Antique Miniature Portrait Painting England Parliament John Hampden Ad 1636 Rare For Sale&amp;amp;lt;div style="text-decoration:none" height="21px" valign="middle" face="arial"
&amp;amp;lt;img ANTIQUE-GORGEOUS!!!! AND EXTREMELY RARE!!!! SIGNED ON THE BACK A.D.(PROBABLY FORAnno Domini)AND A DATE OF 1636 (but we believe this impressive painting was done in the 18th Century),FAMOUS AND *VERY IMPORTANT* HISTORICAL ENGLAND PARLIAMENT MEMBER & OFFICER IN THE BRITISH ARMY "John Hampden (1595-1643)", MINIATURE PORTRAIT PAINTING
STUNNING!!!!!!!!!,EXTREMELY RARE!!!! ***ENGLAND HISTORICAL MINIATURE PORTRAIT PAINTING OFFAMOUS & VERY IMPORTANT!!!! BRITISH PARLIAMENT & OFFICER IN THE BRITISH ARMY"John Hampden (1595-1643),SIGNED ON THE BACK A.D. (PROBABLY FORAnno Domini)& WITH A DATE OF 1636" (but we believe this miniature painting was done in the 18th Century Circa 1780).WE VERY CAREFULLY OPEN THIS PAINTING AND FIND OUT THE WRITING ON THE BACK OF THE OVAL PORTRAIT PAINTING BY THE ARTISTAND THE DATE 1636 AND WHAT WE BELIEVE ARE THE ARTIST INITIALS A.D.THIS LITTLE JEWEL HAS BEEN IN THE SAME FAMILY COLLECTION FOR MORE THAN 60 YEARS!!.
BELOW PLEASE FIND "JOHN HAMPDEN" BIOGRAPHY:JJohn Hampden,c.1595-1643
Famous for his stand against forced loans and ship-money, his death early in the First Civil War was a great blow to the Parliamentarian cause.
Born in London, John Hampden was the eldest son of William Hampden, a Puritan landowner with estates in Buckinghamshire and Middlesex. His mother, Elizabeth, was Oliver Cromwell's aunt. John Hampden inherited his family's estates while still an infant upon the death of his father in 1597. His subsequent wardship resulted in a furious quarrel and extensive litigation between his mother and his father's cousin William Hampden of Ennington that continued for several years. John was educated at Thame School, Oxfordshire, then Magdalen College, Oxford (1610) and the Inner Temple (1613). In 1619, he married Elizabeth Symeon (d.1634), an heiress of Pyrton, Oxfordshire, with whom he had ten children. His second marriage, to Letitia Knollys (d.1666), widow of Sir Thomas Vachell, took place in 1640 and was childless.
Hampden sat as MP for Grampound, Cornwall in the Parliament of 1621 during the reign of James I, then as MP for Wendover, Buckinghamshire, in thefirst three Parliamentsof the reign of Charles I. Like other Puritan country gentlemen, Hampden was critical of the Duke ofBuckingham's influence on both King James and King Charles, and suspicious of Catholic influence at court. He became associated with the opposition Parliamentarians led by Sir John Eliot and the Puritan magnate LordSaye and Sele.
In 1627, Hampden refused to pay theforced loandemanded by King Charles, stating that the loans were illegal and a violation of Magna Carta. Like others who refused to pay, he was imprisoned, first in the grim Gatehouse prison at Westminster, then under milder conditions in Hampshire. In March 1628, King Charles was obliged to call another Parliament following the Duke of Buckingham's disastrous and expensive expedition in support of the Huguenots of La Rochelle. Hampden and the other prisoners were released, but Parliament refused to vote funds until the King gave his consent to thePetition of Right, which stated that collection of taxes without the consent of Parliament was illegal.
After the assassination of the Duke of Buckingham, Parliament switched its attack to the King's religious policy. The King regarded Parliament's intervention in religious matters as an affront to his authority and angrily dissolved Parliament in March 1629. The MPsDenzil Hollesand Sir John Eliot were imprisoned. Eliot died in the Tower of London in 1632 and came to be regarded by Hampden and other Puritans as a Protestant martyr.
Hampden lived quietly on his country estates until 1637, when the King attempted to raise money by extending the tax ofship-moneywhich had traditionally been imposed on coastal towns in times of emergency to pay for naval defences. The King now tried to levy the tax on all the counties of England. When Hampden was required to pay ship-money on his lands in Buckinghamshire, he refused to pay the full amount, maintaining that the tax was illegal. A test case was brought before twelve leading judges at the Court of Exchequer. Hampden's stand aroused widespread public interest, with the attorney-general Sir John Bankes and solicitor-general Sir Edward Littleton putting the case for the Crown, andOliver St Johnand Robert Holborn defending Hampden. On 12 June 1638, the judges found for the Crown by a majority of seven to five. Although the verdict had gone against Hampden, it was regarded as a moral victory against arbitrary tyranny and brought both Hampden and Oliver St John to national prominence as defenders of liberty.
In April 1640, Hampden sat as MP for Buckinghamshire In theShort Parliament, where he collaborated withJohn Pymand other opposition MPs in attempting to overturn the ship-money judgment. He was elected to theLong Parliamentlater that year and continued to work with Pym in opposing the King's perceived moves towards reintroducing Roman Catholic practices into the English church. Like other Puritans, Hampden sympathised with the opposition of the ScottishCovenantersto Archbishop Laud's Prayer Book, and in August 1641 he was one of the four parliamentary commissioners who accompanied King Charles on his visit to Scotland in the aftermath of the Bishops' Wars. Hampden was an early advocate of Pym's scheme for a Protestant alliance between Parliament and the Scots.
Hampden's greatest skill in the stormy sessions of the Long Parliament was as a tactician and moderator, often defusing volatile situations and winning over his opponents by subtle persuasion. He was admired as a gentleman of honour and integrity by all parties, yet leading Royalists suspected that Hampden was the true author of many of the policies promoted by John Pym. After his support for theGrand Remonstranceof November 1641, Hampden was one of theFive Membersaccused of treason whose arrest was demanded by the King in January 1642. Hampden declared that there were two conditions under which active resistance to the King became the duty of a good subject: an attack upon religion, and an attack upon the fundamental laws of the land. Hampden had no doubt that King Charles had fulfilled both these conditions.
On the outbreak of the First Civil War, Hampden was appointed to theCommittee of Safetythat was formed to direct Parliament's strategy. He also played an active military role as colonel of the Greencoat regiment of foot that he raised from his Buckinghamshire estates. Hampden's regiment guarded the artillery train at the battle ofEdgehill, halting Prince Rupert's charge and covering the retreat when theEarl of Essexwithdrew towards Warwick. After Essex's subsequent withdrawal to London, Hampden's regiment checked the Royalist advance throughBrentfordon 12 November 1642. The following day, Hampden commanded a brigade sent to outflank the Royalist army during the manoeuvring atTurnham Greenbefore the King finally withdrew his forces and retreated to Oxford.
During the winter of 1642-3, Hampden was associated with John Pym's "Middle Group" in Parliament, which opposed moves towards peace with the King on unfavourable terms while at the same time seeking to moderate the extreme militancy of the parliamentary "War Party". Although Hampden was privately critical of the Earl of Essex for not striking boldly against the King's army after Edgehill or the stand-off at Turnham Green, his public loyalty helped sustain Essex against the criticism of the militants.
In the spring of 1643, Hampden's regiment took part in the siege ofReading, which surrendered to Essex on 27 April. Although Essex intended to advance on the King's headquarters at Oxford, he became bogged down at Thame owing to sickness in his army, a shortage of cavalry and no money to pay his troops. On 17 June,Prince Rupertmounted a lightning raid out of Oxford on Essex's outposts. Hampden rode as a volunteer with a troop of horse commanded bySir Philip Stapletonin pursuit of Rupert, with the intention of delaying him long enough for a larger force from Essex's main army to cut off his retreat. Rupert halted his troops atChalgroveand ambushed the pursuing force. During the skirmish, Hampden received a mortal injury to the shoulder, possibly from his own pistol exploding, which shattered the bone and forced him to leave the field. He died from his wounds at Thame six days later.
John Hampden's death was widely lamented by the Parliamentarians. It was a severe blow to his political ally John Pym because Hampden was a key link between Pym's moderate Middle Group and the militant War Party. Hampden was buried at the parish church of Great Hampden in Buckinghamshire, where a monument to his memory was erected by his great-grandson.John Hampden Biography: John Hampden
John Hampden(ca. 1595â€“ 1643) was anEnglishpolitician, the eldest son of William Hampden, ofHampden House,Great HampdeninBuckinghamshire, (b. 1570), son of Griffith Hampden and Anne Cavea and descendant of a very ancient family of that county, said to have been established there before theNorman conquest, and of Elizabeth, second daughter of Sir Henry Cromwell, and aunt ofOliver Cromwell. The towns ofHampden, Maryland,Hamden, ConnecticutandHampden, Maine, as well as the county ofHampden,Massachusettsare named in his honour.Hampden-Sydney CollegeinVirginiais also named in honour of John Hampden and ofAlgernon Sydney, another English patriot.Early life
By his father's death, when he was still a child, he became the owner of a large estate and awardof thecrown. He was educated atLord Williams's SchoolatThame, and on 30 March 1610 became acommonerofMagdalen College, Oxford. In 1613 he was admitted as a student of theInner Temple.Career English Parliament
Hampden first sat inParliamentfor the borough 1621. Later, he representedWendoverin the first three parliaments ofCharles I. In April 1640 he was elected MP forBuckinghamshirein theShort Parliamentand was re-elected MP for Buckinghamshire for theLong Parliamentin November 1640.He sat until his death in 1643.
In the early days of his parliamentary career, he was content to be overshadowed byJohn Eliot, as in its later days he was content to be overshadowed byJohn Pymand to be commanded byEssex.English Revolution John Hampden as depicted in the 1851Illustrated London Reading Book
Yet for many it is Hampden, and not Eliot or Pym, who is seen as the central figure at the start of theEnglish Revolution. It is Hampden whose statue rather than that of Eliot or Pym that was selected by theVictoriansas a symbol to take its place at the entrance to the Central Lobby inPalace of Westminsteras the noblest type of the parliamentary opposition, sword at his side, ready to defend Parliament's rights and privileges by any means necessary. His statue stands oppositeEarl of Clarendonin hisLord Chancellor'srobes, a symbol of the respect for the law androyalism.Views on Ship Money
Something of Hampden's fame no doubt is owing to the position which he took up as the opponent ofship money.But it is hardly possible that even resistance to ship money would have so distinguished him but for the mingled massiveness and modesty of his character, his dislike of all pretences in himself or others, his brave contempt of danger, and his charitable readiness to shield others as far as possible from the evil consequences of their actions. Nor was he wanting in that skill which enabled him to influence men towards the ends at which he aimed, and which was spoken of as subtlety by those who disliked his ends.Committee Work
During these first parliaments Hampden did not, so far as we know, speak in public debate, but he was increasingly employed incommitteework, for which he seems to have had a special aptitude. In 1626 he took an active part in the preparation of the charges againstBuckingham. In January 1627 he was bound over to answer at the council board for his refusal to pay the forced loan. Later in the year he was committed to the gatehouse, and then sent into confinement inHampshire, from which he was liberated just before the meeting of the third parliament of the reign, in which he once more rendered useful but unobtrusive assistance to his leaders.
When the breach came in 1629 Hampden was found corresponding with the imprisoned Eliot, discussing with him the prospects of theMassachusetts Bay Colony. Hampden was one of the persons to whom theEarl of Warwickgranted land inConnecticutin what was then referred to as theSaybrook Colonyand today asOld Saybrook, Connecticut. While some claim there is no foundation but anecdote that Hampen attempted emigration to the colonies with Cromwell, others assert thatOliver Cromwelland other future architects of the English Civil War, including Hampden, may have been close to moving to America in the 1630s. The authorKevin Phillipspoints out that, "Even in the 1770s, residents ofOld Saybrookstill talked about which prominentParliamentarianwas to have had which town lot."
