Civil War Soldier Letter Capt Albert Hayes 6th Nh Siege Vicksburg Ms 6/18 1863 For Sale

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Civil War soldier letter, Capt. Albert Watson Hayes, Co D, 6th Infantry, WIA at 2nd Bull Run, Va. 3 VF pages in pencil, scan shows back page much darker than it really is. Camp near Vicksburg Miss, June 18, 1863, to his sister Aggie, sent a $100 draft to father, can cash at any bank, in camp 10 miles south east of city of Vicksburg, keeping rebel General Johnston force back while General Grant takes the city by siege, Grant has been sieging the city for a month, perfect roar of mortars and cannons all the time day and night, we have them completely surrounded so they cannot get in or out, deserters come into our camp saying they have only one day of rations, only bacon and meal, they have turned their horses and mules out into the city as there is nothing to feed them, our force took a drove the other day of 500, think they cannot hold out for more than a week, there is a perfect storm of shells and shot going in all the time, Grant will take it if takes every man he has, about one hundred thousand men, Dr Garland of Plymouth is in the officers hospital, Nat Whitemore is living in Memphis in the cotton trade, called the traveling corps, we have been in 19 states since we have been in the service. Superb letter on the Siege of Vicksburg from a New Hampshire officer sitting on the side lines watching and reporting. The siege started on June 14 and lasted till July 4; stunning historic first person accounting!

Albert Watson Hayes Residence Farmington NH; 25 years old. Enlisted on 11/27/1861 as a 2nd Lieutenant. On 11/30/1861 he was commissioned into "D" Co. NH 6th Infantry He was discharged for disability on 9/30/1863 On 9/30/1863 he was commissioned into Veteran Reserve Corps 19th He Resigned on 5/7/1866 He was listed as: * Wounded 8/29/1862 2nd Bull Run, VA Promotions: * 1st Lieut 8/4/1862 * Capt 10/24/1862 (As of Co. G) * 1st Lieut 9/30/1863 (As of VRC) * Capt 12/10/1863 Other Information: born in Rochester, NH After the War he lived in Rochester, NH Siege of VicksburgFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaSiege of VicksburgPart of theAmerican Civil War
Siege of Vicksburg, by Kurz and July4,1863[1]LocationWarren County, StatesConfederate StatesCommanders and leadersUlysses S. GrantJohn C. Pemberton(POW)Units involvedArmy of the TennesseeArmy of and losses4,835 total[4]3,202 killed or wounded

29,495 surrendered[4]

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Vicksburg Campaign

TheSiege of Vicksburg(May 18 – July 4, 1863) was the final major military action in theVicksburg Campaignof theAmerican Civil War. In a series of maneuvers,UnionMaj. Gen.Ulysses S. Grantand hisArmy of the Tennesseecrossed the Mississippi River and drove theConfederateArmy of Vicksburg led byLt. Gen.John C. Pembertoninto the defensive lines surrounding the fortress city ofVicksburg, Mississippi.

When two major assaults (May 19 and 22, 1863) against the Confederate fortifications were repulsed with heavy casualties, Grant decided to besiege the city beginning on May 25. With no reinforcement, supplies nearly gone, and after holding out for more than forty days, the garrison finally surrendered on July 4. This action (combined with the surrender ofPort Hudsonto Maj. Gen.Nathaniel P. Bankson July 9) yielded command of theMississippi Riverto the Union forces, who would hold it for the rest of the conflict.

The Confederate surrender following the siege at Vicksburg is sometimes considered, when combined with Gen.Robert E. Lee's defeat atGettysburgby Maj. Gen.George G. Meadethe previous day, theturning point of the war. It also cut off communication with Confederate forces in theTrans-Mississippi Departmentfor the remainder of the war.

  • 1Background
  • 2Opposing forces and the defenses of Vicksburg
  • 3Assaults
  • 4Siege
    • 4.1Command changes
    • 4.2Louisiana operations
    • 4.3Crater at the 3rd Louisiana Redan
  • 5Surrender and aftermath
  • 6Legacy
  • 7Notes
  • 8References
  • 9Further reading
  • 10External links
  • BackgroundFurther information:Vicksburg Campaign

    After crossing the Mississippi River south of Vicksburg at Bruinsburg and driving northeast, Grant won battles atPort GibsonandRaymondand capturedJackson, theMississippistate capital on May 14, 1863, forcing Pemberton to withdraw westward. Attempts to stop the Union advance atChampion HillandBig Black River Bridgewere unsuccessful. Pemberton knew that the corps under Maj. Gen.William T. Shermanwas preparing to flank him from the north; he had no choice but to withdraw or be outflanked. Pemberton burned the bridges over theBig Black Riverand took everything edible in his path, both animal and plant, as he retreated to the well-fortified city of Vicksburg.[5]

    The Confederates evacuated Hayne's Bluff, which was occupied by Sherman's cavalry on May 19, and Union steamboats no longer had to run the guns of Vicksburg, now being able to dock by the dozens up theYazoo River. Grant could now receive supplies more directly than by the previous route, which ran through Louisiana, over the river crossing atGrand Gulf[disambiguation needed]and Bruinsburg, then back up north.[5]

    Grant's operations against style="margin: 0.4em 0px 0.5em; line-height: 1.5em;">Over three quarters of Pemberton's army had been lost in the two preceding battles and many in Vicksburg expectedGeneralJoseph E. Johnston, in command of the ConfederateDepartment of the West, to relieve the city—which he never did. Large masses of Union troops were on the march toinvestthe city, repairing the burnt bridges over the Big Black River; which Grant's forces crossed on May 18. Johnston sent a note to his general, Pemberton, asking him to sacrifice the city and save his troops, something Pemberton would not do. (Pemberton, aNorthernerby birth, was probably influenced by his fear of public condemnation if he abandoned Vicksburg.)[6]

    Pemberton, trying to please Jefferson Davis, who insisted that Vicksburg and Port Hudson must be held, and to please Johnston, who thought both places worthless militarily, had been caught in the middle, a victim of a convoluted command system and his own indecisiveness. Too dispirited to think clearly, he chose to back his bedraggled army into Vicksburg rather than evacuate the city and head north where he might have escaped to campaign again. When he chose to take his army into Vicksburg, Pemberton sealed the fate of his troops and the city he had been determined to defend.

    —Vicksburg, Michael B. Ballard.[7]

    Opposing forces and the defenses of VicksburgFurther information:Confederate order of battleandUnion order of battleArmy Commanders at Vicksburg

    As the Union forces approached Vicksburg, Pemberton could put only 18,500 troops in his lines. Grant had over 35,000, with more on the way. However, Pemberton had the advantage of terrain and fortifications that made his defense nearly impregnable. The defensive line around Vicksburg ran approximately 6.5 miles, based on terrain of varying elevations that included hills and knobs with steep angles for an attacker to ascend under fire. The perimeter included many gun pits, forts, trenches,redoubts, andlunettes. The major fortifications of the line included Fort Hill, on a high bluff north of the city; the StockadeRedan, dominating the approach to the city on Graveyard Road from the northeast; the 3rd Louisiana Redan; the Great Redoubt; theRailroad Redoubt, protecting the gap for the railroad line entering the city; the Square Fort (Fort Garrott); a salient along the Hall's Ferry Road; and the South Fort.[8]

    Maj. Gen.Ulysses S. Grant's UnionArmy of the Tennesseebrought three corps to the battle: theXIII Corps, under Maj. Gen.John A. McClernand; theXV Corps, under Maj. Gen.William T. Sherman; and theXVII Corps, under Maj. Gen.James B. McPherson.

    Lt. Gen.John C. Pemberton's ConfederateArmy of Mississippiinside the Vicksburg line consisted of four divisions, underMaj. Gens.Carter L. Stevenson,John H. Forney,Martin L. Smith, andJohn S. Bowen.

    AssaultsMay 19 assaults on Vicksburg.May 22 assaults on Vicksburg.This painting titled "First at Vicksburg" is part of the US Army Center of Military History "US Army in Action" series. Pictured are the Confederate Lines, Vicksburg, Mississippi, May 19, 1863.

    Grant wanted to overwhelm the Confederates before they could fully organize their defenses and ordered an immediate assault against Stockade Redan for May 19. Troops from Sherman's corps had a difficult time approaching the position under rifle and artillery fire from the 36th Mississippi Infantry, Brig. Gen.Louis Hébert's brigade—they had to negotiate a steep ravine protected byabatisand cross a 6-foot-deep (1.8m), 8-foot-wide (2.4m) ditch before attacking the 17-foot-high (5.2m) walls of the redan. This first attempt was easily repulsed. Grant ordered an artillery bombardment to soften the defenses and at about 2 p.m., Sherman's division under Maj. Gen.Francis P. Blairtried again, but only a small number of men were able to advance even as far as the ditch below the redan. The assault collapsed in a melee of rifle fire and hand grenades lobbing back and forth.[9]

    The failed Federal assaults of May 19 damaged Union morale, deflating the confidence the soldiers felt after their string of victories across Mississippi. They were also costly, with casualties of 157 killed, 777 wounded, and 8 missing, versus Confederate casualties of 8 killed and 62 wounded. The Confederates, assumed to be demoralized, had regained their fighting edge.[10]

    Grant planned another assault for May 22, but this time with greater care; they would first reconnoiter thoroughly and soften up the defenses with artillery and naval gunfire. The lead units were supplied with ladders to ascend the fortification walls. Grant did not want a long siege, and this attack was to be by the entire army across a wide front.[11]

    Despite their bloody repulse on May 19, Union troops were in high spirits, now well-fed with provisions they had foraged. On seeing Grant pass by, a soldier commented, "Hardtack". Soon all Union troops in the vicinity were yelling, "Hardtack! Hardtack!" The Union served hardtack, beans, and coffee the night of May 21. Everyone expected that Vicksburg would fall the next day.[12]

