Civil War Soldier Letter Capt Albert Hayes 6th Nh Siege Vicksburg Ms 6/18 1863 For Sale
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Civil War soldier letter, Capt. Albert Watson Hayes, Co D, 6th Infantry, WIA at 2nd Bull Run, Va. 3 VF pages in pencil, scan shows back page much darker than it really is. Camp near Vicksburg Miss, June 18, 1863, to his sister Aggie, sent a $100 draft to father, can cash at any bank, in camp 10 miles south east of city of Vicksburg, keeping rebel General Johnston force back while General Grant takes the city by siege, Grant has been sieging the city for a month, perfect roar of mortars and cannons all the time day and night, we have them completely surrounded so they cannot get in or out, deserters come into our camp saying they have only one day of rations, only bacon and meal, they have turned their horses and mules out into the city as there is nothing to feed them, our force took a drove the other day of 500, think they cannot hold out for more than a week, there is a perfect storm of shells and shot going in all the time, Grant will take it if takes every man he has, about one hundred thousand men, Dr Garland of Plymouth is in the officers hospital, Nat Whitemore is living in Memphis in the cotton trade, called the traveling corps, we have been in 19 states since we have been in the service. Superb letter on the Siege of Vicksburg from a New Hampshire officer sitting on the side lines watching and reporting. The siege started on June 14 and lasted till July 4; stunning historic first person accounting!Albert Watson Hayes Residence Farmington NH; 25 years old. Enlisted on 11/27/1861 as a 2nd Lieutenant. On 11/30/1861 he was commissioned into "D" Co. NH 6th Infantry He was discharged for disability on 9/30/1863 On 9/30/1863 he was commissioned into Veteran Reserve Corps 19th He Resigned on 5/7/1866 He was listed as: * Wounded 8/29/1862 2nd Bull Run, VA Promotions: * 1st Lieut 8/4/1862 * Capt 10/24/1862 (As of Co. G) * 1st Lieut 9/30/1863 (As of VRC) * Capt 12/10/1863 Other Information: born in Rochester, NH After the War he lived in Rochester, NH Siege of VicksburgFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaSiege of VicksburgPart of theAmerican Civil War
Siege of Vicksburg, by Kurz and July4,1863LocationWarren County, StatesConfederate StatesCommanders and leadersUlysses S. GrantJohn C. Pemberton(POW)Units involvedArmy of the TennesseeArmy of and losses4,835 total3,202 killed or wounded
TheSiege of Vicksburg(May 18 – July 4, 1863) was the final major military action in theVicksburg Campaignof theAmerican Civil War. In a series of maneuvers,UnionMaj. Gen.Ulysses S. Grantand hisArmy of the Tennesseecrossed the Mississippi River and drove theConfederateArmy of Vicksburg led byLt. Gen.John C. Pembertoninto the defensive lines surrounding the fortress city ofVicksburg, Mississippi.
When two major assaults (May 19 and 22, 1863) against the Confederate fortifications were repulsed with heavy casualties, Grant decided to besiege the city beginning on May 25. With no reinforcement, supplies nearly gone, and after holding out for more than forty days, the garrison finally surrendered on July 4. This action (combined with the surrender ofPort Hudsonto Maj. Gen.Nathaniel P. Bankson July 9) yielded command of theMississippi Riverto the Union forces, who would hold it for the rest of the conflict.
The Confederate surrender following the siege at Vicksburg is sometimes considered, when combined with Gen.Robert E. Lee's defeat atGettysburgby Maj. Gen.George G. Meadethe previous day, theturning point of the war. It also cut off communication with Confederate forces in theTrans-Mississippi Departmentfor the remainder of the war.
- 4.1Command changes
- 4.2Louisiana operations
- 4.3Crater at the 3rd Louisiana Redan
After crossing the Mississippi River south of Vicksburg at Bruinsburg and driving northeast, Grant won battles atPort GibsonandRaymondand capturedJackson, theMississippistate capital on May 14, 1863, forcing Pemberton to withdraw westward. Attempts to stop the Union advance atChampion HillandBig Black River Bridgewere unsuccessful. Pemberton knew that the corps under Maj. Gen.William T. Shermanwas preparing to flank him from the north; he had no choice but to withdraw or be outflanked. Pemberton burned the bridges over theBig Black Riverand took everything edible in his path, both animal and plant, as he retreated to the well-fortified city of Vicksburg.