It was not until 1637, however, that his resistance to the payment of ship money gained him wide fame. Seven out of the twelve judges sided against him, but the connection between the rights of property and the parliamentary system became firmly established in the popular mind. The tax had been justified, saysClarendon, who expresses his admiration at Hampden's "rare temper and modesty" at this crisis, "upon such grounds and reasons as every standerby was able to swear was not law" (Hist. i. 150, vii. 82).Short Parliament
In theShort Parliamentthat started on 13 April 1640, Hampden stood forth amongst the leaders. He guided the House in the debate on 4 May in its opposition to the grant of twelve subsidies in return for the surrender of ship money. Parliament was dissolved the next day, and on 6 May an unsuccessful search was made among the papers of Hampden and of other chiefs of the party to discover incriminating correspondence with theScots. During the eventful months which followed, whenStraffordwas striving in vain to force England, in spite of its visible reluctance, to support the king in hisScottish war, rumour has much to tell of Hampden's activity in rousing opposition. It is likely enough that the rumour is in the main true, but we are not possessed of any satisfactory evidence on the subject.Long Parliament
In theLong Parliament, though Hampden was by no means a frequent speaker, it is possible to trace his course with sufficient distinctness. His power consisted in his personal influence, and as a debater rather than as an orator. "He was not a man of many words," says Clarendon, "and rarely began the discourse or made the first entrance upon any business that was assumed, but a very weighty speaker, and after he had heard a full debate and observed how the House was likely to be inclined, took up the argument and shortly and clearly and craftily so stated it that he commonly conducted it to the conclusion he desired; and if he found he could not do that, he never was without the dexterity to divert the debate to another time, and to prevent the determining anything in the negative which might prove inconvenient in the future" (Hist. iii. 31). Unwearied in attendance upon committees, he was in all things ready to second Pym, whom he plainly regarded as his leader.
Hampden was one of the eight managers of Strafford's prosecution. Like Pym, he was in favour of the more legal and regular procedure byimpeachmentrather than byattainder, which at the later stage was supported by the majority of the Commons; and through his influence a compromise was effected by which, while an attainder was subsequently adopted, Strafford's counsel were heard as in the case of an impeachment, and thus a serious breach between the two Houses, which threatened to cause the breakdown of the whole proceedings, was averted.Debate on Episcopacy
There was another point on which there was no agreement. A large minority wished to retainepiscopacy, and to keep theBook of Common Prayerunaltered, whilst the majority were at least willing to consider the question of abolishing the one and modifying the other. On this subject the parties which ultimately divided the House and the country itself were fully formed as early as 8 February 1641. It is enough to say that Hampden fully shared in the counsels of the opponents of episcopacy. It is not that he was a theoreticalPresbyterian, but thebishopshad been in his days so fully engaged in the imposition of ceremonies regarded by thePuritansas verging onPapacythat it was difficult, if not impossible, to dissociate them from the cause in which they were embarked. Closely connected with Hampden's distrust of the bishops was his distrust of monarchy as it then existed. The dispute about the church therefore soon attained the form of an attack uponmonarchy, and, when the majority of theHouse of Lordsarrayed itself on the side of episcopacy and the Prayer Book, of an attack upon the House of Lords as well.Statue of John Hampden in Market Square,Aylesbury
No serious importance therefore can be attached to the offers of advancement made from time to time to Hampden and his friends. Charles would gladly have given them office if they had been ready to desert their principles. Every day Hampden's conviction grew stronger that Charles would never surrender a position which he had taken up. In August 1641 Hampden was one of the four commissioners who attended Charles in Scotland, and the king's conduct there, connected with such events as the "Incident", must have proved to a man far less sagacious than Hampden that the time for compromise had gone by. He was therefore a warm supporter of theGrand Remonstrance, and was marked out as one of the five impeached members (the others beingPym,Arthur Haselrig,Denzil HollesandWilliam Strode) whose attempted arrest brought at last the opposing parties into open collision. In the angry scene which arose on the proposal to print the Grand Remonstrance, it was Hampden's personal intervention which prevented an actual conflict, and it was after the impeachment had been attempted that Hampden laid down the two conditions under which resistance to the king became the duty of a good subject. Those conditions were:
- an attack upon religion and
- an attack upon the fundamental laws.