    Union forces bombarded the city all night, from 220 artillery pieces and naval gunfire from Rear Adm.David D. Porter's fleet in the river, and while causing little property damage, they damaged Confederate civilian morale. On the morning of May 22, the defenders were bombarded again for four hours before the Union attacked once more along a three-mile front at 10 a.m.[13]

    Sherman attacked once again down the Graveyard Road, with 150 volunteers (nicknamed the Forlorn Hope detachment) leading the way with ladders and planks, followed by the divisions of Blair and Brig. Gen.James M. Tuttle, arranged in a long column of regiments, hoping to achieve a breakthrough by concentrating their mass on a narrow front. They were driven back in the face of heavy rifle fire. Blair's brigades under Cols.Giles A. SmithandT. Kilby Smithmade it as far as a ridge 100 yards from Green's Redan, the southern edge of the Stockade Redan, from where they poured heavy fire into the Confederate position, but to no avail. Tuttle's division, waiting its turn to advance, did not have an opportunity to move forward. On Sherman's far right, the division of Brig. Gen.Frederick Steelespent the morning attempting to get into position through a ravine of the Mint Spring Bayou.[14]

    McPherson's corps was assigned to attack the center along the Jackson Road. On their right flank, the brigade of Brig. Gen.Thomas E. G. Ransomadvanced to within 100 yards of the Confederate line, but halted to avoid dangerous flanking fire from Green's Redan. On McPherson's left flank, the division of Maj. Gen.John A. Loganwas assigned to assault the 3rd Louisiana Redan and the Great Redoubt. The brigade of Brig. Gen.John E. Smithmade it as far as the slope of the redan, but huddled there, dodging grenades until dark before they were recalled. Brig. Gen.John D. Stevenson's brigade advanced well in two columns against the redoubt, but their attack also failed when they found their ladders were too short to scale the fortification. Brig. Gen.Isaac F. Quinby's division advanced a few hundred yards, but halted for hours while its generals engaged in confused discussions.[15]

    On the Union left, McClernand's corps moved along the Baldwin Ferry Road and astride the Southern Railroad of Mississippi. The division of Brig. Gen.Eugene A. Carrwas assigned to capture the Railroad Redoubt and the 2nd Texas Lunette; the division of Brig. Gen.Peter J. Osterhauswas assigned the Square Fort. Carr's men achieved a small breakthrough at the 2nd Texas Lunette and requested reinforcements.[16]

    By 11 a.m., it was clear that a breakthrough was not forthcoming and the advances by Sherman and McPherson were failures. Just then, Grant received a message from McClernand, which stated that he was heavily engaged, the Confederates were being reinforced, and he requested a diversion on his right from McPherson's corps. Grant initially refused the request, telling McClernand to use his own reserve forces for assistance; Grant was mistakenly under the impression that McClernand had been lightly engaged and McPherson heavily, although the reverse was true. McClernand followed up with a message that was partially misleading, implying that he had captured two forts—"The Stars and Stripes are flying over them."—and that another push along the line would achieve victory for the Union Army. Although Grant once again demurred, he showed the dispatch to Sherman, who ordered his own corps to advance again. Grant, reconsidering, then ordered McPherson to send Quinby's division to aid McClernand.[17]

    As our line of battle started and before our yell had died upon the air the confederate fortifications in our front were completely crowded with the enemy, who with an answering cry of defiance, poured into our ranks, one continuous fire of musketry, and the forts and batteries in our front and both sides, were pouring in to our line, an unceasing fire of shot and shell, with fearful results, as this storm of fire sent us, intermixed with the bursting shells and that devilish rebel yell, I could compare to nothing but one of Dante's pictures of Hell, a something too fearful to describe.

    Daniel A. Ramsdell, Ransom's Brigade[18]

    Sherman ordered two more assaults. At 2:15 p.m., Giles Smith and Ransom moved out and were repulsed immediately. At 3 p.m., Tuttle's division suffered so many casualties in their aborted advance that Sherman told Tuttle, "This is murder; order those troops back." By this time, Steele's division had finally maneuvered into position on Sherman's right, and at 4 p.m., Steele gave the order to charge against the 26th Louisiana Redoubt. They had no more success than any of Sherman's other assaults.[19]

    In McPherson's sector, Logan's division made another thrust down the Jackson Road at about 2 p.m., but met with heavy losses and the attack was called off. McClernand attacked again, reinforced by Quinby's division, but with no success. Union casualties were 502 killed, 2,550 wounded, and 147 missing, about evenly divided across the three corps. Confederate casualties were not reported directly, but are estimated to be under 500. Grant blamed McClernand's misleading dispatches for part of the poor results of the day, storing up another grievance against thepolitical generalwho had caused him so many aggravations during the campaign.[20]

    SiegeSiege of Vicksburg. Corps and division commanders are shown for the period June 23 – July 4."Whistling Dick" was the name given to this specific Confederate 18 pounder because of the peculiar noise made by its projectiles. It was part of the defensive batteries facing the Mississippi River at Vicksburg. On May 28, 1863, its fire sank the USSCincinnati.

    HistorianShelby Footewrote that Grant "did not regret having made the assaults; he only regretted that they had failed."[21]Grant reluctantly settled into a siege. On May 25, Lt. Col.John A. Rawlinsissued Special Orders No. 140 for Grant: "Corps Commanders will immediately commence the work of reducing the enemy by regular approaches. It is desirable that no more loss of life shall be sustained in the reduction of Vicksburg, and the capture of the Garrison. Every advantage will be taken of the natural inequalities of the ground to gain positions from which to start mines, trenches, or advance batteries. ..."[22]Grant wrote in his memoirs, "I now determined upon a regular siege—to 'out-camp the enemy,' as it were, and to incur no more losses."[23]

    Federal troops began to dig in, constructing elaborate entrenchments (the soldiers of the time referred to them as "ditches") that surrounded the city and moved closer and closer to the Confederate fortifications. With their backs against the Mississippi and Union gunboats firing from the river, Confederate soldiers and citizens alike were trapped. Pemberton was determined to hold his few miles of the Mississippi as long as possible, hoping for relief from Johnston or elsewhere.[24]

    A new problem confronted the Confederates. The dead and wounded of Grant's army lay in the heat of Mississippi summer, the odor of the deceased men and horses fouling the air, the wounded crying for medical help and water. Grant first refused a request of truce, thinking it a show of weakness. Finally he relented, and the Confederates held their fire while the Union recovered the wounded and dead, soldiers from both sides mingling and trading as if no hostilities existed for the moment.[25]

    After this truce, Grant's army began to fill the 12-mile ring around Vicksburg. In short time it became clear that even 50,000 Union soldiers would not be able to effect a complete encirclement of the Confederate defenses. Pemberton's outlook on escape was pessimistic, but there were still roads leading south out of Vicksburg unguarded by Federal troops. Grant found help from Maj. Gen.Henry W. Halleck, the Union general-in-chief. Halleck quickly began to shift Union troops in the West to meet Grant's needs. The first of these reinforcements to arrive along the siege lines was a 5,000 man division from the Department of the Missouri under Maj. Gen.Francis J. Herronon June 11. Herron's troops, remnants of theArmy of the Frontier, were attached to McPherson's corps and took up position on the far south. Next came a three division detachment from theXVI Corpsled by Brig. Gen.Cadwallader C. Washburnon June 12, assembled from troops at nearby posts of Corinth, Memphis, and LaGrange. The final significant group of reinforcements to join was the 8,000 man strongIX Corpsfrom the Department of the Ohio, led by Maj. Gen.John G. Parke, arriving on June 14. With the arrival of Parke, Grant had 77,000 men around Vicksburg.[26]

    In an effort to cut Grant's supply line, Confederates in Louisiana under Maj. Gen.John G. WalkerattackedMilliken's Bendup the Mississippi on June 7. This was mainly defended by untrainedcolored troops, who fought bravely with inferior weaponry and finally fought off the rebels with help from gunboats, although at horrible cost; the defenders lost 652 to the Confederate 185. The loss at Milliken's Bend left the Confederates with no hope for relief but from the cautious Johnston.[27]

    We have our trenches pulled up so close to the enemy that we can throw hand grenades over into their forts. The enemy do not dare show their heads above the parapet at any time, so close and so watchful are our sharpshooters. The town is completely invested. My position is so strong that I feel myself abundantly able to leave it so and go out twenty or thirty miles with force enough to whip two such garrisons.

    Ulysses S. Grant, writing to George G. Pride, June 15, 1863[28]Union siege lines

    Pemberton was boxed in with lots of inedible munitions and little food. The poor diet was showing on the Confederate soldiers. By the end of June, half were out sick or and other diseases cut their ranks. At least one city resident had to stay up at night to keep starving soldiers out of his vegetable garden. The constant shelling did not bother him as much as the loss of his food. As the siege wore on, fewer and fewer horses, mules, and dogs were seen wandering about Vicksburg. Shoe leather became a last resort of sustenance for many adults.[29]

    During the siege, Union gunboats lobbed over 22,000 shells into the town and army artillery fire was even heavier. As the barrages continued, suitable housing in Vicksburg was reduced to a minimum. A ridge, located between the main town and the rebel defense line, provided a diverse citizenry with lodging for the duration. Over 500 caves were dug into the yellow clay hills of Vicksburg. Whether houses were structurally sound or not, it was deemed safer to occupy these dugouts. People did their best to make them comfortable, with rugs, furniture, and pictures. They tried to time their movements and foraging with the rhythm of the cannonade, sometimes unsuccessfully. Because of these dugouts or caves, the Union soldiers gave the town the nickname of "Prairie Dog Village." Despite the ferocity of the Union fire against the town, fewer than a dozen civilians were known to have been killed during the entire siege.[30]

    Command changes

    One of Grant's actions during the siege was to settle a lingering rivalry. On May 30, General McClernand wrote a self-adulatory note to his troops, claiming much of the credit for the soon-to-be victory. Grant had been waiting six months for him to slip, ever since they clashed early in the campaign, around theBattle of Arkansas Post. He had received permission to relieve McClernand in January 1863 but waited for an unequivocal provocation. Grant finally relieved McClernand on June 18. He so diligently prepared his action that McClernand was left without recourse. McClernand's XIII Corps was turned over to Maj. Gen.Edward Ord, recovered from a wound sustained atHatchie's Bridge. In May 1864, McClernand was restored to a command in remoteTexas.[31]

