Exceedingly Rare Pamphlet About The Mountain Meadows Massacre, Utah 1875
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Exceedingly Rare Pamphlet About The Mountain Meadows Massacre, Utah 1875 :
Exceedingly rare pamphlet about the Mountain Meadows Massacre, UTAH 1875 Highly collectible pamphlet about the Mormon massacre
Author: Lee, John D. (John The Lee trial! An expose of the Mountain Meadows massacre, being a condensed report of the prisoner's statement, testimony of witnesses,
charge of the judge, arguments of counsel, and opinions of the press upon the trial / By the Salt Lake daily tribune reporter.
Publisher: Salt Lake City, Utah : Tribune Printing Company, 1875
Reference: Howes L208; Woodward 126.
Physical description: 64 pp. ; ca. 21 x 14,4 cm. Absolutely complete!
Condition: As seen in the pictures: Very tiny tears and chips on spine, previous owner stamps incl. a German Library (released!) Very clean and white paper! Still very good+ condition!
Value/sale record: I was unable to find this very rare and historical so important pamphlet, in any older I could locate only, a Mountain Meadows Massacre Lithograph from the Pacific Art Company in 1877, offered for and a 1877 Newspaper incl. a coverage of John D. Lee's trial for $5000,00 on the antiquarian Somehow, I believe that the present item today, is much more interesting!
Update! I just received the information from a friend in the USA, that this unbelieveable pamphlet hit only 3 times the American sale market:1. in the Year 1944, sold for $25,00 (Decker)
2. in the Year 1965, sold for $150,00 (Eberstadt
3. in the Year 1973, sold for $375,00 (Sotheby's Parke Bernet). This is most likely the time, that this piece saw an sale, and this was 40 (!) Years ago.$375,00 was alot of money in 1973 !KVK (OCLC) gave me only 4 copies in America:
1. Victoria University Library Toronto (Canada)
2. Utah State State Library-Merrill-Cazier Library- Utah
3. University of California, Berkeley
4. California State University, Northridge _Oviatt Library THE REST WAS ONLY ON MICROFILM!!!Now, you can see how rare and valuable this important pamphlet is!!!Most desirable and interesting rare
I have listet more very old books and manuscripts at the moment!!! The pamphlet is located in Germany and looks for coming back at home! 10-day sale, ending on sunday.
S/h to the USA (ca. 9 days) is: $4,-
Canada and South-America: $ 4,-
National shipping within Germany is: $4,-
I'm not responsible for customs or Tax! Insurance on request! Payment via Pay-Pal!
I send the mail with a trackable Number only! sale starts on 0.99 USD ending on sunday. NO important information to this amazing interesting historical subject:The Mountain Meadows massacre was a series of attacks on the Baker–Fancher emigrant wagon train at Mountain Meadows in southern Utah. The attacks
culminated on September 11, 1857, with the mass slaughter of most in the emigrant party by members of the Utah Territorial Militia from the Iron
County district, together with some Paiute Native Americans.The wagon train—composed almost entirely of families from Arkansas—was bound for California on a route that passed through the Utah Territory during
a turbulent time period, later known as the Utah War. After arriving in Salt Lake City, the Baker–Fancher party made their way south, eventually
stopping to rest at Mountain Meadows. While the emigrants were camped at the meadow, nearby militia leaders, including Isaac C. Haight and John D.
Lee, made plans to attack the wagon train.The militia, officially called the Nauvoo Legion, was composed of Utah's Mormon settlers (members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
or LDS Church). Intending to give the appearance of Native American aggression, their plan was to arm some Southern Paiute Native Americans and
persuade them to join with a larger party of their own militiamen—disguised as Native Americans—in an attack. During the militia's first assault on
the wagon train, the emigrants fought back and a five-day siege ensued. Eventually fear spread among the militia's leaders that some emigrants had
caught sight of white men, and had likely discovered the identity of their attackers. As a result militia commander William H. Dame ordered his
forces to kill the emigrants.By this time the emigrants were running low on water and provisions, and allowed some approaching members of the militia—who carried a white Flag—to
enter their camp. The militia members assured the emigrants their protection and escorted them from the hasty fortification. After walking a distance
from the camp, the militiamen, with the help of auxiliary forces hiding nearby, attacked the emigrants. Intending to leave no witnesses and to
prevent reprisals to complicate the Utah War, the perpetrators killed all the adults and older children (totaling about 120 men, women, and children).