There can be no doubt that Hampden fully believed that both those conditions were fulfilled at the opening of 1642.English Civil War
When theEnglish Civil Warbegan, Hampden was appointed a member of the committee for safety, levied for the parliamentary cause, and in his capacity of deputy-lieutenant carried out the parliamentaryMilitia Ordinancein the county. In the earlier operations of the war he bore himself gallantly and well. He took no actual part in theBattle of Edgehill(23 October 1642). His troops in the rear, however, arrestedPrince Rupert of the Rhine's charge atKineton, and he urged Essex to renew the attack here, and also after the disaster atBrentford. In the spring of 1643, Hampden's regiment took part in thesiege of Reading, which surrendered on 27 April. Although Essex intended to advance on the King's headquarters at Oxford, he remained atThamebecause of widespread sickness in the army, a shortage of cavalry and to await a paymaster with funds to pay his troops.
But it is not on his skill as a regimental officer that Hampden's fame rests. In war as in peace his distinction lay in his power of disentangling the essential part from the non-essential. In the previous constitutional struggle he had seen that the one thing necessary was to establish the supremacy of theHouse of Commons. In the military struggle which followed he saw, as Cromwell saw afterwards, that the one thing necessary was to beat the enemy. He protested at once against Essex's hesitations and compromises. In the formation of the confederacy of the six associated counties, which was to supply a basis for Cromwell's operations, he took an active part. His influence was felt alike in parliament and in the field. But he was not in supreme command, and he had none of that impatience which often leads able men to fail in the execution of orders of which they disapprove.Death Hampden's Monument,Chalgrove. A monument to John Hampden, who was mortally wounded 550 yards north of here in 1643 whilst fighting in the English Civil War onChalgrove Field.
On the night of 17 June 1643,Prince Rupertsortied on a raid out of Oxford to capture the Parliamentarian army's paymaster, but while that failed, did succeed the next morning in overwhelming two of Essex's small garrison outposts Hampden rode as a volunteer with 1,100 cavalry and dragoons commanded by SirPhilip Stapletonin pursuit of Rupert, with the intention of delaying him long enough for a larger force from Essex's main army to cut off his retreat. Rupert halted his own cavalry atChalgroveto ambush the pursuit and allow 800 less mobile troops to escape. During the ensuingBattle of Chalgrove Field, Hampden was mortally wounded in the shoulder (some sources claim by two carbine balls, others by shrapnel from his own pistol exploding) which shattered the bone and forced him to leave the field. He reached Thame, survived six days, and died on 24 June.
Hampden's death so early in the war was a severe blow to the Parliamentarians. During the preceding winter, Hampden had associated himself with John Pym's "Middle Group" in Parliament, which opposed any peace moves to the King except on favorable terms. At the same time he had worked to moderate the militancy of the parliamentary "War Party". Although Hampden was privately critical of Essex for not aggressively attacking after avoiding defeat at Edgehill and the standoff atTurnham Green, he remained publicly loyal and helped Essex resist the criticisms of the War Party. His death took with it a key link between the factions.Personal life
- Elizabeth, daughter of Edmund Symeon ofPyrton,Oxfordshire, in 1619, and
- in 1640, Lettice (or Letitia), daughter of SirFrancis Knollys"the Young", widow ofSir Thomas VachellofColey Park,Reading. Her father was son of the elder SirFrancis Knollysand his wife,Catherine Carey.
By his first wife he had nine children (three sons and six daughters) one of waschancellor of the exchequerinWilliam III's reign; from two of his daughters are descended the families of Trevor Hampden and Hobart-Hampden, the descent in the male line becoming apparently extinct in 1754 in the person ofJohn Hampden.
They lived atHartwell House, Buckinghamshire, now aNational Trustproperty.Legacy
Hampden Park, the home ground ofQueen's Park F.C.and theScotland national football team, is indirectly named after John Hampden.
He now has a grammarschoolinHigh Wycombeand a primary school inWendover, one school in Hertfordshire and one primary school in Thame named after him, as well as an older persons' mental health unit based at Stoke Mandeville Hospital. There is also a statue of him inAylesburytown centre (illustrated above) pointing to his home inGreat Hampden.Aylesbury Vale District Counciluse an image of the statue as their logo.
Hampden, a community is also named after him, andHampden-Sydney CollegeinVirginiais named after him andAlgernon Sydney.
Mount Hampdenin Zimbabwe is named after him.
Thomas Gray's immortal poem "Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard" refers to the heroism of Hampden in the stanza: "Some village-Hampden, that with dauntless breast The little tyrant of his fields withstood; Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest, Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood
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