    Another command change occurred on June 22. In addition to Pemberton at his front, Grant had to be concerned with Confederate forces in his rear under the command ofJoseph E. Johnston. He stationed one division in the vicinity of the Big Black River bridge and another reconnoitered as far north as Mechanicsburg, both to act as a covering force. By June 10, theIX Corps, under Maj. Gen.John G. Parke, was transferred to Grant's command. This corps became the nucleus of a special task force whose mission was to prevent Johnston, gathering his forces atCanton, from interfering with the siege. Sherman was given command of this task force and Brig. Gen.Frederick Steelereplaced him at the XV Corps. Johnston eventually began moving to relieve Pemberton and reached the Big Black River on July 1, but he delayed a potentially difficult encounter with Sherman until it was too late for the Vicksburg garrison, and then fell back to Jackson.[32]Sherman would eventually pursue Johnston andcapture Jacksonon July 17.

    Louisiana operations

    Throughout the siege Union and Confederate forces kept busy in a supporting role on the Louisiana side of the Mississippi River. Lt. Gen.Edmund Kirby Smith, commander of theTrans-Mississippi Department, received a telegraph from Pemberton on May 9 requesting a movement against Grant's communication lines along the Mississippi River. Grant had established important supply depots at Milliken's Bend, Young's Point, and Lake Providence within Smith's jurisdiction, but Smith failed to recognize the importance of Pemberton's situation. It was not until June when Smith finally decided to take action on Pemberton's request, directing Maj. Gen.Richard Taylorto "do something" in favor of the Vicksburg garrison.[33]Taylor commanded the District of Western Louisiana and developed a three-pronged campaign against Grant's three supply depots. All three of Taylor's assaults were defeated (seeBattle of Milliken's Bend,Battle of Young's PointandBattle of Lake Providence).

    In response to the growing Confederate activity in the area, Grant decided to dispatch troops from the Vicksburg trenches across the river. The presence of Maj. Gen.John G. Walker'sConfederate division on the Louisiana side was of particular concern; its presence could possibly aid a Confederate escape from Vicksburg. Therefore, Brig. Gen.Alfred W. Ellet'sMississippi Marine BrigadeandJoseph A. Mower'sbrigade from Sherman's corps were ordered to the vicinity of Milliken's Bend. Mower and Ellet were to cooperate against Walker's division, which was stationed in the vicinity of Richmond, Louisiana. Richmond also happened to be an important supply line providing Vicksburg with food from Louisiana. On June 15, Ellet and Mowerdefeated Walker and destroyed Richmond, Louisiana.[34]

    Ellet's men returned to De Soto Point and constructed an artillery battery targeting an ironfoundryrecasting spent Unionartillery shells. Construction was begun on June 19, which placed a 10-pounderParrott riflein acasemateof railroad iron. The targeted foundry was destroyed on June 25 and the next day a second Parrott gun was added to the battery, which continued to harass the defenders until the garrison's surrender.[35]

    Additional Confederate activity in Louisiana occurred on June 29 atGoodrich's Landing. Confederates attacked a plantation and army training center run by former slaves. The Confederates destroyed the plantations and captured over a hundred former slaves before disengaging in the face of Ellet's Marines. Confederate raids such as these were disruptive and caused damage, but they were only minor setbacks and showed the Confederates could cause only momentary disturbances in the area.[36]

    Crater at the 3rd Louisiana RedanShirley's House, also known as the White House, during the siege of Vicksburg, 1863. Union troops of Logan's division set about as engineers and sappers to undermine Confederate fortifications but they had to stay under cover for fear of Confederate sharpshooters.

    Late in the siege, Union troops tunneled under the 3rd Louisiana Redan and packed the mine with 2,200 pounds of gunpowder. The explosion blew apart the Confederate lines on June 25, while an infantry attack made by troops from Logan's XVII Corps division, followed the blast. The 45th Illinois Regiment (known as the "Lead Mine Regiment"), under Col.Jasper A. Maltby, charged into the 40-foot (12m) diameter, 12-foot (3.7m) deep crater with ease, but were stopped by recovering Confederate infantry. The Union soldiers became pinned down while the defenders also rolled artillery shells with short fuses into the pit with deadly results. Union engineers worked to set up acasematein the crater in order to extricate the infantry, and soon the soldiers fell back to a new defensive line. From the crater left by the explosion on June 25, Union miners worked to dig a new mine to the south. On July 1, this mine was detonated but no infantry attack followed.Pioneersworked throughout July 2 and 3 to widen the initial crater large enough for an infantry column of four to pass through for future anticipated assaults. However, events the following day negated the need for any further assaults.[37]