Seventeen children, all younger than seven, were spared.Following the massacre, the perpetrators hastily buried the victims, leaving the bodies vulnerable to wild animals and the climate. Local families
took in the surviving children, and many of the victims' possessions were saleed off. Investigations, temporarily interrupted by the American Civil
War, resulted in nine indictments during 1874. Of the men indicted, only John D. Lee was tried in a court of law. After two trials in the Utah
Territory, Lee was convicted by a jury, sentenced to death, and executed.Today historians attribute the massacre to a combination of factors, including war hysteria about possible invasion of Mormon territory, and strident
Mormon teachings against outsiders. Scholars debate whether senior Mormon leadership, including Brigham Young, directly instigated the massacre or if
responsibility lay with the local leaders in southern party
In early 1857, several groups of emigrants from the northwestern Arkansas region started their trek to California, joining up on the way to form a
group known as the Baker–Fancher party. The groups were mostly from Marion; Crawford; Carroll; and Johnson counties in Arkansas, and had assembled into
a wagon train at Beller's Stand, south of Harrison, to emigrate to southern California. This group was initially referred to as both the Baker train
and the Perkins train, but after being joined by other Arkansas trains and making its way west, was soon called the Baker–Fancher train (or party). It
was named for "Colonel" Alexander Fancher who, having already made the journey to California twice before, had become its main leader. By contemporary
standards the Baker–Fancher party was prosperous, carefully organized, and well-equipped for the journey. They were joined along the way by families
and individuals from other states, including Missouri. This group was relatively wealthy, and planned to restock its supplies in Salt Lake City, as
did most wagon trains at the time. The party reached Salt Lake City with about 120 members.
Interactions with Mormon settlers
See also: War hysteria preceding the Mountain Meadows massacreAt the time of the Fanchers' arrival, the Utah Territory was organized as a theocratic democracy under the lead of Brigham Young, who had established
colonies along the California Trail and Old Spanish Trail. President James Buchanan had recently issued an order to send troops to Utah. Rumors spread
in the territory about the motives for the federal troop movement. Young issued various orders, urging the local population to prepare for the arrival
of the troops. Eventually Young issued a declaration of martial law.The Baker–Fancher party chose to leave Salt Lake City and take the Old Spanish Trail, which passed through southern Utah. In August 1857, the Mormon
apostle George A. Smith, of Parowan, traveled throughout southern Utah, instructing the settlers to stockpile grain. While on his return trip to Salt
Lake City, Smith camped near the Baker–Fancher party on August 25 at Corn Creek, (near present-day Kanosh) 70 miles (110 km) north of Parowan. They
had traveled the 165 miles (266 km) south from Salt Lake City, and Jacob Hamblin suggested that the wagon train continue on the trail and rest their
cattle at Mountain Meadows, which had good pasture and was adjacent to his homestead.
Christopher Kit Fancher (survivor of the Mountain Meadows massacre)While most witnesses said that the Fanchers were in general a peaceful party whose members behaved well along the trail, rumors spread about misdeeds.
Brevet Major James Henry Carleton led the first federal investigation of the murders, published in 1859. He recorded Hamblin's account that the train
was alleged to have poisoned a spring near Corn Creek; this resulted in the deaths of 18 head of cattle and two or three people who ate the
contaminated meat. Carleton interviewed the father of a child who allegedly died from this poisoned spring, and accepted the sincerity of the grieving
father. But, he also included a statement from an investigator who did not believe the Fancher party was capable of poisoning the spring, given its
size. Carleton invited readers to consider a potential explanation for the rumors of misdeeds, noting the general atmosphere of distrust among Mormons
for strangers at the time, and that some locals appeared jealous of the Fancher party's wealth.
Conspiracy and siege
Main article: Conspiracy and siege of the Mountain Meadows massacreThe Baker–Fancher party left Corn Creek and continued the 125 miles (201 km) to Mountain Meadows, passing Parowan, and Cedar City; southern Utah
communities led respectively by Stake Presidents William H. Dame and Isaac C. Haight. Haight and Dame were, in addition, the senior regional military
leaders of the Mormon militia. As the Baker–Fancher party approached, several meetings were held in Cedar City and nearby Parowan by the local Latter
Day Saint (LDS) leaders pondering how to implement Young's declaration of martial law. In the afternoon of Sunday, September 6, Haight held his
weekly Stake High Council meeting after church services, and brought up the issue of what to do with the emigrants. The plan for a Native American
massacre was discussed, but not all the Council members agreed it was the right approach. The Council resolved to take no action until Haight sent
a rider, James Haslam, out the next day to carry an express to Salt Lake City (a six-day round trip on horseback) for Brigham Young's advice; as Utah
did not yet have a telegraph system. Following the Council, Isaac C. Haight decided to send a messenger south to John D. Lee. What Haight told Lee
remains a mystery, but considering the timing it may have had something to do with Council's decision to wait for advice from Brigham Young.The somewhat dispirited Baker–Fancher party found water and fresh grazing for its livestock after reaching grassy, mountain-ringed Mountain Meadows,
a widely known stopover on the old Spanish Trail, in early September. They anticipated several days of rest and recuperation there before the next 40
miles (64 km) would take them out of Utah. But, on September 7, the party was attacked by Mormon militiamen dressed as Native Americans and some
Native American Paiutes. The Baker–Fancher party defended itself by encircling and lowering their wagons, wheels chained together, along with
digging shallow trenches and throwing dirt both below and into the wagons, which made a strong barrier. Seven emigrants were killed during the opening
attack and were buried somewhere within the wagon encirclement. Sixteen more were wounded. The attack continued for five days, during which
the besieged families had little or no access to fresh water or game food and their ammunition was depleted. Meanwhile, organization among the
local Mormon leadership reportedly broke down. Eventually fear spread among the militia's leaders that some emigrants had caught sight of white men,
and had probably discovered who their attackers really were. This resulted in an order to kill all the emigrants, with the exception of small children.Isaac C. Haight—Battalion Commander—died 1886 Arizona Maj. John H. Higbee, said to have shouted the command to begin the killings. He claimed that
he reluctantly participated in the massacre and only to bury the dead who he thought were victims of an "Indian attack." Maj. John D. Lee,
constable, judge, and Indian Agent. Having conspired in advance with his immediate commander, Isaac C. Haight, Lee led the initial assault, and
falsely offered emigrants safe passage prior to their mile-long march to the field where they were ultimately massacred. He was the only participant
convicted. Philip Klingensmith, a Bishop in the church and a private in the militia. He participated in the killings, and later turned state's
evidence against his fellows, after leaving the church.On Friday, September 11, 1857, two militiamen approached the Baker–Fancher party wagons with a white Flag and were soon followed by Native American
agent and militia officer John D. Lee. Lee told the battle-weary emigrants that he had negotiated a truce with the Paiutes, whereby they could be
escorted safely the 36 miles (58 km) back to Cedar City under Mormon protection in exchange for turning all of their livestock and supplies over to
the Native Americans.Accepting this, the emigrants were led out of their fortification. The adult men were separated from the women and children.
The men were paired with a militia escort. When a signal was given, the militiamen turned and shot the male members of the Baker–Fancher party standing
by their side. The women and children were then ambushed and killed by more militia that were hiding in nearby bushes and ravines. Members of the
militia were sworn to secrecy. A plan was set to blame the massacre on the Native Americans. The militia did not kill some small children who were
deemed too young to relate the story. These children were taken in by local Mormon families. Seventeen of the children were later reclaimed by the U.S.
Army and returned to relatives in Arkansas.Leonard J. Arrington, founder of the Mormon History Association, reports that Brigham Young received the rider, James Haslam, at his office on the same
day. When he learned what was contemplated by the militia leaders in Parowan and Cedar City, he sent back a letter stating the Baker–Fancher party were
not to be meddled with, and should be allowed to go in peace (although he acknowledged the Native Americans would likely "do as they pleased"). Young's
letter arrived two days too late, on September 13, 1857.Some of the property of the dead was reportedly taken by the Native Americans involved, while large amounts of their valuables and cattle were taken by
the Mormons in Southern Utah, including John D. Lee. Some of the cattle were taken to Salt Lake City and sold or traded. The remaining personal
property of the Baker–Fancher party was taken to the tithing house at Cedar City and saleed off to local Mormons.
Investigations and prosecutions
Main article: Investigations and prosecutions relating to the Mountain Meadows massacreAn early investigation was conducted by Brigham Young, who interviewed John D. Lee on September 29, 1857. In 1858, Young sent a report to the
Commissioner of Indian Affairs stating that the massacre was the work of Native Americans. The Utah War delayed any investigation by the U.S.
federal government until 1859, when Jacob Forney, and U.S. Army Brevet Major James Henry Carleton conducted investigations. In Carleton's
investigation, at Mountain Meadows he found women's hair tangled in sage brush and the bones of children still in their mothers' arms. Carleton later
said it was "a sight which can never be forgotten." After gathering up the skulls and bones of those who had died, Carleton's troops buried them and
erected a cairn and cross.Carleton interviewed a few local Mormon settlers and Paiute Native American chiefs, and concluded that there was Mormon involvement in the massacre.
He issued a report in May 1859, addressed to the U.S. Assistant Adjutant-General, setting forth his findings. Jacob Forney, Superintendent of Indian
Affairs for Utah, also conducted an investigation that included visiting the region in the summer of 1859 and retrieved many of the surviving children
of massacre victims who had been housed with Mormon families, and gathered them in preparation of transporting them to their relatives in Arkansas.
Forney concluded that the Paiutes did not act alone and the massacre would not have occurred without the white settlers, while Carleton's report to
the U.S. Congress called the mass killings a "heinous crime", blaming both local and senior church leaders for the massacre.A federal judge brought into the territory after the Utah War, Judge John Cradlebaugh, in March 1859 convened a grand jury in Provo, concerning the
massacre, but the jury declined any indictments. Nevertheless, Cradlebaugh conducted a tour of the Mountain Meadows area with a military escort.
Cradlebaugh attempted to arrest John D. Lee, Isaac Haight, and John Higbee, but these men fled before they could be found. Cradlebaugh publicly
charged Brigham Young as an instigator to the massacre and therefore an "accessory before the fact." Possibly as a protective measure against the
mistrusted federal court system, Mormon territorial probate court judge Elias Smith arrested Young under a territorial warrant, perhaps hoping to
divert any trial of Young into a friendly Mormon territorial court. When no federal charges ensued, Young was apparently released.
The scene at Lee's execution. Lee is seated, next to his coffin.
Justice At Last! – Leslie's Monthly Magazine article of 1877.Further investigations, cut short by the American Civil War in 1861, again proceeded in 1871 when prosecutors obtained the affidavit of militia member
Phillip Klingensmith. Klingensmith had been a bishop and blacksmith from Cedar City; by the 1870s, however, he had left the church and moved to Nevada.
