ceremonies[edit] In the 19th century, several Orthodox synagogues in Britain and Australia held confirmation ceremonies for 12-year-old girls on Shavuot, a precursor to the modernBat Mitvah.[33]The earlyReformmovement made Shavuot into a religious school graduation day.[4]Today, Reformsynagoguesin North America typically hold confirmation ceremonies on Shavuot for students aged 16 to 18 who are completing their religious studies. The graduating class stands in front of an openark, recalling the standing of theIsraelitesatMount Sinaifor the giving of the Torah.[34] Dates in dispute[edit] Since the Torah does not specify the actual day on which Shavuot falls, differing interpretations of this date have arisen both in traditional and non-traditional Jewish circles. These discussions center around two ways of looking at Shavuot: the day it actually occurs (i.e., the day the Torah was given on Mount Sinai), and the day it occurs in relation to the Counting of the Omer (being the 50th day from the first day of the Counting). Giving of the Torah[edit] While most of the Talmudic Sages concur that the Torah was given on the sixth of Sivan; R. Jose holds that it was given on the seventh of that month. According to the classical timeline, the Israelites arrived at the wilderness of Sinai on the new moon (Ex.19:1) and theTen Commandmentswere given on the following Shabbat (i.e., Saturday). The question of whether the new moon fell on Sunday or Monday is undecided (Talmud, tractate Shabbat 86b). In practice, Shavuot is observed on the sixth day of Sivan inIsraeland a second day is added in the Jewish diaspora (in keeping with a separate rabbinical ruling that applies to all biblical holidays, calledYom tov sheni shel galuyot,Second-Day Yom Tov in theDiaspora). Counting of the Omer[edit] The Torah states that the Omer offering (i.e., the first day of counting the Omer) is the first day of the barley harvest (Deut.16:9). It should begin "on the morrow after theShabbat", and continue to be counted for seven Sabbaths. (Lev.23:11). The Talmudic Sages determined that "Shabbat" here means a day of rest and refers to the first day of Passover. Thus, the counting of the Omer begins on the second day of Passover and continues for the next 49 days, or seven complete weeks, ending on the day before Shavuot. According to this calculation, Shavuot will fall on the day of the week after that of the first day of Passover (e.g., if Passover starts on a Thursday, Shavuot will begin on a Friday). Karaitesdiffer in their understanding of "morrow after the Sabbath". Karaites interpret the Sabbath to be the first weekly Sabbath that falls during Passover. As a result, the Karaite Shavuot is always on a Sunday, although the actual Hebrew date varies (which compliments the fact that a specific date is never given for Shavuot in the Torah, the only holiday for which this is the case).[35]Other non-Rabbinical religious leaders such as Anan ben David (founder of the Ananites); Benjamin al-Nahawandi (founder of the Benjaminites); Ismail al-Ukbari (founder of a 9th-century messianic Jewish movement in Babylon); Musa of Tiflis (founder of a 9th-century Jewish movement in Babylon); and Malik al Ramli (founder of a 9th-century Jewish movement in the Land of Israel) additionally recognized that Shavuot should fall out on a Sunday.[36] Most secular scholarship, as well asCatholics[37]and the dispute the Rabbinic interpretation. They infer the "Shabbat" referenced is the weekly Shabbat. Accordingly, the counting of the Omer always begins on the Sunday of Passover, and continues for 49 days, so that Shavuot would always fall on a Sunday as well. The Book of Jubilees and the Essenes[edit] This literal interpretation of 'Shabbat' as the weekly Shabbat, was shared by the 2nd-century BCE author of theBook of Jubileeswho was motivated by the priestly sabbaticalsolar calendarof the 3rd and 2nd centuries BCE, which was designed to have festivals and Sabbaths fall on the same day of the week every year. On this calendar (best known from the Book of Luminaries in1 Enoch), Shavuot fell on the 15th of Sivan, a Sunday. The date was reckoned fifty days from the from the 25th of Nisan). Thus, Jub. 1:1 claims that Moses ascendedMount Sinaito receive the Torah "on the sixteenth day of the third month in the first year of the Exodus of the children of Israel from Egypt". In Jub. 6:15-22 and 44:1-5, the holiday is traced to the appearance of the first rainbow on the 15th of Sivan, the day on which God made his covenant with Noah. TheQumrancommunity, commonly associated with theEssenes, held in its library several texts mentioning Shavuot, most notably a Hebrew original of theBook of Jubileeswhich sought to fix the celebration of this Feast of Weeks on 15 of Sivan, following their interpretation of Exodus 19:1.