929, France, Carolingian Empire, Charles "the Simple". Silver Denier Coin. R
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929, France, Carolingian Empire, Charles "the Simple". Silver Denier Coin. R:
929, France, Carolingian Empire, Charles "the Simple". Silver Denier Coin. R!
Mint Place: Melle
Mint Period: 898-922
Reference: Dy. 906. R!
Denomination: Silver Denier (immobilized type)
Obverse: Cross within inner circle.
Legend: + CARLVS REX R
Reverse: Inscription in two lines.
Legend: MET / ALO
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Charles III (17 September 879 â€“ 7 October 929), called the Simple or the Straightforward (from the Latin Carolus Simplex), was the King of Western Francia from 898 until 922 and the King of Lotharingia from 911 until 919â€“23. He was a member of the Carolingian dynasty.
Charles was the third and posthumous son of Louis the Stammerer by his second wife, Adelaide of Paris. As a child, Charles was prevented from succeeding to the throne at the time of the death in 884 of his half-brother Carloman. The nobles of the realm instead asked his cousin, Charles the Fat, to rule them. He was also prevented from succeeding the unpopular Charles, who was deposed in November 887 and died in January 888, although it is unknown if his deposition was accepted or even made known in West Francia before his death. The nobility elected as king Odo, the hero of the Siege of Paris, though there was a faction that supported Guy III of Spoleto. Charles was put under the protection of Ranulf II, the Duke of Aquitaine, who may have tried to claim the throne for him and in the end used the royal title himself until making peace with Odo.
Finally, in 893 Charles was crowned by a faction opposed to Odo at Reims Cathedral, though he only became the effectual monarch with the death of Odo in 898.
In 911, a group of Vikings lead by Rollo besieged Paris and Chartres. After a victory near Chartres on 26 August, Charles decided to negotiate with Rollo. The talks, led by HervÃ©, the Archbishop of Reims, resulted in the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte, which granted Rollo and his soldiers all the land between the river Epte and the sea "in freehold and good money." It also granted him Brittany, "for his livelihood". At the time, Brittany was an independent country which France had unsuccessfully tried to conquer. In exchange, Rollo ensured the king his loyalty, which involved military assistance for the protection of the kingdom. As a token of his good will, Rollo also agreed to be baptised and to marry Gisela, a daughter of Charles. The territory covered by the treaty corresponds to the northern part of todayâ€™s Upper Normandy down to the Seine, but it would eventually extend west beyond the Seine to form the Duchy of Normandy, named after the Norsemen who ruled it.
Also in 911, Louis the Child, the King of Germany, died, and the nobles of Lotharingia, who had been loyal to him, under the leadership of Reginar Longneck declared Charles their new king, breaking from Germans who had elected Conrad of Franconia king. Charles had tried to win their support for years, for instance by marrying in April 907 a Lotharingian woman named Frederuna. He also defended the country against two attacks by Conrad, King of the Germans. Queen Frederuna died on 10 February 917 leaving six daughters and no sons. so the succession was uncertain. On 7 October 919 Charles married again to Eadgifu, the daughter of Edward the Elder, King of England, who bore his only son, the future King Louis IV of France. By this time Charles' excessive favouritism towards a certain Hagano had turned the aristocracy against him. He endowed Hagano with monasteries that were already the benefices of other barons, alienating them. In Lotharingia he earned the enmity of the new duke, Gilbert, who declared for the German king Henry the Fowler in 919. Opposition to Charles in Lotharingia was not universal, however; he retained the support of Wigeric.
The nobles, completely exasperated with Charles' policies and especially his favoritism of count Hagano, seized Charles in 920. But after negotiations by Archbishop Herveus of Reims the king was released. In 922 the Frankish nobles revolted again led by Robert of Neustria. Robert, who was Odo's brother, was elected king by the rebels and crowned in opposition to Charles, who had to flee to Lotharingia. On 2 July 922, Charles lost his most faithful supporter, Herveus of Reims, who had succeeded Fulk in 900. Charles returned with a Norman army in 923 but was defeated on 15 June near Soissons by Robert, who died in the battle. Charles was captured and imprisoned in a castle at PÃ©ronne under the guard of Herbert II of Vermandois. Robert's son-in-law Rudolph of Burgundy was elected to succeed him. In 925 the Lotharingians were subsumed into the Kingdom of Germany. Charles died in prison on 7 October 929 and was buried at the nearby abbey of Saint-Fursy. His only son by Eadgifu would eventually be crowned in 936 as Louis IV of France. In the initial aftermath of Charles's defeat, Eadgifu and Louis had fled to England.
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