During the 1870s Lee, Dame, Philip Klingensmith and two others (Ellott Willden and George Adair, Jr.) were indicted and arrested while warrants were
obtained to pursue the arrests of four others (Haight, Higbee, William C. Stewart and Samuel Jukes) who had gone into hiding. Klingensmith escaped
prosecution by agreeing to testify. Brigham Young removed some participants including Haight and Lee from the LDS Church in 1870. The U.S. posted
bounties of $500 (9078 in present-day terms.) each for the capture of Haight, Higbee and Stewart, while prosecutors chose not to pursue their
cases against Dame, Willden and Adair.Lee's first trial began on July 23, 1875, in Beaver, before a jury of eight Mormons and four non-Mormons. This trial led to a hung jury on August 5,
1875. Lee's second trial began September 13, 1876, before an all-Mormon jury. The prosecution called Daniel Wells, Laban Morrill, Joel White, Samuel
Knight, Samuel McMurdy, Nephi Johnson, and Jacob Hamblin. Lee also stipulated, against advice of counsel, that the prosecution be allowed to
re-use the depositions of Young and Smith from the previous trial. Lee called no witnesses in his defense. This time, Lee was convicted.At his sentencing, as required by Utah Territory statute, he was given the option of being hanged, shot, or beheaded, and he chose to be shot. In
1877, before being executed by firing squad at Mountain Meadows, Lee professed that he was a scapegoat for others involved. Young stated that
Lee's fate was just, but not a sufficient blood atonement, given the enormity of the crime.
Criticism and analysis of the massacre
Media coverage about the event
Main articles: Mountain Meadows massacre and the media and Mountain Meadows massacre and Mormon public relations
The cover of the August 13, 1859, issue of Harper's Weekly illustrating the killing field as described by Brevet Major Carleton "one too horrible and
sickening for language to describe. Human skeletons, disjointed bones, ghastly skulls and the hair of women were scattered in frightful profusion over
a distance of two miles." "the remains were not buried at all until after they had been dismembered by the wolves and the flesh stripped from the
bones, and then only such bones were buried as lay scattered along nearest the road".The first published report on the incident was made in 1859 by Carleton, who had been tasked by the U.S. Army to investigate the incident and bury the
still exposed corpses at Mountain Meadows. Although the massacre was covered to some extent in the media during the 1850s, the first period of
intense nation-wide publicity about the massacre began around 1872, after investigators obtained Klingensmith's confession. In 1867 C.V. Waite
published "An Authentic History Of Brigham Young" which described the events. In 1872, Mark Twain commented on the massacre through the lens of
contemporary American public opinion in an appendix to his semi-autobiographical travel book Roughing It. In 1873, the massacre was a prominent
feature of a history by T. B. H. Stenhouse, The Rocky Mountain Saints. National newspapers covered the Lee trials closely from 1874 to 1876,
and his execution in 1877 was widely covered.The massacre has been treated extensively by several historical works, beginning with Lee's own Confession in 1877, expressing his opinion that
George A. Smith was sent to southern Utah by Brigham Young to direct the massacre. In 1910, the massacre was the subject of a short book by
Josiah F. Gibbs, who also attributed responsibility for the massacre to Young and Smith. The first detailed and comprehensive work using modern
historical methods was The Mountain Meadows Massacre in 1950 by Juanita Brooks, a Mormon scholar who lived near the area in southern Utah. Brooks
found no evidence of direct involvement by Brigham Young, but charged him with obstructing the investigation and for provoking the attack through his
rhetoric.Initially, the LDS Church denied any involvement by Mormons, and was relatively silent on the issue. In 1872, it excommunicated some of the
participants for their role in the massacre. Since then, the LDS Church has condemned the massacre and acknowledged involvement by local Mormon
leaders. In September 2007, the LDS Church published an article in its publications marking 150 years since the tragedy occurred.
Historical theories explaining the massacreHistorians have ascribed the massacre to a number of factors, including strident Mormon teachings in the years prior to the massacre, war hysteria,
and alleged involvement of Brigham Young.
Strident Mormon teachings
Main article: Mountain Meadows massacre and Mormon theologyMormons, such as John D. Lee, who participated in the Mountain Meadows massacre, felt justified by strident Mormon teachings during the 1850s.