    Surrender and aftermathFurther information:Vicksburg Campaign Aftermath

    On July 3, Pemberton sent a note to Grant, who, as atFort Donelson, first demandedunconditional surrender. But Grant reconsidered, not wanting to feed 30,000 hungry Confederates in Union prison camps, and offered toparoleall prisoners. Considering their destitute state, dejected and starving, he never expected them to fight again; he hoped they would carry home thestigmaof defeat to the rest of the Confederacy. In any event, it would have occupied his army and taken months to ship that many troops north.[38]Most of the men who were paroled on July 6 were exchanged and received back into the Confederate Army on August 4, 1863, atMobile Harbor, Alabama. They were back inChattanooga, Tennessee, by September and some fought in theBattles for Chattanoogain November and against Sherman'sinvasion of Georgiain May 1864. The Confederate government protested the validity of the paroles on technical grounds and the issue was referred to Grant who, in April 1864, was general in chief of the Army. The dispute effectively ended all furtherprisoner exchangesduring the war except for hardship cases.[39]

    Surrender was formalized by an old oak tree, "made historical by the event." In hisPersonal Memoirs,Grant described the fate of this luckless tree:

    It was but a short time before the last vestige of its body, root and limb had disappeared, the fragments taken as trophies. Since then the same tree has furnished as many cords of wood, in the shape of trophies, as the 'True Cross'.[40]

    The surrender was finalized on July 4,Independence Day, a day Pemberton had hoped would bring more sympathetic terms from the United States. Although the Vicksburg Campaign continued with some minor actions, the fortress city had fallen and, with the surrender ofPort Hudsonon July 9, theMississippi Riverwas firmly in Union hands and the Confederacy split in two. PresidentLincolnfamously announced, "The Father of Waters again goes unvexed to the sea."[41]

    Union casualties for the battle and siege of Vicksburg were 4,835; Confederate were 32,697 (29,495 surrendered).[4]The full campaign, since March 29, claimed 10,142 Union and 9,091 Confederate killed and wounded. In addition to his surrendered men, Pemberton turned over to Grant 172 cannons and 50,000 rifles.[42]

    Confederate officerBenjamin Morgan Harrod, aHarvard-trainedcivil engineerwho later designed the water and sewage systems forNew Orleans, was among the southerners captured at Vicksburg. He was later paroled and joined the engineering division style="margin: 0.4em 0px 0.5em; line-height: 1.5em;">SIXTH REGIMENT
    NEW HAMPSHIRE VOLUNTEER INFANTRY.
    ( THREE YEARS )

