more Jizhou Ware Reference
about Jizhou Kiln
see Jizhou Kiln Exhibition in Museum of ZheJiang Province, China
The Jizhou kilns were located near Yonghe in central Jiangxi province. Archaeological research and ancient records showed that Jizhou kilns started production from the Late Tang/5 Dynasties period. The earliest products consisted of white wares with a tinge of light bluish tone. The vessels consisted mainly of ewers, dish and bowls. The bowls could be plain or have impressed motif on the interior base. Motifs consisted of a single chinese character such as ji (auspicious), fu (Happiness), tai ping (safety)and etc.
By early southern Song, Jizhou started producing black wares. The glaze tends to be thin and dark chocolate or dark brown in colour. The paste of Jizhou ware varies from a grayish white to a light biscuit colour. The foot of the bowl is very low and hardly visible from the front view. The early products were comparatively poor substitutes of the thick and glossy glaze of the famous Jian black wares of Fujian province.
The Jizhou potters were however very creative and subsequently introduced new decorative techniques to improve on the attractiveness of their black wares. The first technique involved a second lighter colour over-glaze which is sprinkled, trailed or painted on the dark brownish base glaze. This new technique makesJizhou temmoku wares distinctive and ensured its place in the history of ancient Chinese ceramics art.
Two well-known products involved sprinkling a lighter over-glaze to produce the so called the tortoise shell and tiger fur effects. They may have a dry moldy mottled quality or could be more transparent and glossy if fired at a higher temperature.
Other types of effects were also produced as shown in below photo. According to Nigel Wood in his book , the composition of the recipes of the lighter colour over-glaze is essentially similar. The results were probably the result of kiln atmosphere and temperature. On majority of the pieces, a white milky substance were also present especially on the area with the lighter colour glaze. The lighter over-glaze is rich in calcia and magnesia which produced a yellowish-milky opalescence and with further heating above 1260 degree centigrade become a rich transparent ambers. The main ingredients in these Jizhou over-glaze were probably wood ashes of some low-silica type.
The Jizhou potters also used paper cuts for decorations. Usually Vessels with such decor were first coated with a dark chocolate glaze. After which openwork stencils of cut paper was positioned on the interior wall. A lighter glaze is then sprinkled over the whole of the interior and sometime the external wall. After the paper shape is removed, it showed a black design on a lighter colour mottled background. A variation have the design in lighter colour on a black background. Some more commonly found paper cut designs include plum blossom, floral spray, dragon, and phoenix. There are also those with rhomboid patterns and 4 Chinese characters such as fu shou kang ning (fortune, longevity, health and peace) or chang ming fu gui(long life and prosperity).
Another interesting variation is positioning the papercut design on the vessel and then applying the dark chocolate glaze. The design could be left unglaze or sometime the details enhanced with iron brown slip and the whole design covered with a transparent glaze before firing.
Another famous Jizhou black glazed ware is that with the naturalistic leaf decoration. A pre-rotted leaf with only the skeletal remains may have been used. Very likely, it is coated with a lighter colour glaze before it is positioned on the interior of a black glazed bowl.
Jizhou kilns also produced Cizhou type wares with under-glaze iron brown painted motif. In some examples, part of the motif is incised such as the veins of the leaves on the pillow below. Theeare also those with curved motif. The earliest known examples of iron painted motif were from a tomb at Nanchang and could be dated to A.D. 1209. During the Yuan period, under-glaze painted wares became the main production of Jizhou kiln.
Background knowledge: Art&Culture of Northern and Southern Song DynastyClick here for details
The Song dynasty (960-1279) was culturally the most brilliant era in later imperial Chinese history. A time of great social and economic change, the period in large measure shaped the intellectual and political climate of China down to the twentieth century. The first half of this era, when the capital was located at Bianliang (modern Kaifeng), is known as the Northern Song period.
The early Northern Song dynasty witnessed the flowering of one of the supreme artistic expressions of Chinese civilization: monumental landscape painting. Retreating to the mountains to escape the turmoil and destruction that occurred at the end of the Tang dynasty (618-906), tenth-century recluse-painters discovered in nature the moral order that they had found lacking in the human world. In their visionary landscapes, the great mountain, towering above the lesser mountains, trees, and men, was like "a ruler among his subjects, a master among servants." Later, Song court painters transformed these idealized images of nature into emblems of a perfectly ordered state.
An important outgrowth of Song political unification after the war-torn Five Dynasties period (907-60) was the creation of a distinctive style of court painting under the auspices of the Imperial Painting Academy. Painters from all parts of the empire were recruited to serve the needs of the court. Over time, the varied traditions represented by this diverse group of artists were welded together into a harmonious Song academic manner that valued a naturalistic, closely descriptive portrayal of the physical world. Under Emperor Huizong (r. 1101-25), himself an accomplished painter and calligrapher, imperial patronage and the ruler's direct involvement in establishing artistic direction reached a zenith. While maintaining that the fundamental purpose of painting was to be true to nature, Huizong sought to enrich its content through the inclusion of poetic resonance and references to antique styles.
The momentous political shift during the early Song - from a society ruled by a hereditary aristocratic order to a society governed by a central bureaucracy of scholar - officials chosen through the civil-service examination - also had a major impact on the arts. As a ruling elite, these Neo-Confucian scholars regarded public service as their principal calling, but factional strife sometimes forced them to retire from political engagement, during which time they often pursued artistic interests. Dissatisfied with the rigidity and oversophistication of early Northern Song calligraphy, eleventh-century scholars sought to revive the natural, spontaneous qualities of more archaic models. The literati also applied their new critical standards to painting. Rejecting the highly realistic descriptive style followed by the professional painters of the Imperial Painting Academy, they also departed from the official view that art must serve the state. Instead, the amateur scholar-artist pursued painting and calligraphy for his own amusement as a forum of personal expression.
In 1125, when the Jurchen, a seminomadic people from northeast Asia, invaded Song China and captured the capital at Bianliang (modern Kaifeng), founding their own Jin dynasty in the north, the Song court reestablished itself in the south in Hangzhou, where it continued to rule for another 150 years as the Southern Song dynasty.
Southern Song society was characterized by the pursuit of a highly aestheticized way of life, and paintings of the period often focus on evanescent pleasures and the transience of beauty. Images evoke poetic ideas that appeal to the senses or capture the fleeting qualities of a moment in time. One particularly important source of inspiration for Southern Song artists was the natural beauty of Hangzhou and its environs, especially West Lake, a famed scenic spot ringed with lush mountains and dotted with palaces, private gardens, and Buddhist temples.
The Southern Song Imperial Painting Academy continued the stylistic direction and high technical standards established by Emperor Huizong in the early twelfth century. Often executed in the intimate oval fan or album-leaf format, academic paintings - and the imperially inscribed poems that sometimes accompany them - reveal an increasingly narrow, concentrated vision and a commitment to the exact rendering of an object. The cultivation of a tranquil and detached mind free of material entanglements was a common concern of Song Neo-Confucian philosopher Zhu Xi (1130 - 1200): the "investigation of things leading to the extension of knowledge."
The decorative arts also reached the height of elegance and technical perfection during the Southern Song. Like painting, the plastic arts responded to two different aesthetics - that of the imperial court and that of popular culture. Supreme among the decorative arts of the Song period are ceramics, which many connoisseurs consider the highest artistic achievement of the Chinese potter. Payment
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Chinese Antique Jizhou Ware Porcelain Vase With Dragon Pattern: