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African Continent 1784 Santini Antique Oversize Wall Copper Engraved Map For Sale
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Afrique Publiée sous les Auspices de Monseigneur de Duc d'Orléans Prémier Prince du Sang.Par le Sr. D'Anville A VeniceChez Remondini.
Description: Striking and highly oversize map of whole African Continent infour sheetsjoined to make up two sheets. This mapcovers the entire continent of Africa from the Mediterranean to the Cape of Good Hope and from the Cape Verde Islands to Madagascar. Anville was a careful cartographer known for his scientific approach to mapmaking, and nowhere is this more evident than in this, his greatest and most innovative map of Africa. Following the trajectory set by Guillaume de L'Isle half a century earlier, D'Anville takes a number of significant steps forward in addressing the confusions inherent in mapping this vast though mostly, in the mid-17th century, unexplored continent. These include unreliable cartographic suppositions regarding the African interior dating practically to antiquity. Many of these, including such speculative ideas as the 'Mountains of Kong', have been diminished if not removed entirely from this map, leaving vast unexplored areas throughout.
What was known of Africa, however, Anville incorporates here in an impressive compilation of the most up to date reports from colonial, missionary, and exploratory entradas into the interior of the continent. Thus well mapped parts of the continent are limited to the Mediterranean Coast, Morocco, the Senegambia, the Congo, South Africa, the Kingdom of Monomatapa, Abyssinia, and Egypt. Morocco, Egypt, and the southern Mediterranean Coast (Barbary) were well known to Europeans since antiquity and Anville's accurate mapping of these regions reflects continual contact. Further south the colonial enclaves along the Niger River (Senegal and Gambia), the Congo River, and South Africa reflect considerable detail associated with European penetration by trader and missionaries. The land of Monomopota around the Zambezi River was explored early in the 16th century by the Portuguese in hopes that the legendary gold mines supposedly found there would counterbalance the wealth flowing into Spain from the New Word. Unfortunately these mines, often associated with the Biblical kingdom of Ophir, were mostly tapped out by the 15th century. Abyssinia (modern day Ethiopia) was mapped in detail by early Italian missionaries and of considerable interest to Europeans first, because it was (and is) predominantly Christian; second, because it was a powerful well-organized and unified kingdom; and third because the sources of the Blue Nile were to be found here.The remainder of the continent remained largely speculative though Anville rarely lets his imagination get the upper hand. He does however follow the well-established Ptolemaic model laid down in the Geographica regarding the sources of the White Nile – here seen as two lakes at the base of the semi-apocryphal Mountains of the Moon. However, he also presents a curious network of interconnected rivers extending westward from the confused course of the White Nile following the popular 18th century speculation that the Nile may be connected to the Niger. To his credit Anville does not advocate this and offers no true commerce between the two river systems.
Lake Malawi, here identified as Maravi, appears in a long thin embryonic state that, though it had not yet been 'discovered,' is remarkably accurate to form. Lake Malawi was not officially discovered until Portuguese trader Candido José da Costa Cardoso stumbled upon it in 1849 – one hundred years following Anville's presentation of the lake here. Anville's inclusion of Lake Malawi is most likely a prescient interpretation of indigenous reports brought to Europe by 17th century Portuguese traders. Its form would be followed by subsequent cartographers well into the mid-19th century when the explorations of John Hanning Speke, David Livingstone, Richard Francis Burton and others would at last yield a detailed study of Africa's interior.
The large title cartouche is adorned with an African queen whose crown appears to be made of an elephant's head. Also included in the cartouche are various indigenous animals and a river-god. The map represents a Venetian edition of D'Anville's map from "Atlas Universel" printed in 1776-84 by Remondini.
Date: 1784( dated )
Dimension: Paper size approx.: cm106,8 x 53,1 ( top sheets ) --- cm 106,4 x 53,2 ( lower sheets )
Condition: Very strong and dark impression onvery strong paper. Paper with chains and wiremarks.Original colors to the outlines. Wide margins.Smallfoxing and browning. Map folded as issued. Conditions are as you can see in the images.
Mapmaker: Paolo Santini (1729 Venice - Belluno 1793) was a priest of the church of Santa Maria Formosa in Venice and professor of drawing at the public schools of the Jesuits. From the best papers from the time he realized his brother Francis, the famous Universal Atlas, divided into two volumes and contains 123 cards. Francesco Santini he published between 1776 and 1780. Subsequently, the branches etching of the cards were purchased in 1781 from the press Remondini Bassano reissued the atlas.
Cartographer:Jean Baptiste Bourguignon d'Anville (1697-1782) was perhaps the most important and prolific cartographer of the 18th century. D'Anville's love of cartography manifested itself at the tender age of fifteen, when he amused himself by composing maps for Latin authors. At twenty-two D'Anville was appointed Geographer to the King of France. As both a cartographer and a geographer, he instituted a reform in the general practice of cartography. Unlike most cartographers, D'Anville did not rely on earlier maps to inform his work, rather he based his maps on actual surveys and research that he conducted himself. His maps were thus the most accurate and comprehensive of his period. Thomas Basset and Philip Porter write: "It was because of D'Anville's resolve to depict only those features which could be proven to be true that his maps are often said to represent a scientific reformation in cartography." (The Journal of African History, Vol. 32, No. 3 (1991), pp. 367-413). The work of D'Anville thus marks a critical point in the history of cartography and opens the way to the maps of English cartographers Cary, Thomson and Pinkerton in the early 19th century.
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On Aug-31-09 at 22:04:14 PDT, seller added the following information: