Confederate General Sibley Csa Brady Cdv Image Glorieta Pass Army Of New Mexico
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Confederate General Sibley Csa Brady Cdv Image Glorieta Pass Army Of New Mexico:
Offered is a very nice, Civil War, Matthew Brady CDV image of Major General Sibley, CSA. Measures:4 x 2.25." This rare, historic CDV has period, hand-written pencil that reads: Maj Gen Sibley CSA.Here is some info on Sibley:
Henry Hopkins Sibley(May 25, 1816 – August 23, 1886) was abrigadier theAmerican Civil War, leading theConfederate States Armyin theNew Mexico Territory. His attempt to gain control of trails toCaliforniawas defeated at theBattle of Glorieta Pass. AWest Pointgraduate, he had served with theUnited States Armyfrom 1838 until 1861 and the start of the Civil War, when he resigned to join theSouthern Cause.
Dr. John Sibley served as a medic inMassachusettsin theAmerican Revolutionary War. His wife was Elizabeth Hopkins, whose family name was given as a middle name to their son Samuel and grandson Henry. After her death in 1803, Dr. Sibley was part of an expedition to theRed Rivercountry of western Louisiana for the US government after theLouisiana Purchaseand chose to settle inNatchitoches. In 1811 his son Samuel Hopkins Sibley and his wife followed to Natchitoches. Samuel Sibley served as aparishclerk from 1815 until his death in 1823.Henry Hopkins Sibley was born in Natchitoches in 1816. After his father's death when Henry was seven years old, the boy was sent toMissourito live with his paternal uncleGeorge Champlin Sibleyand his wifeMary Easton, the foundeers ofLindenwood CollegeinSt. Charles,Missouri.Family and early life
Uniongeneral and firstGovernor of Minnesota,Henry Hastings Sibley(1811–1891), was a distant cousin. His family had migrated west in theNorthern Tier, which historians have called Greater New England.At the age of 17, Henry was admitted to theUnited States Military AcademyatWest Point, New York. He graduated in 1838 and was commissioned assecond lieutenantin the2nd U.S. Dragoons.U.S. Army service
He foughtSeminole IndiansinFlorida, 1840–1841; participated in the Military Occupation of Texas, 1845–1846; and fought in theMexican-American War, 1847–1848. Sibley was onfrontierduty in Texas from 1850–1855. Sibley was a creative military man. In the 1850s, he invented the "Sibley tent", which was widely used by the Union Army during theAmerican Civil Warand for a short while afterward. The United Kingdom also adopted the design of the Sibley tent. He also invented the "Sibley stove" (also known as the Sibley tent stove), to heat the tent. The Army used tent stoves of this design until the advent ofWorld War II.
From 1855–1857, Sibley was part of the forces trying to control conflict inBleeding Kansas, where hundreds of new settlers arrived to vote on the question ofslavery, provoked by the 1854Kansas–Nebraska Act. He took part in theUtah War, 1857–1860, and was in active service in New Mexico 1860–1861. After the outbreak of theAmerican Civil War, Sibley resigned on May 13, 1861, the day of his promotion toMajorin the 1st Dragoons. Native to Louisiana, he had southern sympathies and joined theConfederate States Army(CSA).Sibley resigned from the US Army as he sided with the Confederacy. Placed in command of a brigade of volunteer cavalry inWest Texas, Sibley dubbed his small force theArmy of New Mexicoand began planning aNew Mexico Campaignto capture the cities ofAlbuquerqueandSanta FeandFort Unionon theSanta Fe Trailin order to establish a forward base of supply. He then intended to continue north toColoradoto capture the numerous gold and silver mines in the area as a means of replenishing the badly depleted Confederate treasury. From there Sibley planned to join forces with ConfederateLieut. John R. Baylor, already in control of most of the New Mexico and Arizona territories and headquartered in Tucson, AZ. Their ultimate strategy was to gain access to the warm water ports ofCaliforniaand establish a badly needed supply line to the South, as the Union Navy had implemented a naval blockade from Virginia to Texas.Throughout the 1862 New Mexico Campaign, his opponent was ColonelEdward Canby, formerly a comrade in arms in the U.S. Army. Some historians have said he was Sibley's brother in law,but this relation has been disputed.Civil War
Sibley was initially successful at theBattle of Valverdeon 20-21 February and pressed on to capture Albuquerque and Santa Fe in the first weeks of March. Although the subsequentBattle of Glorieta Passon March 28 ended in an apparent Confederate victory on the field, Sibley had to retreat because his supply train was destroyed and most of the horses and mules killed or driven off during the fight. At the same time, Union forces were approaching New Mexico from the west, theCalifornia Column. Glorieta Pass has been called the "Gettysburgof the West" by some authors;Sibley's retreat to the campaign's starting point atFort Blissin April ended the hopes of the Confederate nation to stretch to thePacific Oceanand use the mineral wealth of California.
