Charles Darwin*the Origin Of Species*1860*1st American Edition*evolution*first* For Sale

ON THE ORIGIN OF SPECIESBY MEANS OF NATURAL SELECTION

OR THE

PRESERVATION OF FAVOURED RACES IN THE STRUGGLE FOR LIFE.

BY CHARLES DARWIN, M.A

REVISED EDITION. [3rd PRINTING OF 1st US EDITION]

NEW YORK: APPLETON

1860

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BOOK DESCRIPTION: ix, 432pp, fold-out diagram at p. 108 as called for,index. [FREEMAN F378]. 3rd Printing of 1st US Edition. The text is the same as the 1st UK edition, though the words "REVISED EDITION" appear on the title page.

CONDITION: VERY GOOD-: Recently rebound in quarter wine calf with marbled boards. Binding very tight and secure. Fresh endpapers. Some foxing throughout - fairly heavy in places but not very dark. Previous name on title - Jospeph Millikin - which also appears on p.117, p.220 (see photo) and the blank next to the end of the index, which is dated August, 1860 (see photo). His brother Daniel has also signed the title page "Dan Millikin", dated 1866. [Joseph Millikin, was a theology graduate of Princeton Theological Seminary. Subsequently he became Professor of Greek in his Alma Mater, and gave instruction in the Hebrew language. In 1873, upon the organization of the Ohio Agricultural and Mechanical College, located in Columbus, he was elected to occupy the position of professor of the German, French, and English languages and their literatures.] There is an ink note at the end of the book - a quote taken from William Cullen Bryant's Forest Hymn - Life mocks the idle hate Of his arch-enemy Death - yea, seats himself Upon the tyrant's throne - the sepulchre, And of the triumphs of his ghastly foe, Makes his own nourishment. Since taking the photos I have found a few other margin notes, by both men - a note on p. 74 about animal displacement and note about a misprint - unrecorded as far as I'm aware - on p.81 (where "column" should read "colour"). A good, solid copy of the 3rd printing of the 1st American Edition with text exactly as that of the first UK edition (1859).


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Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species, first published on 24 November 1859, is a seminal work of scientific literature, considered to be the foundation of evolutionary biology. Darwin's book introduced the theory that populations evolve over the course of generations through a process of natural selection. It presented a body of evidence that the diversity of life arose through a branching pattern of evolution and common descent. Darwin included evidence that he had accumulated on the Beagle expedition in the 1830s and his subsequent findings from research, correspondence, and experimentation. This US edition, mirrors exactly the text of the first UK edition.


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CONTENTS.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

CHAPTER I.

VARIATION UNDER DOMESTICATION.

Causes of Variability — Effects of Habit — Correlation of Growth — Inheritance — Character of Domestic Varieties — Difficulty of distinguishing between Varieties and Species — Origin of Domestic Varieties from one or more Species — Domestic Pigeons, their Differences and Origin — Principle of Selection anciently followed, its Effects — Methodical and Unconscious Selection — Unknown Origin of our Domestic Productions — Circumstances favourable to Man's power of Selection. .. .. .. .. .. ..

CHAPTER II.

VARIATION UNDER NATURE.

Variability — Individual Differences — Doubtful species — Wide ranging, much diffused, and common species vary most — Species of the larger genera in any country vary more than the species of the smaller genera — Many of the species of the larger genera resemble varieties in being very closely, but unequally, related to each other, and in having restricted ranges. .. .. .. .. .. ..


CHAPTER III.

STRUGGLE FOR EXISTENCE.

Bears on natural selection — The term used in a wide sense — Geometrical powers of increase — Rapid increase of naturalised animals and plants — Nature of the checks to increase — Competition universal — Effects of climate — Protection from the number of individuals — Complex relations of all animals and plants throughout nature — Struggle for life most severe between individuals and varieties of the same species; often severe between species of the same genus — The relation of organism to organism the most important of all relations. ..

CHAPTER IV.

NATURAL SELECTION.

Natural Selection — its power compared with man's selection — its power on characters of trifling importance — its power at all ages and on both sexes — Sexual Selection — On the generality of intercrosses between individuals of the same species — Circumstances favourable and unfavourable to Natural Selection, namely, intercrossing, isolation, number of individuals — Slow action — Extinction caused by Natural Selection — Divergence of Character, related to the diversity of inhabitants of any small area, and to naturalisation — Action of Natural Selection, through Divergence of Character and Extinction, on the descendants from a common parent — Explains the Grouping of all organic beings. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

CHAPTER V.

