2 Postcard Lot Jewish Hebrew Illuminated Manuscript Art Menorah Torah #1
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2 Postcard Lot Jewish Hebrew Illuminated Manuscript Art Menorah Torah #1:
TWO (2) POSTCARDS LOT
JEWISH HEBREW ILLUMINATED MANUSCRIPT ART
(LEFT): AMULET SHEET SHOWING A MENORAH
THE BRITISH LIBRARY: Or MS 14057 no 50
(RIGHT): LISBON MISHNEH TORAH
PORTUGAL, 1471 - 1472
COPIED BY SAMUEL IBN ALZUK
FOR JOSEPH BEN DAVID IBN YAHYA
FULL PAGE ILLUMINATION OF THE OPENING OF THE INTRODUCTION TO THE CODE OF LAW
THE BRITISH LIBRARY: Harley MS 5698 f1 1v
TWO UNUSED MODERN C. 1996 REPRINT POST CARD CARDS POSTCARD POSTCARDS
APPROX. SIZE OF CARD: 6.5" X 4.75"
SHIPPING AND HANDLING:
FREE IN UNITED STATES; $2 WORLDWIDE
The term "Torah" (Hebrew: "learning" or "instruction," sometimes translated as "Law"), refers either to the Five Books of Moses (or Pentateuch) or to the entirety of Judaism's founding legal and ethical religious texts. A "Sefer Torah" "book of Torah") or Torah scroll, is a copy of the Torah written on parchment in a formal, traditional manner by a specially trained scribe under very strict requirements. The Torah is the most holy of the sacred writings in Judaism. It is the first of three sections in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), the founding religious document of Judaism, and is divided into five books, whose names in English are Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy, in reference to their themes (Their Hebrew names, Bereshit, Shemot Vayikra Bemidbar and Devarim are derived from the wording of their initial verses). The Torah contains a variety of literary genres, including allegories, historical narrative, poetry, genealogy, and the exposition of various types of law. According to rabbinic tradition, the Torah contains the 613 mitzvot "commandments"), which are divided into 365 negative restrictions and 248 positive commands. In rabbinic literature, the word "Torah" denotes both the written text, "Torah Shebichtav" "Torah that is written"), as well as an oral tradition, "Torah Shebe'al Peh" "Torah that is oral"). The oral portion consists of the "traditional interpretations and amplifications handed down by word of mouth from generation to generation," now embodied in the Talmud and Midrash. Jewish religious tradition ascribes authorship of the Torah to Moses through a process of divine inspiration. This view of Mosaic authorship is first found explicitly expressed in the Talmud, dating from the 3rd to the 6th centuries CE, and is based on textual analysis of passages in the Torah and the subsequent books of the Hebrew Bible. The Zohar, the most significant text in Jewish mysticism, states that the Torah was created prior to the creation of the world, and that it was used as the blueprint for Creation. According to dating of the text by Orthodox rabbis the revelation of the Torah to Moses occurred in 1380 BCE at Mount Sinai. Contemporary secular biblical scholars date the completion of the Torah, as well as the prophets and the historical books, no earlier than the Persian period (539 to 334 BCE). Scholarly discussion for much of the 20th century was principally couched in terms of the documentary hypothesis, according to which the Torah is a synthesis of documents from a small number of originally independent sources. Outside of its central significance in Judaism, the Torah is accepted by Christianity as part of the Bible, comprising the first five books of the Old Testament. The various denominations of Jews and Christians hold a diverse spectrum of views regarding the exactitude of scripture. The Torah has also been accepted to varying degrees by the Samaritans and others as the authentic revealed message of God to the Israelites and as a factual history of the early Israelites, in both cases as conveyed by Moses. In Islam, the Torah (along with the Christian Gospels) or Tawrat is seen as an authentic revelation from God corrupted with the additions and alterations of men. The faiths revering the Pentateuch consider many of their central tenets to be illustrated in the narratives of the Torah. Menorah (Temple)
The menorah is a seven-branched candelabrum which has been a symbol of Judaism for almost 3000 years and is the emblem of Israel. It was used in the ancient Holy Temple in Jerusalem. Lit by olive oil in the Tabernacle and the Temple, the menorah is one of the oldest symbols of the Jewish people. It is said to symbolize the burning bush as seen by Moses on Mount Horeb (Exodus 3).
(Parshat Terumah) Exodus 25:31-40 lists the instructions for the construction of the menorah used in the temple:
31 And thou shalt make a candlestick of pure gold: of beaten work shall the candlestick be made, even its base, and its shaft; its cups, its knops, and its flowers, shall be of one piece with it. 32 And there shall be six branches going out of the sides thereof: three branches of the candlestick out of the one side thereof, and three branches of the candle-stick out of the other side thereof; 33 three cups made like almond-blossoms in one branch, a knop and a flower; and three cups made like almond-blossoms in the other branch, a knop and a flower; so for the six branches going out of the candlestick. 34 And in the candlestick four cups made like almond-blossoms, the knops thereof, and the flowers thereof. 35 And a knop under two branches of one piece with it, and a knop under two branches of one piece with it, and a knop under two branches of one piece with it, for the six branches going out of the candlestick. 36 Their knops and their branches shall be of one piece with it; the whole of it one beaten work of pure gold. 37 And thou shalt make the lamps thereof, seven; and they shall light the lamps thereof, to give light over against it. 38 And the tongs thereof, and the snuffdishes thereof, shall be of pure gold. 39 Of a talent of pure gold shall it be made, with all these vessels. 40 And see that thou make them after their pattern, which is being shown thee in the mount.
The construction of the temple menorah was considered a religious order in Judaism.
The Menorah is also a symbol closely associated with the Jewish holiday of Hanukkah. According to the Talmud, after the desecration of the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem, there was only enough sealed (and therefore not desecrated) consecrated olive oil left to fuel the eternal flame in the Temple for one day. Miraculously, the oil burned for eight days which was enough time to make new pure oil. The Hanukkah menorah therefore has eight main branches, plus a ninth branch set apart for the Shamash (servant) light which is used to start the other lights. This type of menorah is called a hanukiah in Modern Hebrew.
The Torah states that God revealed the design for the menorah to Moses. The branches are often artistically depicted as semicircular, but Rashi and Maimonides (according to his son Avraham) held that they were straight; no other Jewish authority expresses an opinion on the subject. Archaeological evidence, however, including depictions by artists who had actually seen the menorah itself, indicates that they were neither straight nor semicircular but elliptical.
The shape of the menorah bears a certain resemblance to that of Salvia palaestina.
Many synagogues display either a Menorah or an artistic representation of a menorah. In addition, synagogues feature a continually-lit lamp in front of the Ark, where the Torah scroll is kept. Called the ner tamid, this lamp represents the continually-lit menorah used in Temple times. A menorah appears in the coat of arms of the State of Israel (and also the Knesset Menorah) based on the depiction of the Menorah on the Arch of Titus in Rome, Italy.