After the failure of the New Mexico Campaign, Sibley was given minor commands under GeneralRichard TayloraboutBayou Techein south Louisiana, commanding the "Arizona Brigade" at the battles ofIrish BendandFort Bisland. ThehistorianJohn D. Wintersreports that he blundered on several occasions, not striking when instructed.Struggling withalcoholism, he wascourt 1863. Although not convicted ofcowardice, he wascensured.After the war,Thaddeus P. Mottrecruited former Union andConfederatesoldiers for service in theEgyptian Army. Sibley was one of the first people to arrive in Egypt and served from 1870 to 1873 as amilitaryadviser (with the rank of brigadier general of artillery) to theIsma'il Pasha,KhediveofEgypt, overseeing the construction of coastal fortifications. However, he fell back into problems with alcohol, and he was dismissed due to illness and disability.Postbellum career and death
Back in the U.S. Sibley lived from 1874 with his daughter inFredericksburg, Virginia. He wrote articles and worked on military inventions. He fought a legal battle with the U.S. government to outstanding payments on its patents.
He died in poverty. He is buried in theFredericksburg Confederate Cemetery.
TheNew Mexico Campaignwas a military operation of theAmerican Civil Warfrom February to April 1862 in whichConfederateBrigadier GeneralHenry Hopkins Sibleyinvaded the northernNew Mexico Territoryin an attempt to gain control of theSouthwest, including thegold fields of Coloradoand the ports ofCalifornia. Historians regard this campaign as the most ambitious Confederate attempt to establish control of theAmerican Westand to open an additional theater in the war. It was an important campaign in the war'sTrans-Mississippi Theater, and one of the major events in the history of theNew Mexico Territory in the American Civil War.
The Confederates advanced north along theRio GrandefromFort BlissinTexas. They won theBattle of Valverdebut failed to captureFort Craigor force the surrender of the mainUnion Armyin the territory. They continued north across the border towardsSanta FeandFort Union, leaving that Union force in their rear. AtGlorieta Pass, the Confederates defeated another Union force from Fort Union, but were forced to retreat following the destruction of the wagon train containing most of their supplies.
Confederate success in this campaign would have denied the Union a major source of the gold and silver necessary to finance its war effort, and the Union navy would have had the additional difficulty of attempting to blockade several hundred miles of coastline in the Pacific.A Confederate victory would have also diverted Union troops which, following the invasion, were used to fight Native American tribes on theplainsand in theRockies.