LAWS OF VARIATION.

Effects of external conditions — Use and disuse, combined with natural selection; organs of flight and of vision — Acclimatisation — Correlation of growth — Compensation and economy of growth — False correlations — Multiple, rudimentary, and lowly organised structures variable — Parts developed in an unusual manner are highly variable: specific characters more variable than generic: secondary sexual characters variable — Species of the same genus vary in an analogous manner — Reversions to long-lost characters — Summary. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..


CHAPTER VI.

DIFFICULTIES ON THEORY.

Difficulties on the theory of descent with modification — Transitions — Absence or rarity of transitional varieties — Transitions in habits of life — Diversified habits in the same species — Species with habits widely different from those of their allies — Organs of extreme perfection — Means of transition — Cases of difficulty — Natura non facit saltum — Organs of small importance — Organs not in all cases absolutely perfect — The law of Unity of Type and of the Conditions of Existence embraced by the theory of Natural Selection. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

CHAPTER VII.

INSTINCT.

Instincts comparable with habits, but different in their origin — Instincts graduated — Aphides and ants — Instincts variable — Domestic instincts, their origin — Natural instincts of the cuckoo, ostrich, and parasitic bees — Slave-making ants — Hive-bee, its cell-making instinct — Difficulties on the theory of the Natural Selection of instincts — Neuter or sterile insects — Summary

CHAPTER VIII.

HYBRIDISM.

Distinction between the sterility of first crosses and of hybrids — Sterility various in degree, not universal, affected by close interbreeding, removed by domestication — Laws governing the sterility of hybrids — Sterility not a special endowment, but incidental on other differences — Causes of the sterility of first crosses and of hybrids — Parallelism between the effects of changed conditions of life and crossing — Fertility of varieties when crossed and of their mongrel offspring not universal — Hybrids and mongrels compared independently of their fertility — Summary


CHAPTER IX.

ON THE IMPERFECTION OF THE GEOLOGICAL RECORD.

On the absence of intermediate varieties at the present day — On the nature of extinct intermediate varieties; on their number — On the vast lapse of time, as inferred from the rate of deposition and of denudation — On the poorness of our palæontological collections — On the intermittence of geological formations — On the absence of intermediate varieties in any one formation — On the sudden appearance of groups of species — On their sudden appearance in the lowest known fossiliferous strata

CHAPTER X.

ON THE GEOLOGICAL SUCCESSION OF ORGANIC BEINGS.

On the slow and successive appearance of new species — On their different rates of change — Species once lost do not reappear — Groups of species follow the same general rules in their appearance and disappearance as do single species — On Extinction — On simultaneous changes in the forms of life throughout the world — On the affinities of extinct species to each other and to living species — On the state of development of ancient forms — On the succession of the same types within the same areas — Summary of preceding and present chapters .. ..

CHAPTER XI.

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION.

Present distribution cannot be accounted for by differences in physical conditions — Importance of barriers — Affinity of the productions of the same continent — Centres of creation — Means of dispersal, by changes of climate and of the level of the land, and by occasional means — Dispersal during the Glacial period co-extensive with the world .. .. .. .. .. ..


CHAPTER XII.

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION—continued.

Distribution of fresh-water productions — On the inhabitants of oceanic islands — Absence of Batrachians and of terrestrial Mammals — On the relation of the inhabitants of islands to those of the nearest mainland — On colonisation from the nearest source with subsequent modification — Summary of the last and present chapters .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

CHAPTER XIII.

MUTUAL AFFINITIES OF ORGANIC BEINGS: MORPHOLOGY:

EMBRYOLOGY: RUDIMENTARY ORGANS.

CLASSIFICATION, groups subordinate to groups — Natural system — Rules and difficulties in classification, explained on the theory of descent with modification — Classification of varieties — Descent always used in classification — Analogical or adaptive characters — Affinities, general, complex and radiating — Extinction separates and defines groups — MORPHOLOGY, between members of the same class, between parts of the same individual — EMBRYOLOGY, laws of, explained by variations not supervening at an early age, and being inherited at a corresponding age — RUDIMENTARY ORGANS; their origin explained — Summary

CHAPTER XIV.

RECAPITULATION AND CONCLUSION.

Recapitulation of the difficulties on the theory of Natural Selection — Recapitulation of the general and special circumstances in its favour — Causes of the general belief in the immutability of species — How far the theory of natural selection may be extended — Effects of its adoption on the study of Natural history — Concluding remarks .. .. .. .. ..

INDEX .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 491

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