 However, historians debate whether that justification was a reasonable interpretation of Mormon theology.For the decade prior to the Baker–Fancher party's arrival there, Utah Territory existed as a theodemocracy led by Brigham Young. During the mid-1850s,
Young instituted a Mormon Reformation, intending to "lay the axe at the root of the tree of sin and iniquity". Mormon teachings during this era
were dramatic and strident.In addition, during the prior decades, the religion had undergone a period of intense persecution in the American Midwest, and faithful Mormons moved
west to escape persecution in midwestern towns. In particular, they were officially expelled from the state of Missouri during the 1838 Mormon War,
during which prominent Mormon apostle David W. Patten was killed in battle. After Mormons moved to Nauvoo, Illinois, the religion's founder Joseph
Smith, Jr. and his brother Hyrum Smith were assassinated in 1844. Just months before the Mountain Meadows massacre, Mormons received word that yet
another apostle had been killed: in April 1857, apostle Parley P. Pratt was shot in Arkansas by Hector McLean, the estranged husband of one of
Pratt's plural wives, Eleanor McLean Pratt. Mormon leaders immediately proclaimed Pratt as another martyr, and many Mormons held the people
of Arkansas responsible.In 1857, Mormon leaders taught that the Second Coming of Jesus was imminent, and that God would soon exact punishment against the United States for
persecuting Mormons and martyring Joseph Smith, Jr., Hyrum Smith, Patten and Pratt.In their Endowment ceremony, faithful early Latter-day Saints
took an oath to pray that God would take vengeance against the murderers. As a result of this oath, several Mormon apostles and other leaders
considered it their religious duty to kill the prophets' murderers if they ever came across them.The sermons, blessings, and private counsel by Mormon leaders just before the Mountain Meadows massacre can be understood as encouraging private
individuals to execute God's judgment against the wicked.In Cedar City, the teachings of church leaders were particularly strident.Thus, historians argue that southern Utah Mormons would have been particularly affected by an unsubstantiated rumor that the Baker–Fancher wagon
train had been joined by a group of eleven miners and plainsmen who called themselves "Missouri Wildcats", some of whom reportedly taunted,
vandalized and "caused trouble" for Mormons and Native Americans along the route (by some accounts claiming that they had the gun that "shot the guts
out of Old Joe Smith") They were also affected by the report to Brigham Young that the Baker–Fancher party was from Arkansas where Pratt was
murdered; it was rumored that Pratt's wife recognized some of the Mountain Meadows party as being in the gang that shot and stabbed Pratt.
George A. Smith Apostle who met the Baker–Fancher party before touring Parowan and neighboring settlements prior to the massacre
Main article: War hysteria preceding the Mountain Meadows massacreThe Mountain Meadows massacre was caused in part by events relating to the Utah War, an 1857 deployment toward the Utah Territory of the United
States Army, whose arrival was peaceful. In the summer of 1857, however, the Mormons expected an all-out invasion of apocalyptic significance. From
July to September 1857, Mormon leaders and their followers prepared for a siege that could have ended up similar to the seven-year Bleeding Kansas
problem occurring at the time. Mormons were required to stockpile grain, and were enjoined against selling grain to emigrants for use as cattle feed.
As far-off Mormon colonies retreated, Parowan and Cedar City became isolated and vulnerable outposts. Brigham Young sought to enlist the help of
Native American tribes in fighting the "Americans", encouraging them to steal cattle from emigrant trains, and to join Mormons in fighting the
approaching army.Scholars have asserted that George A. Smith's tour of southern Utah influenced the decision to attack and destroy the Fancher–Baker emigrant train
near Mountain Meadows, Utah. He met with many of the eventual participants in the massacre, including W. H. Dame, Isaac Haight, John D. Lee and Chief
Jackson, leader of a band of Paiutes. He noted that the militia was organized and ready to fight, and that some of them were eager to "fight and
take vengeance for the cruelties that had been inflicted upon us in the States." Among Smith's party were a number of Paiute Native American
chiefs from the Mountain Meadows area. When Smith returned to Salt Lake, Brigham Young met with these leaders on September 1, 1857, and encouraged
them to fight against the Americans in the anticipated clash with the U.S. Army. They were also offered all of the livestock then on the road to
California, which included that belonging to the Baker–Fancher party. The Native American chiefs were reluctant, and at least one objected they had
previously been told not to steal, and declined the offer.