    By LYMAN JACKMAN, late Captain Sixth Regiment New Hampshire Volunteer Infantry,.and Historian of Regiment. THE Sixth Regiment was organized at Keene, in November, 1861, the men coming from all parts of the State. The regiment camped on the Cheshire Fair Ground, about a mile and a half out from the city, the camp being called "Camp Brooks." Company B was the first on the ground, reporting November 9. The men were mustered in November 27 to 30, the regimental organization being completed on the 30th. On the 25th of December the regiment left Keene, and proceeded via Worcester, Norwich, and New York, to Washington, where it arrived at 4 P. M., on the 28th, and was assigned to Casey's Provisional Brigade, in which it remained until January 6, 1862, being camped at Bladensburg, Md. On the 6th of January the regiment started for Annapolis, Md., to join Burnside's expedition to North Carolina. Arriving at Annapolis on the evening of the 7th, the regiment the next day went on board the steamer "Louisiana" and the ship "Martha Greenwood," and arrived at Fort Monroe on the evening of the 10th. Here the whole regiment was crowded onto the "Louisiana," and on the 11th started for Hatteras Inlet, arriving there about 5 P. M., the next day, after encountering a terrible storm on the way. The Sixth landed on the 17th and camped at "Camp Wool" on Hatteras Island. The camp being very unhealthy, the regiment, on the 24th, moved about two miles to " Camp Winfield Scott," where it remained until the 24th of February. On the 25th it embarked on the steamer " Northerner," and landed on Roanoke Island March 2, being assigned, on the 6th, to the Fourth Brigade, Department of North Carolina. On the 8th of March six companies under Lieutenant Colonel Griffin, joined an expedition to Columbia, N. C., in search of a rebel regiment, said to be recruiting at that place; but the expedition returned without finding the enemy. On the night of April 7 Lieutenant Colonel Griffin, with four companies of the Sixth and two of the Ninth New York went to Elizabeth City, N. C., and broke up a rebel camp. On the 19th of April, General Reno, with four regiments and a battery, moved on Camden, N. C., and met the enemy about 3 o'clock in the afternoon, and a sharp fight ensued. The Sixth, by its handsome behavior here, won complimentary notice in orders. On the 18th of June the regiment left Roanoke Island, and reached New Berne, N. C., the next day. During this month the Sixth was assigned to the First Brigade, First Division, Department of North Carolina. On the 1st of July the Sixth embarked to join McClellan in Virginia; but it having been reported that Richmond had been captured, the regiment returned and landed at New Berne, July 5, but re-embarked the next day, and on the 10th landed at Newport News. The regiment was assigned on the 22d to the First Brigade, Second Division, Ninth Army Corps. On the 2d of August the regiment went on board transports, reached Aquia creek on the 4th, landed and proceeded by rail to Falmouth, Va., where it arrived late that night, and camped opposite Fredericksburg. August 12 the regiment left camp and marched to join Pope's army, which was found near Culpeper, Va. At Bull Run on the afternoon of the 28th the First Brigade was ordered to attack the enemy, who ,were posted in the woods. The Sixth with the Second Maryland on its right, made a gallant attack ; but the Forty-Eighth Pennsylvania, on its left, fell behind, and the Sixth being exposed to a murderous fire on its left flank, was compelled to fall back. This battle was the most disastrous to the regiment of any in which it participated, two hundred and ten being killed, wounded, or missing out of four hundred and fifty officers and men who went into the fight. On the next day the Sixth with its brigade acted as a support to the Second Brigade of the Second Division of the corps. The night of the 30th the Ninth Corps covered the retreat of Pope's army. About 6 P. M., September 1, the enemy attacked the corps near Chantilly, Va., and the Sixth being brought into the fight, was engaged until dark, when the enemy withdrew. The army then fell back to the defences of Washington; and here the Sixth remained until the 7th of September, when, with its corps, it moved; and passing through Frederick. Md., was at South Mountain on the 14th, being used with its division as a support. At Antietam on the 17th. the Sixth was again engaged, taking part in a charge made to take the "stone bridge'' (afterwards known as "Burnside's bridge''), on Antietam creek. A few days later the regiment marched to Pleasant Valley, Md., remained until October 27, when the army left Pleasant Valley, crossed the Potomac by pontoon bridges at Berlin, and took up a line of march along the valley east of the Blue Ridge, with Richmond for its objective point. The regiment was now, with its division, in the advance of the army ; and on the 14th of November, being a part of the advance picket line, skirmished at Amissville. At Warrenton (or White Sulphur) Springs, November 15th, the regiment was lightly engaged. On the 19th of November the regiment arrived at Falmouth in front of Fredericksburg, and camped north of the Phillips house until December 12, when it marched into Fredericksburg. At about 1 P. M., the next day, the Sixth, with its brigade, advanced to assault the enemy's works on Marye's Heights, and was engaged until dark. On the 15th it returned to its former camp-ground at Falmouth, and remained until the 10th of February, 1863 when it was sent to Newport News. Orders were received on the 20th of March to break camp and take transports to Baltimore, and from thence to proceed by rail to Cincinnati. The Ninth Army Corps was ordered to report to General Burnside, who had been transferred to the Department of the Ohio. As the central and southern portions of Kentucky were being plundered by the rebels, General Burnside decided early in April to send the Ninth Corps into that State. Accordingly the Sixth proceeded to Lexington, Ky., and from thence to Winchester, on the 8th of April; and leaving Winchester on the 16th, arrived at Richmond (Ky.), on the 18th. The regiment then proceeded to Paint Lick creek on the 3d of May, and to Lancaster on the 10th. Remaining there until the 23d, when it advanced to Crab Orchard, with a view to joining in the movement upon East Tennessee, then contemplated by General Burnside. Orders for the movement were countermanded, however, and on the 4th of June the regiment left Crab Orchard; and at evening on the 6th, reached Cincinnati, where the night was spent. The next morning the regiment left Cincinnati, and reached Cairo on the 8th, went on board the steamer "General Anderson" the next day, and passed down the Mississippi river to join General Grant in his operations against Vicksburg. On the 13th of June the fleet