The Confederates evacuated Hayne's Bluff, which was occupied by Sherman's cavalry on May 19, and Union steamboats no longer had to run the guns of Vicksburg, now being able to dock by the dozens up theYazoo River. Grant could now receive supplies more directly than by the previous route, which ran through Louisiana, over the river crossing atGrand Gulf[disambiguation needed]and Bruinsburg, then back up north.Grant's operations against style="margin: 0.4em 0px 0.5em; line-height: 1.5em;">Over three quarters of Pemberton's army had been lost in the two preceding battles and many in Vicksburg expectedGeneralJoseph E. Johnston, in command of the ConfederateDepartment of the West, to relieve the city—which he never did. Large masses of Union troops were on the march toinvestthe city, repairing the burnt bridges over the Big Black River; which Grant's forces crossed on May 18. Johnston sent a note to his general, Pemberton, asking him to sacrifice the city and save his troops, something Pemberton would not do. (Pemberton, aNorthernerby birth, was probably influenced by his fear of public condemnation if he abandoned Vicksburg.)
Pemberton, trying to please Jefferson Davis, who insisted that Vicksburg and Port Hudson must be held, and to please Johnston, who thought both places worthless militarily, had been caught in the middle, a victim of a convoluted command system and his own indecisiveness. Too dispirited to think clearly, he chose to back his bedraggled army into Vicksburg rather than evacuate the city and head north where he might have escaped to campaign again. When he chose to take his army into Vicksburg, Pemberton sealed the fate of his troops and the city he had been determined to defend.
—Vicksburg, Michael B. Ballard.Opposing forces and the defenses of VicksburgFurther information:Confederate order of battleandUnion order of battleArmy Commanders at Vicksburg
- Maj. Gen.
Ulysses S. Grant, USA
- Lt. Gen.
John C. Pemberton, CSA
As the Union forces approached Vicksburg, Pemberton could put only 18,500 troops in his lines. Grant had over 35,000, with more on the way. However, Pemberton had the advantage of terrain and fortifications that made his defense nearly impregnable. The defensive line around Vicksburg ran approximately 6.5 miles, based on terrain of varying elevations that included hills and knobs with steep angles for an attacker to ascend under fire. The perimeter included many gun pits, forts, trenches,redoubts, andlunettes. The major fortifications of the line included Fort Hill, on a high bluff north of the city; the StockadeRedan, dominating the approach to the city on Graveyard Road from the northeast; the 3rd Louisiana Redan; the Great Redoubt; theRailroad Redoubt, protecting the gap for the railroad line entering the city; the Square Fort (Fort Garrott); a salient along the Hall's Ferry Road; and the South Fort.
Maj. Gen.Ulysses S. Grant's UnionArmy of the Tennesseebrought three corps to the battle: theXIII Corps, under Maj. Gen.John A. McClernand; theXV Corps, under Maj. Gen.William T. Sherman; and theXVII Corps, under Maj. Gen.James B. McPherson.
Lt. Gen.John C. Pemberton's ConfederateArmy of Mississippiinside the Vicksburg line consisted of four divisions, underMaj. Gens.Carter L. Stevenson,John H. Forney,Martin L. Smith, andJohn S. Bowen.AssaultsMay 19 assaults on Vicksburg.May 22 assaults on Vicksburg.This painting titled "First at Vicksburg" is part of the US Army Center of Military History "US Army in Action" series. Pictured are the Confederate Lines, Vicksburg, Mississippi, May 19, 1863.
Grant wanted to overwhelm the Confederates before they could fully organize their defenses and ordered an immediate assault against Stockade Redan for May 19. Troops from Sherman's corps had a difficult time approaching the position under rifle and artillery fire from the 36th Mississippi Infantry, Brig. Gen.Louis Hébert's brigade—they had to negotiate a steep ravine protected byabatisand cross a 6-foot-deep (1.8m), 8-foot-wide (2.4m) ditch before attacking the 17-foot-high (5.2m) walls of the redan. This first attempt was easily repulsed. Grant ordered an artillery bombardment to soften the defenses and at about 2 p.m., Sherman's division under Maj. Gen.Francis P. Blairtried again, but only a small number of men were able to advance even as far as the ditch below the redan. The assault collapsed in a melee of rifle fire and hand grenades lobbing back and forth.
The failed Federal assaults of May 19 damaged Union morale, deflating the confidence the soldiers felt after their string of victories across Mississippi. They were also costly, with casualties of 157 killed, 777 wounded, and 8 missing, versus Confederate casualties of 8 killed and 62 wounded. The Confederates, assumed to be demoralized, had regained their fighting edge.
Grant planned another assault for May 22, but this time with greater care; they would first reconnoiter thoroughly and soften up the defenses with artillery and naval gunfire. The lead units were supplied with ladders to ascend the fortification walls. Grant did not want a long siege, and this attack was to be by the entire army across a wide front.
Despite their bloody repulse on May 19, Union troops were in high spirits, now well-fed with provisions they had foraged. On seeing Grant pass by, a soldier commented, "Hardtack". Soon all Union troops in the vicinity were yelling, "Hardtack! Hardtack!" The Union served hardtack, beans, and coffee the night of May 21. Everyone expected that Vicksburg would fall the next day.
Union forces bombarded the city all night, from 220 artillery pieces and naval gunfire from Rear Adm.David D. Porter's fleet in the river, and while causing little property damage, they damaged Confederate civilian morale. On the morning of May 22, the defenders were bombarded again for four hours before the Union attacked once more along a three-mile front at 10 a.m.
Sherman attacked once again down the Graveyard Road, with 150 volunteers (nicknamed the Forlorn Hope detachment) leading the way with ladders and planks, followed by the divisions of Blair and Brig. Gen.James M. Tuttle, arranged in a long column of regiments, hoping to achieve a breakthrough by concentrating their mass on a narrow front. They were driven back in the face of heavy rifle fire. Blair's brigades under Cols.Giles A. SmithandT. Kilby Smithmade it as far as a ridge 100 yards from Green's Redan, the southern edge of the Stockade Redan, from where they poured heavy fire into the Confederate position, but to no avail. Tuttle's division, waiting its turn to advance, did not have an opportunity to move forward. On Sherman's far right, the division of Brig. Gen.Frederick Steelespent the morning attempting to get into position through a ravine of the Mint Spring Bayou.
McPherson's corps was assigned to attack the center along the Jackson Road. On their right flank, the brigade of Brig. Gen.Thomas E. G. Ransomadvanced to within 100 yards of the Confederate line, but halted to avoid dangerous flanking fire from Green's Redan. On McPherson's left flank, the division of Maj. Gen.John A. Loganwas assigned to assault the 3rd Louisiana Redan and the Great Redoubt. The brigade of Brig. Gen.John E. Smithmade it as far as the slope of the redan, but huddled there, dodging grenades until dark before they were recalled. Brig. Gen.John D. Stevenson's brigade advanced well in two columns against the redoubt, but their attack also failed when they found their ladders were too short to scale the fortification. Brig. Gen.Isaac F. Quinby's division advanced a few hundred yards, but halted for hours while its generals engaged in confused discussions.
On the Union left, McClernand's corps moved along the Baldwin Ferry Road and astride the Southern Railroad of Mississippi. The division of Brig. Gen.Eugene A. Carrwas assigned to capture the Railroad Redoubt and the 2nd Texas Lunette; the division of Brig. Gen.Peter J. Osterhauswas assigned the Square Fort. Carr's men achieved a small breakthrough at the 2nd Texas Lunette and requested reinforcements.
By 11 a.m., it was clear that a breakthrough was not forthcoming and the advances by Sherman and McPherson were failures. Just then, Grant received a message from McClernand, which stated that he was heavily engaged, the Confederates were being reinforced, and he requested a diversion on his right from McPherson's corps. Grant initially refused the request, telling McClernand to use his own reserve forces for assistance; Grant was mistakenly under the impression that McClernand had been lightly engaged and McPherson heavily, although the reverse was true. McClernand followed up with a message that was partially misleading, implying that he had captured two forts—"The Stars and Stripes are flying over them."—and that another push along the line would achieve victory for the Union Army. Although Grant once again demurred, he showed the dispatch to Sherman, who ordered his own corps to advance again. Grant, reconsidering, then ordered McPherson to send Quinby's division to aid McClernand.
As our line of battle started and before our yell had died upon the air the confederate fortifications in our front were completely crowded with the enemy, who with an answering cry of defiance, poured into our ranks, one continuous fire of musketry, and the forts and batteries in our front and both sides, were pouring in to our line, an unceasing fire of shot and shell, with fearful results, as this storm of fire sent us, intermixed with the bursting shells and that devilish rebel yell, I could compare to nothing but one of Dante's pictures of Hell, a something too fearful to describe.Daniel A. Ramsdell, Ransom's Brigade
Sherman ordered two more assaults. At 2:15 p.m., Giles Smith and Ransom moved out and were repulsed immediately. At 3 p.m., Tuttle's division suffered so many casualties in their aborted advance that Sherman told Tuttle, "This is murder; order those troops back." By this time, Steele's division had finally maneuvered into position on Sherman's right, and at 4 p.m., Steele gave the order to charge against the 26th Louisiana Redoubt. They had no more success than any of Sherman's other assaults.
In McPherson's sector, Logan's division made another thrust down the Jackson Road at about 2 p.m., but met with heavy losses and the attack was called off. McClernand attacked again, reinforced by Quinby's division, but with no success. Union casualties were 502 killed, 2,550 wounded, and 147 missing, about evenly divided across the three corps. Confederate casualties were not reported directly, but are estimated to be under 500. Grant blamed McClernand's misleading dispatches for part of the poor results of the day, storing up another grievance against thepolitical generalwho had caused him so many aggravations during the campaign.SiegeSiege of Vicksburg. Corps and division commanders are shown for the period June 23 – July 4."Whistling Dick" was the name given to this specific Confederate 18 pounder because of the peculiar noise made by its projectiles. It was part of the defensive batteries facing the Mississippi River at Vicksburg. On May 28, 1863, its fire sank the USSCincinnati.
HistorianShelby Footewrote that Grant "did not regret having made the assaults; he only regretted that they had failed."Grant reluctantly settled into a siege. On May 25, Lt. Col.John A. Rawlinsissued Special Orders No. 140 for Grant: "Corps Commanders will immediately commence the work of reducing the enemy by regular approaches. It is desirable that no more loss of life shall be sustained in the reduction of Vicksburg, and the capture of the Garrison. Every advantage will be taken of the natural inequalities of the ground to gain positions from which to start mines, trenches, or advance batteries. ..."Grant wrote in his memoirs, "I now determined upon a regular siege—to 'out-camp the enemy,' as it were, and to incur no more losses."
Federal troops began to dig in, constructing elaborate entrenchments (the soldiers of the time referred to them as "ditches") that surrounded the city and moved closer and closer to the Confederate fortifications. With their backs against the Mississippi and Union gunboats firing from the river, Confederate soldiers and citizens alike were trapped. Pemberton was determined to hold his few miles of the Mississippi as long as possible, hoping for relief from Johnston or elsewhere.
A new problem confronted the Confederates. The dead and wounded of Grant's army lay in the heat of Mississippi summer, the odor of the deceased men and horses fouling the air, the wounded crying for medical help and water. Grant first refused a request of truce, thinking it a show of weakness. Finally he relented, and the Confederates held their fire while the Union recovered the wounded and dead, soldiers from both sides mingling and trading as if no hostilities existed for the moment.
After this truce, Grant's army began to fill the 12-mile ring around Vicksburg. In short time it became clear that even 50,000 Union soldiers would not be able to effect a complete encirclement of the Confederate defenses. Pemberton's outlook on escape was pessimistic, but there were still roads leading south out of Vicksburg unguarded by Federal troops. Grant found help from Maj. Gen.Henry W. Halleck, the Union general-in-chief. Halleck quickly began to shift Union troops in the West to meet Grant's needs. The first of these reinforcements to arrive along the siege lines was a 5,000 man division from the Department of the Missouri under Maj. Gen.Francis J. Herronon June 11. Herron's troops, remnants of theArmy of the Frontier, were attached to McPherson's corps and took up position on the far south. Next came a three division detachment from theXVI Corpsled by Brig. Gen.Cadwallader C. Washburnon June 12, assembled from troops at nearby posts of Corinth, Memphis, and LaGrange. The final significant group of reinforcements to join was the 8,000 man strongIX Corpsfrom the Department of the Ohio, led by Maj. Gen.John G. Parke, arriving on June 14. With the arrival of Parke, Grant had 77,000 men around Vicksburg.
In an effort to cut Grant's supply line, Confederates in Louisiana under Maj. Gen.John G. WalkerattackedMilliken's Bendup the Mississippi on June 7. This was mainly defended by untrainedcolored troops, who fought bravely with inferior weaponry and finally fought off the rebels with help from gunboats, although at horrible cost; the defenders lost 652 to the Confederate 185. The loss at Milliken's Bend left the Confederates with no hope for relief but from the cautious Johnston.
We have our trenches pulled up so close to the enemy that we can throw hand grenades over into their forts. The enemy do not dare show their heads above the parapet at any time, so close and so watchful are our sharpshooters. The town is completely invested. My position is so strong that I feel myself abundantly able to leave it so and go out twenty or thirty miles with force enough to whip two such garrisons.Ulysses S. Grant, writing to George G. Pride, June 15, 1863Union siege lines
Pemberton was boxed in with lots of inedible munitions and little food. The poor diet was showing on the Confederate soldiers. By the end of June, half were out sick or and other diseases cut their ranks. At least one city resident had to stay up at night to keep starving soldiers out of his vegetable garden. The constant shelling did not bother him as much as the loss of his food. As the siege wore on, fewer and fewer horses, mules, and dogs were seen wandering about Vicksburg. Shoe leather became a last resort of sustenance for many adults.
During the siege, Union gunboats lobbed over 22,000 shells into the town and army artillery fire was even heavier. As the barrages continued, suitable housing in Vicksburg was reduced to a minimum. A ridge, located between the main town and the rebel defense line, provided a diverse citizenry with lodging for the duration. Over 500 caves were dug into the yellow clay hills of Vicksburg. Whether houses were structurally sound or not, it was deemed safer to occupy these dugouts. People did their best to make them comfortable, with rugs, furniture, and pictures. They tried to time their movements and foraging with the rhythm of the cannonade, sometimes unsuccessfully. Because of these dugouts or caves, the Union soldiers gave the town the nickname of "Prairie Dog Village." Despite the ferocity of the Union fire against the town, fewer than a dozen civilians were known to have been killed during the entire siege.Command changes
One of Grant's actions during the siege was to settle a lingering rivalry. On May 30, General McClernand wrote a self-adulatory note to his troops, claiming much of the credit for the soon-to-be victory. Grant had been waiting six months for him to slip, ever since they clashed early in the campaign, around theBattle of Arkansas Post. He had received permission to relieve McClernand in January 1863 but waited for an unequivocal provocation. Grant finally relieved McClernand on June 18. He so diligently prepared his action that McClernand was left without recourse. McClernand's XIII Corps was turned over to Maj. Gen.Edward Ord, recovered from a wound sustained atHatchie's Bridge. In May 1864, McClernand was restored to a command in remoteTexas.
Another command change occurred on June 22. In addition to Pemberton at his front, Grant had to be concerned with Confederate forces in his rear under the command ofJoseph E. Johnston. He stationed one division in the vicinity of the Big Black River bridge and another reconnoitered as far north as Mechanicsburg, both to act as a covering force. By June 10, theIX Corps, under Maj. Gen.John G. Parke, was transferred to Grant's command. This corps became the nucleus of a special task force whose mission was to prevent Johnston, gathering his forces atCanton, from interfering with the siege. Sherman was given command of this task force and Brig. Gen.Frederick Steelereplaced him at the XV Corps. Johnston eventually began moving to relieve Pemberton and reached the Big Black River on July 1, but he delayed a potentially difficult encounter with Sherman until it was too late for the Vicksburg garrison, and then fell back to Jackson.Sherman would eventually pursue Johnston andcapture Jacksonon July 17.Louisiana operations
Throughout the siege Union and Confederate forces kept busy in a supporting role on the Louisiana side of the Mississippi River. Lt. Gen.Edmund Kirby Smith, commander of theTrans-Mississippi Department, received a telegraph from Pemberton on May 9 requesting a movement against Grant's communication lines along the Mississippi River. Grant had established important supply depots at Milliken's Bend, Young's Point, and Lake Providence within Smith's jurisdiction, but Smith failed to recognize the importance of Pemberton's situation. It was not until June when Smith finally decided to take action on Pemberton's request, directing Maj. Gen.Richard Taylorto "do something" in favor of the Vicksburg garrison.Taylor commanded the District of Western Louisiana and developed a three-pronged campaign against Grant's three supply depots. All three of Taylor's assaults were defeated (seeBattle of Milliken's Bend,Battle of Young's PointandBattle of Lake Providence).
In response to the growing Confederate activity in the area, Grant decided to dispatch troops from the Vicksburg trenches across the river. The presence of Maj. Gen.John G. Walker'sConfederate division on the Louisiana side was of particular concern; its presence could possibly aid a Confederate escape from Vicksburg. Therefore, Brig. Gen.Alfred W. Ellet'sMississippi Marine BrigadeandJoseph A. Mower'sbrigade from Sherman's corps were ordered to the vicinity of Milliken's Bend. Mower and Ellet were to cooperate against Walker's division, which was stationed in the vicinity of Richmond, Louisiana. Richmond also happened to be an important supply line providing Vicksburg with food from Louisiana. On June 15, Ellet and Mowerdefeated Walker and destroyed Richmond, Louisiana.