Main article: Brigham Young and the Mountain Meadows massacre
Historians debate the role of Brigham Young in the massacre. Young was theocratic leader of the Utah Territory at the time of the massacre.There is a consensus among historians that Brigham Young played a role in provoking the massacre, at least unwittingly, and in concealing its
evidence after the fact; [not in citation given] however, they debate whether Young knew about the planned massacre ahead of time and whether
he initially condoned it before later taking a strong public stand against it. Young's use of inflammatory and violent language in response to
the Federal expedition added to the tense atmosphere at the time of the attack. Following the massacre, Young stated in public forums that God had
taken vengeance on the Baker–Fancher party. It is unclear whether Young held this view because he believed that this specific group posed an
actual threat to colonists or because he believed that the group was directly responsible for past crimes against Mormons. However, in Young's
only known correspondence prior to the massacre, he told the Church leaders in Cedar City: In regard to emigration trains passing through our settlements, we must not interfere with them until they are first notified to keep away.
You must not meddle with them. The Indians we expect will do as they please but you should try and preserve good feelings with them. There are no
other trains going south that I know of[.] [I]f those who are there will leave let them go in peace.According to historian MacKinnon, "After the [Utah] war, U.S. President James Buchanan implied that face-to-face communications with Brigham Young
might have averted the conflict, and Young argued that a north-south telegraph line in Utah could have prevented the Mountain Meadows massacre.
MacKinnon suggests that hostilities could have been avoided if Young had traveled east to Washington D.C. to resolve governmental problems instead
of taking a five-week trip north on the eve of the Utah War for church related reasons.A modern forensic assessment of a key affidavit, purportedly given by William Edwards in 1924, has complicated the debate on complicity of senior
Mormon leadership in the Mountain Meadows massacre. Analysis indicates that Edwards's signature may have been traced and that the typeset
belonged to a typewriter manufactured in the 1950s. The Utah State Historical Society, who maintains the document in its archives, acknowledges a
possible connection to Mark Hofmann, a convicted forger and extortionist, via go-between Lyn Jacobs who provided the society with the document.
Main article: Remembrances of the Mountain Meadows massacreThe first monument for the victims was built two years after the massacre, by Major Carleton and the U.S. Army. This monument was a simple cairn
built over the gravesite of 34 victims, and was topped by a large cedar cross. The monument was found destroyed and the structure was replaced
by the U.S. Army in 1864. By some reports, the monument was destroyed in 1861, when Young brought an entourage to Mountain Meadows. Wilford
Woodruff, who later became President of the Church, claimed that upon reading the inscription on the cross, which read, "Vengeance is mine, thus
sayeth the Lord. I shall repay", Young responded, "Vengeance is mine and I have taken a little". In 1932 citizens of the surrounding area
constructed a memorial wall around the remnants of the monument.
The 1999 burial site monumentStarting in 1988, the Mountain Meadows Association, composed of descendants of both the Baker–Fancher party victims and the Mormon participants,
designed a new monument in the meadows; this monument was completed in 1990 and is maintained by the Utah State Division of Parks and Recreation.
In 1999 the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints replaced the U.S. Army's cairn and the 1932 memorial wall with a second monument, which it
now maintains.In 1955, to memorialize the victims of the massacre, a monument was installed in the town square of Harrison, Arkansas. On one side of this monument
is a map and short summary of the massacre, while the opposite side contains a list of the victims. In 2005 a replica of the U.S. Army's original
1859 cairn was built in Carrollton, Arkansas; it is maintained by the Mountain Meadows Monument Foundation.In 2007, the 150th anniversary of the massacre was remembered by a ceremony held in the meadows. Approximately 400 people, including many descendants
of those slain at Mountain Meadows and Elder Henry B. Eyring of the LDS Church's Quorum of the Twelve Apostles attended this ceremony.In 2011, the site was designated as a National Historic Landmark after joint efforts by descendants of those killed and the LDS Church.