reached Milliken's Bend, and on the 14th the Sixth disembarked near the canal dug by General Williams to turn the river so that the Union boats might pass Vicksburg unmolested. On the 15th the regiment marched southwest to a point on the river about ten miles below Vicksburg, returning the same day; and on the morning of the 16th, went up the Yazoo river to Haynes' Bluff, and camped at Milldale, about a mile distant. Here the regiment remained until the 22d, when it marched eastward, and on the 25th came upon some of the enemy's outposts near the Big Black river. After waiting here a few days the movement was continued July 1st to Oak Ridge. Vicksburg surrendered on the 4th, and the Sixth immediately started with the army in pursuit of the enemy under General Johnston. The rebels made a stand at Jackson, Miss., and here the Sixth was engaged from the 10th to the 17th, when it was discovered that Johnston had evacuated the city. On the 20th the army began its return march, and three days afterward the Sixth reached its old camp at Milldale. Here the regiment remained until August 8, when it embarked and made its way up the river to Cairo and thence by rail to Cincinnati, which was reached on the 20th. On the 23d the Sixth proceeded by rail to Nicholasville, and camped a few miles from the village near Camp Nelson, Ky. On the 9th of September the Sixth was sent to Frankfort to do provost duty. Leaving Frankfort the 24th, the regiment reached Russellville the next day, where it remained until the 26th of October; then it left for Camp Nelson to perform provost duty, and arrived there the next day. While here many of the men re-enlisted, and on January 16, 1864, the re- enlisted men left for New Hampshire to spend the furlough of thirty days granted by terms of re-enlistment. They were afterwards re-furloughed, and did not leave the State until the 18th of March, when they proceeded to Annapolis, Md., to join the Ninth Corps, then re-assembling at that place. The remainder of the regiment joined, and -the Sixth was assigned to the Second Brigade, Second Division, Ninth Army Corps, April 20. On the 23d of April the regiment marched with its corps to join the Army of the Potomac, reaching it in time to take part in the battle of the Wilderness on the 6th of May, where, with the Second Brigade, it made an heroic charge, capturing a large number of prisoners. From the 8th to the 20th, the Sixth was at Spottsylvania, being severely engaged on the 12th and 18th. Starting on the 21st, the regiment pushed on to the North Anna river, where it was in the reserve from the 23d to the 25th, and was in the front line on the 26th, when Lieutenant-Colonel Pearson was killed. The army moved on the night of the 26th, towards Totopotomoy creek, where the Sixth was engaged on the 30th and 31st. June 2 and 3 the regiment was engaged near Bethesda Church, and from the 4th to the 12th, was under fire at Cold Harbor. On the night of the 12th the army withdrew, and at Noon of the 16th the Ninth Corps arrived in front of Petersburg. Here the regiment was constantly under fire until the 20th of August, taking part in the assault following the explosion of the "Mine" on the 30th of July. August 20 the corps withdrew and moved to the Weldon Railroad. Here on the 20th and 21st, the Sixth assisted in repelling two desperate attacks made by the rebels. A new line of intrenchments was thrown up, connecting with those formerly held, and the regiment remained here under fire until September 30. On the 30th of September and the day following, the Sixth was engaged near Poplar Springs Church, about one hundred and twenty-five officers and men being killed, wounded, or captured. Works were thrown up, and the regiment remained here until early in December, participating without loss in the engagement at Hatcher's Run, on the 27th of October. Early in December the corps returned to its original position in front of Petersburg, the Sixth lying in rear of Fort Alexander Hays until April 1, 1865. While here the regiment took part in a reconnoissance to Nottoway Court House, December 10,11, and 12,1864. On the night of April 1, 1865, the Sixth, with its brigade, made a successful attack on the enemy's works to the left of Fort Davis, and on the morning of the 2d participated in a second successful attack near Fort Sedgwick. From Petersburg the regiment marched in pursuit of Lee's army, arriving at Burkeville on the 9th of April. On the 20th the regiment marched for City Point, and leaving there on the 26th, embarked on the steamer "D. R. Martin.'' Alexandria was reached the next day, where the regiment remained in camp until mustered out on the 17th of July. On the 18th of July the regiment left Alexandria, and proceeded by rail to New York, thence by boat to Norwich, and arrived at Concord, July 23. The regiment during its term of service served in seventeen different states; meeting all the requisitions of duty, however onerous or perilous, with cheerful and ready efficiency. While it is not asserted that the Sixth was the best regiment sent out from New Hampshire, the claim may be made, and can be maintained, that it was equal to the best. Its record has added a brilliant chapter to the history of New Hampshire's always glorious achievements in war. The Sixth New Hampshire Volunteers was attached to General Casey's Provisional Brigade, near Washington, D. C., December 28, 1861; General Burnside's Expedition to North Carolina, January 6, 1862; Fourth Brigade, Department of North Carolina, March 6, 1862; First Brigade, First Division, Department of North Carolina, June, 1862; First Brigade, Second Division, Ninth Army Corps, July 22, 1862; District of Kentucky, Department of Ohio, September 9, 1863; on Veteran Furlough, January 16, 1864; in Ninth Army Corps, unassigned, March, 1864; Second Brigade, Second Division, Ninth Army Corps, April 20, 1864. E N G A G E M E N T S . Camden, N.C. Apr. 19, 1862 Bull Run, Va. Aug. 29, 30, 1862 Chantilly, Va. Sept. 1, 1862 South Mountain, Md. Sept. 14, 1862 Antietam, Md. Sept. 17, 1862 White Sulphur Springs, Va. Nov. 15, 1862 Fredericksburg, Va. Dec. 13, 1862 Siege of Vicksburg, Miss. June 14 to July 4, 1863 Jackson, Miss. July 10-16, 1863 Wilderness, Va. May 6, 1864 Spottsylvania, Va. May 8-20, 1864 North Anna River, Va. May 23-26, 1864 Totopotomoy, Va. May 30,31, 1864 Bethesda Church, Va. June 2,3, 1864 Cold Harbor, Va. June 4-12, 1864 Siege of Petersburg, Va., June 16, 1864 to Apr 3, 1865 Mine Explosion, Petersburg, Va. (assault) July 30, 1864 Weldon Railroad, Va. Aug. 20-22, 1864 Poplar Springs Church, Va. Sept. 30, Oct. 1, 1864 Hatcher's Run, Va. Oct. 27, 1864 Petersburg, Va. Apr. 1, 2, 1865

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    Civil War Soldier Letter Capt Albert Hayes 6th Nh Siege Vicksburg Ms 6/18 1863

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