[38] The Enoch Seminar[edit] This sectiondoes help improve this section byadding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged andremoved.(May 2013)(Learn how and when to remove this template message) Qumranscholar Gabriele Boccaccini has suggested[citation needed]that the 1,290 and 1,335 days ofDaniel12:11-12point to the observance of Shavuot in a restored Israel, as reckoned by the priestly solar calendar. These durations are exactly 30 and 45 days longer than the 3½ years mentioned inDan.7:25and9:27. The period of 3½ years amounts to 1,260 days in the priestly solar calendar because the equinoxes and solstices count as markers of the seasons rather than monthly days (1 En. 74:11, 75:1, 82:4). The blessings expected at the end of the 1,335 days pertain to the resurrection to "everlasting life" mentioned a few verses earlier (12:2), and this is the reward to those who refused to forsake the covenant unto death while those who forsook the covenant (11:30-32) face "everlasting contempt". Boccaccini sees the 3½ years as ending at the spring equinox (equinoxes and solstices were important markers of the seasons in the solar calendar), to be followed by 30 days to complete the 1,290 days (the month of Passover), and an additional 45 days to reach the 15th of Sivan, the purported day of Shavuot. For those who refused to forsake the covenant, this would be the day the covenant would be renewed and the expected blessings would be realized.\ (Hebrew:שבועות‎‎, lit. "Weeks"), known as theFeast of Weeksin English and asPentecost(Πεντηκοστή) inAncient Greek, is aJewish holidaythat occurs on the sixth day of the Hebrew month ofSivan(may fall between 14 May-15 June).[1] Shavuot has a double significance. It marks the all-important wheat harvest in the Land of Israel (Exodus 34:22); and it commemorates the anniversary of the dayGodgave theTorahto the entire nation of Israel assembled atMount Sinai, although the association between the giving of the Torah (Matan Torah) and Shavuot is not explicit in the Biblical text. The holiday is one of theShalosh Regalim, the three Biblical pilgrimage festivals. It marks the conclusion of theCounting of the Omer, and its date is directly linked to that ofPassover. TheTorahmandates the seven-week Counting of the Omer, beginning on the second day of Passover, to be immediately followed by Shavuot. This counting of days and weeks is understood to express anticipation and desire for the giving of the Torah. On Passover, the people of Israel were freed from their enslavement toPharaoh; on Shavuot they were given the Torah and became a nation committed to serving God.[2]The word Shavuot means weeks, and the festival of Shavuot marks the completion of the seven-week counting period between Passover and Shavuot. TheyahrzeitofKing Davidis traditionally observed on Shavuot.Hasidic Jewsalso observe the yahrzeit of theBaal Shem Tov.[3] Shavuot is one of the less familiarJewish holidaystosecular Jewsin theJewish diaspora, while those in Israel as well as theOrthodoxcommunity are more aware of it.[4][5]According toJewish law, Shavuot is celebrated inIsraelfor one day and in theDiaspora(outside of Israel) for two days.Reform Judaismcelebrates only one day, even in the Diaspora.[6] Contents[hide] 1 Significance 1.1 Agricultural (wheat harvest) 1.2 Scriptural 1.2.1 Names in the Torah 1.2.2 In the Talmud 2 Biblical observances 2.1 Ceremony of First Fruits,Bikkurim 2.2 Temple in Jerusalem 3 Modern observances 3.1 Akdamut 3.2 Dairy foods 3.3 Book of Ruth 3.4 Greenery 3.5 All-night Torah study 3.5.1 Tikkun Leil Shavuot 4 Confirmation ceremonies 5 Dates in dispute 5.1 Giving of the Torah 5.2 Counting of the Omer 5.3 The Book of Jubilees and the Essenes 5.3.1 The Enoch Seminar 6 Notes 7 References 8 Sources 9 External links Significance[edit] Agricultural (wheat harvest)[edit] Shavuot is not explicitly named as the day on which the Torah was revealed by God to the Israelite nation at Mount Sinai in the Bible, although this is commonly quoted to be its main significance. What is indeed textually connected in the Bible to the Feast of Shavuot, is the season of the grain harvest, specifically of the wheat, in the Land of Israel. In ancient times, the grain harvest lasted seven weeks and was a season of gladness It began with the harvesting of the barley during Passover and ended with the harvesting of the wheat at Shavuot. Shavuot was thus the concluding festival of the grain harvest, just as the eighth day ofSukkot(Tabernacles) was the concluding festival of the fruit harvest. During the existence of theTemple in Jerusalem, anofferingof two loaves of bread from the wheat harvest was made on Shavuot. Scriptural[edit] Names in the Torah[edit] In the Bible, Shavuot is called theFestival of Weeks(Hebrew: חג השבועות,Ḥag of Reaping(Hebrew: חג הקציר,Ḥag ha-Katsir,Exodus23:16), andDay of the First Fruits(Hebrew יום הבכורים,Yom ha-Bikkurim,Numbers28:26). Shavuot, the plural of a word meaning "week" or "seven", alludes to the fact that this festival happens exactly seven weeks (i.e. "a week of weeks") after Passover. In the Talmud[edit] TheTalmudrefers to Shavuot literally, "refraining" or "holding back"[8]), referring to the prohibition against work on this holiday[8]and to the conclusion of the holiday and season of Passover.[9]Since Shavuot occurs 50 days after Passover,Hellenistic Jewsgave it the name "Pentecost" (πεντηκοστή, "fiftiethday").[Note 1] Biblical observances[edit] Ceremony of First Fruits,Bikkurim[edit] Shavuot was also the first day on which individuals could bring theBikkurim(first fruits) to theTemple in TheBikkurimwere brought from theSeven Speciesfor which theLand of Israelis anddates(Deut. 8:8). In the largely agrarian society of ancient Israel, Jewish farmers would tie a reed around the first ripening fruits from each of these species in their fields. At the time of harvest, the fruits identified by the reed would be cut and placed in baskets woven of gold and silver. The baskets would then be loaded on oxen whose horns were gilded and laced with garlands of flowers, and who were led in a grand procession toJerusalem. As the farmer and his entourage passed through cities and towns, they would be accompanied by music and parades.[10] Temple in Jerusalem[edit] At theTemple in Jerusalem, each farmer would present hisBikkurimto aKohenin a ceremony that followed the text ofDeut.26:1-10. This text begins by stating: "An Aramean tried to destroy my father," referring toLaban's efforts to weakenJacoband rob him of his progeny (Rashion Deut. 26:5)—or by an alternate translation, the text states "My father was a wandering Aramean," referring to the fact that Jacob was a penniless wanderer in the land ofAramfor 20 years (ioffer.,Abraham ibn Ezra). The text proceeds to retell the history of the Jewish people as they went into exile inAncient Egyptand were enslaved and oppressed; following whichGod redeemed themand brought them to the land of Israel. The ceremony ofBikkurimconveys the Jew's gratitude to God both for the first fruits of the field and for His guidance throughout Jewish history (Scherman, p.1068). Modern observances[edit] Asynagoguesanctuary adorned in greenery in honor of Shavuot Shavuot is unlike other Jewish holidays in that it has no prescribedmitzvot(Torah commandments) other than traditional festival observances of meals and merriment; and the traditional holiday observances of special prayer services and the required abstention from work. However, it is also characterized by manyminhagim(customs). A mnemonic for these customs is the letters of the Hebrew wordacharit(אחרית, "last"). Since the Torah is calledreishit(ראשית, "first") the customs of Shavuot highlight the importance of custom for the continuation and preservation of Jewish religious observance. These customs, largely observed inAshkenaziccommunities, are: אקדמות –Akdamut,the reading of a liturgical poem during Shavuot morning synagogue services חלב –Chalav(milk), the consumption of dairy products like milk and cheese רות –Ruth, the reading of theBook of Ruthat morning services (outside Israel: on the second day) ירק –Yerek, the decoration of homes and synagogues with greenery תורה –Torah, engaging in all-night Torah study. Akdamut[edit] Main article:Akdamut Akdamut (Aramaic: אקדמות) is a liturgical poem extolling the greatness of God, the Torah and Israel that is read publicly in the synagogue right before the morning reading of theTorahon the first day of Shavuot. It was composed by Rabbi Meir ofWorms, whose son was murdered during theCrusadeof 1096. Rabbi Meir was forced to defend the Torah and his Jewish faith in a debate with local priests, and successfully conveyed his certainty of God's power, His love for the Jewish people, and the excellence of Torah. Afterwards he wroteAkdamut, a 90-line poem inAramaicwhich stresses these themes. The poem is written in a doubleacrosticpattern according to the order of theHebrew alphabet. In addition, each line ends with the syllable"ta"(תא), the last and first letters of the Hebrew alphabet, alluding to the endlessness of Torah. The traditional melody which accompanies this poem also conveys a sense of grandeur and triumph. Sephardim do not readAkdamut, but before the evening service they sing a poem calledAzharotwhich sets out the613 Biblical