Ellet's men returned to De Soto Point and constructed an artillery battery targeting an ironfoundryrecasting spent Unionartillery shells. Construction was begun on June 19, which placed a 10-pounderParrott riflein acasemateof railroad iron. The targeted foundry was destroyed on June 25 and the next day a second Parrott gun was added to the battery, which continued to harass the defenders until the garrison's surrender.
Additional Confederate activity in Louisiana occurred on June 29 atGoodrich's Landing. Confederates attacked a plantation and army training center run by former slaves. The Confederates destroyed the plantations and captured over a hundred former slaves before disengaging in the face of Ellet's Marines. Confederate raids such as these were disruptive and caused damage, but they were only minor setbacks and showed the Confederates could cause only momentary disturbances in the area.Crater at the 3rd Louisiana RedanShirley's House, also known as the White House, during the siege of Vicksburg, 1863. Union troops of Logan's division set about as engineers and sappers to undermine Confederate fortifications but they had to stay under cover for fear of Confederate sharpshooters.
Late in the siege, Union troops tunneled under the 3rd Louisiana Redan and packed the mine with 2,200 pounds of gunpowder. The explosion blew apart the Confederate lines on June 25, while an infantry attack made by troops from Logan's XVII Corps division, followed the blast. The 45th Illinois Regiment (known as the "Lead Mine Regiment"), under Col.Jasper A. Maltby, charged into the 40-foot (12m) diameter, 12-foot (3.7m) deep crater with ease, but were stopped by recovering Confederate infantry. The Union soldiers became pinned down while the defenders also rolled artillery shells with short fuses into the pit with deadly results. Union engineers worked to set up acasematein the crater in order to extricate the infantry, and soon the soldiers fell back to a new defensive line. From the crater left by the explosion on June 25, Union miners worked to dig a new mine to the south. On July 1, this mine was detonated but no infantry attack followed.Pioneersworked throughout July 2 and 3 to widen the initial crater large enough for an infantry column of four to pass through for future anticipated assaults. However, events the following day negated the need for any further assaults.Surrender and aftermathFurther information:Vicksburg Campaign Aftermath
On July 3, Pemberton sent a note to Grant, who, as atFort Donelson, first demandedunconditional surrender. But Grant reconsidered, not wanting to feed 30,000 hungry Confederates in Union prison camps, and offered toparoleall prisoners. Considering their destitute state, dejected and starving, he never expected them to fight again; he hoped they would carry home thestigmaof defeat to the rest of the Confederacy. In any event, it would have occupied his army and taken months to ship that many troops north.Most of the men who were paroled on July 6 were exchanged and received back into the Confederate Army on August 4, 1863, atMobile Harbor, Alabama. They were back inChattanooga, Tennessee, by September and some fought in theBattles for Chattanoogain November and against Sherman'sinvasion of Georgiain May 1864. The Confederate government protested the validity of the paroles on technical grounds and the issue was referred to Grant who, in April 1864, was general in chief of the Army. The dispute effectively ended all furtherprisoner exchangesduring the war except for hardship cases.
Surrender was formalized by an old oak tree, "made historical by the event." In hisPersonal Memoirs,Grant described the fate of this luckless tree:
It was but a short time before the last vestige of its body, root and limb had disappeared, the fragments taken as trophies. Since then the same tree has furnished as many cords of wood, in the shape of trophies, as the 'True Cross'.
The surrender was finalized on July 4,Independence Day, a day Pemberton had hoped would bring more sympathetic terms from the United States. Although the Vicksburg Campaign continued with some minor actions, the fortress city had fallen and, with the surrender ofPort Hudsonon July 9, theMississippi Riverwas firmly in Union hands and the Confederacy split in two. PresidentLincolnfamously announced, "The Father of Waters again goes unvexed to the sea."
Union casualties for the battle and siege of Vicksburg were 4,835; Confederate were 32,697 (29,495 surrendered).The full campaign, since March 29, claimed 10,142 Union and 9,091 Confederate killed and wounded. In addition to his surrendered men, Pemberton turned over to Grant 172 cannons and 50,000 rifles.
Confederate officerBenjamin Morgan Harrod, aHarvard-trainedcivil engineerwho later designed the water and sewage systems forNew Orleans, was among the southerners captured at Vicksburg. He was later paroled and joined the engineering division style="margin: 0.4em 0px 0.5em; line-height: 1.5em;">SIXTH REGIMENT
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