Union forces in theDepartment of New Mexicowere led byColonelEdward Canby, who headquartered at Fort Craig. Under his immediate command at the fort were five regiments of New Mexico volunteer infantry,a company of the 2nd Colorado Infantry, two provisional artillery units, eleven companies of the5th,7th, and10thU.S. Infantry,six companies of the2ndand 3rd U.S. Cavalry, and two regiments New Mexico militia. At Fort Union, under the command of ColonelGabriel Paul, were the1st Colorado Infantry, a company of the2nd Colorado Infantry, a battalion of the 5th U.S. Infantry Regiment, a detachment from the1stand3rd U.S. Cavalry, a company of the 4th New Mexico Infantry, and two provisional artillery batteries.The ConfederateArmy of New Mexicowas led byBrigadier GeneralHenry Hopkins Sibley. His units included the4th Texas Mounted Riflesand5th Texas Mounted Rifles(both of which had batteries of mountainhowitzers), five companies of the7th Texas Mounted Rifles, six companies of the2nd Texas Mounted Rifles(which also had an artillery battery attached), and several companies of Arizona Confederate mounted volunteers. Following his arrival in New Mexico in January, Sibley organized his artillery into a battalion under the command of Captain Trevanion Teel, whom he promoted to major.Five additional companies of the 7th Texas arrived near the end of February and served as the garrison of Fort Thorn at Mesilla.Opposing forcesFor years, residents in the southern part of the New Mexico Territory had been complaining that the territorial government in Santa Fe was too far away to properly address their concerns. The withdrawal of the Regular army at the beginning of the war confirmed to the residents that they were being abandoned. Secession conventions in Mesilla andTucsonvoted to join the territory to the Confederacy in March 1861, and formed militia companies to defend themselves.In July 1861, Lieutenant ColonelJohn Baylorled of a battalion ofTexasmounted rifles into the southern portion of theNew Mexico Territory, entering Mesilla and repulsing the attack of the Union garrison ofFort Filmoreat theBattle of Mesilla. The victorious Baylor established theConfederate Territory of Arizonasouth of the 34th parallel.Confederate strategy
The 1862 campaign was a continuation of this strategy formulated by Sibley in a plan presented to Confederate presidentJefferson Davis. Sibley's strategy called for an invasion along the Eastern side of the Rocky Mountains, seizing theColorado Territory(then at the height of the Colorado Gold Rush) andFort Laramie(the most importantUnited States Armygarrison along theOregon Trail), before turning westward to attack the mineral-richNevadaand California. He planned to take minimal supplies along with him, intending to live off the land and to capture the stockpiles of supplies at Union forts and depots along theSanta Fe Trail. Once these territories had been secured, Sibley intended to take the northern Mexican states ofChihuahua,Sonora, andLower California, either through purchase or by invasion.On December 20, 1861, General Sibley, in command of the Army of New Mexico, issued a proclamation taking possession of New Mexico in the name of the Confederate States.He called on the citizens to abandon their allegiance to the Union and to join the Confederacy, warning that those "who co-operate with the enemy will be treated accordingly, and must be prepared to share their fate."In February 1862, Sibley advanced northward from Fort Thorn up the valley of the Rio Grande, toward the territorial capital of Santa Fe and the Union storehouses at Fort Union. Along the way, Sibley detached 54 men to occupy Tucson. The Confederate advance followed the west bank of the river via Fort Craig, which was garrisoned by a 3,800-man Union force under Canby. Knowing he could not leave such a large Union force behind him as he advanced, Sibley attempted to lure the Union forces out into battle on favorable terms.March toward Santa Fe
On February 19, Sibley camped at the sandhills east of the fort with the intention of cutting the Union lines of communications with Santa Fe. On February 20, the Union forces advanced from the fort but were hit with heavy Confederateartilleryand were forced to retreat. The next day the Confederates marched toValverde Ford, six miles (10km) north of the fort, in an attempt to outflank the Union forces. Canby attacked, but the Union forces were driven back by the Confederates under ColonelThomas Green, who took command after Sibley was indisposed (some say of drunkenness).Canby's forces retreated to Fort Craig but refused to surrender.