commandments. The positive commandments are recited on the first day and the negative commandments on the second day. The liturgical poem of Yatziv Pitgam (Aramaic: יציב פתגם) is recited by some synagogues in the Diaspora on the second day of Shavuot. The author and his father's name appear in an acrostic at the beginning of the poem's 15 lines. Dairy foods[edit] Cheeseblintzes, typically eaten byAshkenazi Jewson Shavuot. Dairy foods such ascheesecake, cheeseblintzes,[11]and (cheeseravioli),[14]and atayef (a cheese-filled pancake)[15]amongSyrian Jews; kahee (a dough that is buttered and sugared) amongIraqi Jews;[15]and a seven-layer cake calledsiete cielos(seven heavens) amongTunisianandMoroccan Jews[15][16]are traditionally consumed on the Shavuot holiday.Yemenite Jewsdo not eat dairy foods on Shavuot.[15] In keeping with the observance of otherYom Tovs, there is both a nightmealand a day meal on Shavuot. Meat is usually served at night and dairy is served either for the day meal[12]or for a morningkiddush.[17] Among the explanations given in rabbinic literature for the consumption of dairy foods on this holiday are:[18][19] Before they received the Torah, the Israelites were not obligated to follow its laws, which includeshechita(ritual slaughter of animals) andkashrut. Since all their meat pots and dishes now had to be made kosher before use, they opted to eat dairy foods. The Torah is compared to milk by KingSolomon, who wrote: "Like honey and milk, it lies under your tongue" (Song of Songs4:11). Thegematriaof the Hebrew wordchalav(חלב, milk) is 40, corresponding to the 40 days and 40 nights thatMosesspent onMount Sinaibefore bringing down the Torah. According to theZohar, each day of the year correlates to one of the Torah's365 negative commandments. Shavuot corresponds to the commandment "Bring the first fruits of your land to the house of God your Lord; do not cook a kid in its mother's milk" (Exodus34:26). Since the first day to bringBikkurim(the first fruits) is Shavuot, the second half of the verse refers to the custom to eat two separate meals – one milk, one meat – on Shavuot. ThePsalmistcalls Mount SinaiHar Gavnunim(הר גבננים, mountain of majestic peaks, Psalm 68:16-17/15-16 ), which is etymologically similar togevinah(גבינה, cheese). Book of Ruth[edit] RuthinBoaz's Field byJulius Schnorr von Carolsfeld, oil on canvas, 1828; National Gallery, London This sectiondoes help improve this section byadding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged andremoved.(May 2016)(Learn how and when to remove this template message) There are five books inTanakhthat are known asMegillot(Hebrew: מגילות, "scrolls") and are publicly read in the synagogues of some Jewish communities on different Jewish holidays.[20]TheBook of Ruth(מגילת רות,Megillat Ruth) is read on Shavuot because: (1) King David, Ruth's descendant, was born and died on Shavuot (Jerusalem TalmudHagigah2:3); (2) Shavuot is harvest time [Exodus 23:16], and the events of Book of Ruth occur at harvest time; (3) Thegematria(numerical value) of Ruth is 606, the number of commandments given at Sinai in addition to the 7 Noahide Laws already given, for a total of 613; (4) Because Shavuot is traditionally cited as the day of the giving of the Torah, the entry of the entire Jewish people into the covenant of the Torah is a major theme of the day. Ruth's conversion to Judaism, and consequent entry into that covenant, is described in the book. This theme accordingly resonates with other themes of the day; (5) Another central theme of the book ishesed(loving-kindness), a major theme of the Torah. Greenery[edit] According to theMidrash, Mount Sinai suddenly blossomed with flowers in anticipation of the giving of the Torah on its summit. Greenery also figures in the story of the babyMosesbeing found among thebulrushesin awatertight cradle(Ex.2:3) when he was three months old (Moses was born on 7 Adar and placed in theNile Riveron 6 Sivan, the same day he later brought the Jewish nation to Mount Sinai to receive the Torah).[18] For these reasons, many Jewish families traditionally decorate their homes andsynagogueswith plants, flowers and leafy branches in honor of Shavuot. Some synagogues decorate thebimahwith a canopy of flowers and plants so that it resembles achuppah, as Shavuot is mystically referred to as the day the matchmaker (Moses) brought the bride (the nation of Israel) to the chuppah (Mount Sinai) to marry the bridegroom (God); theketubah(marriage contract) was the Torah. Some Eastern Sephardi communities actually read out aketubahbetween God and Israel as part of the service.[citation needed] TheVilna Gaoncancelled the tradition of decorating with trees because it too closely resembles the Christian decorations for their holidays.[citation needed] All-night Torah study[edit] The practice of staying up all Shavuot night to study Torah – known asTikkun Leil Shavuot(Hebrew:תקון ליל שבועות‎‎) – has its source in theMidrash, which relates that the night before the Torah was given, the Israelites retired early to be well-rested for the momentous day ahead. They overslept andMoseshad to wake them up because God was already waiting on the mountaintop.[21]To rectify this perceived flaw in the national character, many religious Jews stay up all night to learn Torah.[22] The custom of all-night Torah study goes back to 1533 when RabbiJoseph Caro, author of theShulchan Aruch, then living inOttomanSalonika, invited RabbiShlomo Halevi Alkabetzand otherKabbalisticcolleagues to hold Shavuot-night study vigils for which they prepared for three days in advance, just as the Israelites had prepared for three days before the giving of the Torah. During one of those study sessions, an angel appeared and taught themJewish law.[23][24][25] The mass-consumption ofcoffeein theOttoman empireis thought to be one factor in the emergence of the practice of all-night Torah study on Shavuot.[26][27] Any subject may be studied on Shavuot night, althoughTalmud,Mishnah, andTorahtypically top the list. People may learn alone or with achavruta(study partner), or attend late-nightshiurim(lectures) and study groups.[28] InJerusalem, tens of thousands of people finish off the nighttime study session by walking to theWestern Wallbefore dawn and joining the practice began in 1967. One week before Shavuot of that year, the Israeli army recaptured theOld Cityin theSix-Day War, and on Shavuot day, the army opened the Western Wall to visitors. Over 200,000 Jews came to see and pray at the site that had been off-limits to them since1948. The custom of walking to the Western Wall on Shavuot has continued every year since.[28][29][30][32] Tikkun Leil Shavuot[edit] In keeping with the custom of engaging in all-night Torah study, theArizal, a leadingKabbalistof the 16th century, arranged a special service for the evening of Shavuot. TheTikkun Leil Shavuot("Rectification for Shavuot Night") consists of excerpts from the beginning and end of each of the 24 books ofTanakh(including the reading in full of several key sections such as the account of the days ofcreation,The Exodus, the giving of theTen Commandmentsand theShema) and the 63 books of Mishnah. This is followed by the reading ofSefer Yetzirah, the 613 commandments as enumerated byMaimonides, and excerpts from theZohar, with opening and concluding prayers. The whole reading is divided into thirteen parts, after each of which aKaddish di-Rabbananis recited when the Tikkun is studied in a group of at least ten Jewish, Bar Mitzvahed men. This service is printed in a special book, and is widely used in Eastern Sephardic, some German and Hasidic communities. There are similar books for the vigils before the seventh day ofPesachandHosha'ana Rabbah. Spanish and Portuguese Jewsdo not observe this custom. Confirmation ceremonies[edit] In the 19th century, several Orthodox synagogues in Britain and Australia held confirmation ceremonies for 12-year-old girls on Shavuot, a precursor to the modernBat Mitvah.[33]The earlyReformmovement made Shavuot into a religious school graduation day.[4]Today, Reformsynagoguesin North America typically hold confirmation ceremonies on Shavuot for students aged 16 to 18 who are completing their religious studies. The graduating class stands in front of an openark, recalling the standing of theIsraelitesatMount Sinaifor the giving of the Torah.[34] Dates in dispute[edit] Since the Torah does not specify the actual day on which Shavuot falls, differing interpretations of this date have arisen both in traditional and non-traditional Jewish circles. These discussions center around two ways of looking at Shavuot: the day it actually occurs (i.e., the day the Torah was given on Mount Sinai), and the day it occurs in relation to the Counting of the Omer (being the 50th day from the first day of the Counting). Giving of the Torah[edit] While most of the Talmudic Sages concur that the Torah was given on the sixth of Sivan; R. Jose holds that it was given on the seventh of that month. According to the classical timeline, the Israelites arrived at the wilderness of Sinai on the new moon (Ex.19:1) and theTen Commandmentswere given on the following Shabbat (i.e., Saturday). The question of whether the new moon fell on Sunday or Monday is undecided (Talmud, tractate Shabbat 86b). In practice, Shavuot is observed on the sixth day of Sivan inIsraeland a second day is added in the Jewish diaspora (in keeping with a separate rabbinical ruling that applies to all biblical holidays, calledYom tov sheni shel galuyot,Second-Day Yom Tov in theDiaspora). Counting of the Omer[edit] The Torah states that the Omer offering (i.e., the first day of counting the Omer) is the first day of the barley harvest (Deut.16:9). It should begin "on the morrow after theShabbat", and continue to be counted for seven Sabbaths. (Lev.23:11). The Talmudic Sages determined that "Shabbat" here means a day of rest and refers to the first day of Passover. Thus, the counting of the Omer begins on the second day of Passover and continues for the next 49 days, or seven complete weeks, ending on the day before Shavuot. According to this calculation, Shavuot will fall on the day of the week after that of the first day of Passover (e.g., if Passover starts on a Thursday, Shavuot will begin on a Friday). Karaitesdiffer in their understanding of "morrow after the Sabbath". Karaites interpret the Sabbath to be the first weekly Sabbath that falls during Passover. As a result, the Karaite Shavuot is always on a Sunday, although the actual Hebrew date varies (which compliments the fact that a specific date is never given for Shavuot in the Torah, the only holiday for which this is the case).[35]Other non-Rabbinical religious leaders such as Anan ben David (founder of the Ananites); Benjamin al-Nahawandi (founder of the Benjaminites); Ismail al-Ukbari (founder of a 9th-century messianic Jewish movement in Babylon); Musa of Tiflis (founder of a 9th-century Jewish movement in Babylon); and Malik al Ramli (founder of a 9th-century Jewish movement in the Land of Israel) additionally recognized that Shavuot should fall out on a Sunday.[36] Most secular scholarship, as well asCatholics[37]and the dispute the Rabbinic interpretation. They infer the "Shabbat" referenced is the weekly Shabbat. Accordingly, the counting of the Omer always begins on the Sunday of Passover, and continues for 49 days, so that Shavuot would always fall on a Sunday as well. The Book of Jubilees and the Essenes[edit] This literal interpretation of 'Shabbat' as the weekly Shabbat, was shared by the 2nd-century BCE author of theBook of Jubileeswho was motivated by the priestly sabbaticalsolar calendarof the 3rd and 2nd centuries BCE, which was designed to have festivals and Sabbaths fall on the same day of the week every year. On this calendar (best known from the Book of Luminaries in1 Enoch), Shavuot fell on the 15th of Sivan, a Sunday. The date was reckoned fifty days from the from the 25th of Nisan). Thus, Jub. 1:1 claims that Moses ascendedMount Sinaito receive the Torah "on the sixteenth day of the third month in the first year of the Exodus of the children of Israel from Egypt". In Jub. 6:15-22 and 44:1-5, the holiday is traced to the appearance of the first rainbow on the 15th of Sivan, the day on which God made his covenant with Noah. TheQumrancommunity, commonly associated with theEssenes, held in its library several texts mentioning Shavuot, most notably a Hebrew original of theBook of Jubileeswhich sought to fix the celebration of this Feast of Weeks on 15 of Sivan, following their interpretation of Exodus 19:1.[38] The Enoch Seminar[edit] This sectiondoes help improve this section byadding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged andremoved.(May 2013)(Learn how and when to remove this template message) Qumranscholar Gabriele Boccaccini has suggested[citation needed]that the 1,290 and 1,335 days ofDaniel12:11-12point to the observance of Shavuot in a restored Israel, as reckoned by the priestly solar calendar. These durations are exactly 30 and 45 days longer than the 3½ years mentioned inDan.7:25and9:27. The period of 3½ years amounts to 1,260 days in the priestly solar calendar because the equinoxes and solstices count as markers of the seasons rather than monthly days (1 En. 74:11, 75:1, 82:4). The blessings expected at the end of the 1,335 days pertain to the resurrection to "everlasting life" mentioned a few verses earlier (12:2), and this is the reward to those who refused to forsake the covenant unto death while those who forsook the covenant (11:30-32) face "everlasting contempt". Boccaccini sees the 3½ years as ending at the spring equinox (equinoxes and solstices were important markers of the seasons in the solar calendar), to be followed by 30 days to complete the 1,290 days (the month of Passover), and an additional 45 days to reach the 15th of Sivan, the purported day of Shavuot. For those who refused to forsake the covenant, this would be the day the covenant would be renewed and the expected blessings would be realized.


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