Since he had only enough rations for three days, Sibley could not attempt a siege nor retreat back to Mesilla. Instead, he chose to disengage from the fort and continued slowly northward towards Santa Fe, on the other side of the border in New Mexico Territory. Hoping to reach the supplies located there and also to cut Fort Craig's lines of supplies and communications. Due to the loss of horses at Valverde, the 4th Texas had to be dismounted, with the remaining horses, already in a weakened state, distributed among the other units. They also had lost much of their transportation in the battle at Valverde, causing them to carry the wounded. All this caused the column to travel slower than it could have. Canby meanwhile attempted to trap Sibley's army between his own force and Fort Union. He disbanded his militia and most of the volunteer units, and sent most of his mounted units northward to act as partisans and to "obstruct [Sibley's] movements if he should advance, and cut off his supplies, by removing from his route the cattle, grain, and other supplies in private hands that would aid him in sustaining his force."
Starting on February 23, the Confederate forces reached Albuquerque on March 2 and Santa Fe on March 13, but due to their slow advance they failed to capture most of the Union supplies located at these cities. The slow advance also allowed reinforcements from Colorado under the command of ColonelJohn Sloughto reach Fort Union. Since he had been commissioned colonel before Paul was commissioned the same rank, Slough claimed seniority and took command of the fort. Canby had already ordered Paul to "not move from Fort Union to meet me until I advise you of the route and point of junction."After learning of the change in command, Canby told Slough to "advise me of your plans and movements, that I may cooperate." He also instructed Slough to "harass the enemy by partisan operations. Obstruct his movements and cut off his supplies."Slough interpreted this as an authorization to advance, which he did with 1,342 men from the fort's garrison. The Union and Confederate forces meet at theBattle of Glorieta Passon March 28. The Confederates were able to push the Union force through the pass, but had to retreat following the destruction of their wagon train, which contained nearly all of their supplies and ammunition. Sibley pulled his army back to Albuquerque to await reinforcements from Texas. Slough, receiving orders from Canby to return immediately to Fort Union, also retreated, fearing a court martial if he disobeyed this order. Once he arrived at the fort, he resigned his commission and returned to Colorado, leaving Lieutenant Colonel Samuel Tappan in command of the regiment and Paul in command of the fort.
Canby initially ordered the Union force to retreat back to Fort Union, but after discovering the weakness of the Confederates he ordered a concentration of Union forces; small garrisons were left at Forts Craig and Union, and the main forces were to rendezvous near Albuquerque. With limited supplies and ammunition and outnumbered, Sibley choose to retreat to Texas, leaving Albuquerque on April 12 after asmall fighta few days earlier. On April 14, Canby encountered the Confederates atPeralta, where the armies skirmished until 2:00 p.m. when a sandstorm permitted the Confederates to withdraw. The retreat continued through Mesilla to San Antonio, during which hundreds of Confederates straggled and fell behind. A rearguard of four companies of the 7th Texas and several companies of Arizona Confederates (consolidated under the command of Lieutenant ColonelPhilemon Herbertas the1st Arizona Mounted Rifles Battalion) was left at Fort Thorn, commanded by ColonelWilliam Steele.These forces, heavily outnumbered by Union units arriving from California and Kansas, retreated to Texas in early July.Following the Confederate retreat, units from the UnionCalifornia Columnunder the command of ColonelJames Carletonoccupied several forts in western Texas. Canby was promoted to brigadier general and reassigned to the Eastern theater. He was succeeded as commander of the department by Carleton, who was also promoted to brigadier general. The best men from the New Mexico volunteers were formed into the1st New Mexico CavalrywithKit Carsonin command; the regiment spent the rest of the war fighting Indian tribes in the territory.Aftermath
Although the Confederates continued to consider Arizona part of the Confederacy and made several plans for another invasion, they were never able to put these plans into execution. Sibley's brigade would be called by many the "Arizona Brigade" and continued to serve in various areas in Texas and Louisiana during the remainder of the war. Sibley would eventually be demoted to directing supply trains in 1863
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