This is one item out of a collection we just break on
Mixed Franking of Queen Victoria Stationery + King Edward StampsRARE uprated Registered Stationery Cover mailed abroad from Muktesar / India via Port Said / Egypt via British Post Office in Beyrouth / Liban via Jaffa / Palestine to the famous Citrus Farmer and Teacher Imanuel Knoll / German Templer Colony Sarona near Jaffa (at that time Part of Turkey) !!Sarona had no own Postoffice, so no arrival Postmark ! The mail was forwarded free by Colony Members from/to Jaffa and Sarona !!See also the arrival Postmark of the Austrian abroad Post Office in Jaffa !!!Sarona was a German Templer colony northeast of the city of Jaffa. It was one of the earliest modern villages established in Palestine. Today it is a neighborhood of Tel Aviv, Israe History
settlement of Sarona was one of the first modern agricultural
settlements in Palestine and became a model for the Jewish pioneers. In
August 1871, the Templers purchased 60 hectares of land from a Greek
monastery north of Jaffa. Part of the Plains of Sharon (after which it was named), near the River Audsche (Yarkon), it was four kilometres from Jaffa. In October 1871, the foundation stones were laid for the first houses. Extreme hardship and disease took a heavy toll in human life during the first few years. Malaria caused the deaths of 28 of the 125 settlers of Sarona in 1872 alone. In an effort to dry the marshy land, 1,300 eucalyptus trees were planted.
By 1889, 269 people lived in Sarona. There were 41 homes, a communal
hall, a winery, workshops, barns and sheds. The Sarona colonists brought
modern farming tools and practices to the Holy Land.
They focused on crops and products they could readily sell. This
"agriculture-for-profit" was an economic innovation in a land that for
centuries had practiced only self-sustaining farming. Grain crops and
dairy industry first, then orchards and vineyards were planted. Faced
with a shortage of financial resources for infrastructure development,
the community introduced Frondienst, a compulsory work system
where every male member was required to do a certain number of hours of
community work each month. The building of roads, development of land,
roads and drainage and community facilities could thus be scheduled.
Researcher and author Sven Hedin
wrote of his visit to Sarona in 1916: "...many plants were in blossom.
They mainly grow grapes, oranges and vegetables, [but] like in old times
they also produce milk and honey."
In November 1917, British troops occupied Sarona, turning the
community house into a field hospital and commandeering other buildings
for military use. In July 1918, the Templers (a total of 850 people) were interned in Egypt at Helwan near Cairo. The Red Cross, Quakers and Unitarians took up their cause, and on July 29, 1920, after 270 internees had been repatriated in April to Bad Mergentheim in Germany,
the House of Lords permitted the remaining internees to return to
Palestine. The residents of Sarona returned to a plundered and
vandalized colony. Following negotiations with the British authorities,
compensation was paid, in some cases up to 50%.
By 1925 Sarona was still a small settlement, although grown in area.
It was still a farming community but more emphasis was placed on trades.
With the increasing Jewish immigration to Palestine (80,000 immigrants
arrived in 1920-1926 alone) the settlement prospered due to a ready
market for its produce and services.
Third Reich and WW2
After the Nazis came to power
in Germany, the new Reich's government shaped foreign policy according
to Nazi ideals, especially using financial pressure. The Nazi emphasis
was on equating Germany and Germans with Nazism,
discriminating against all non-Nazi aspects of German culture and
identity. All international schools of German language subsidised or
fully financed by government funds were obliged to redraw their
educational programmes and to solely employ teachers aligned with the
Nazi party. German teachers in Bethlehem of Galilee
were financed by the Reich's government, allowing Nazi teachers to take
over there. In 1933 Templer functionaries and other Gentile Germans
living in Palestine appealed to Paul von Hindenburg
and the Foreign Office not to use swastika symbols for German
institutions, without success. Some German Gentiles from Palestine
pleaded with the Reich's government to drop its plan to boycott shops of
Jewish Germans on April 1, 1933.
Some Templers enlisted in the German army. By 1938, 17% of the Templers
in Palestine were members of the Nazi party. According to historian
Yossi Ben-Artzi, "The members of the younger generation to some extent
broke away from naive religious belief, and were more receptive to the
Nazi German nationalism. The older ones tried to fight it." At the start of World War II
colonists with German citizenship were rounded up by the British
authorities and sent, together with Italian and Hungarian enemy
nationals, to internment camps in Waldheim and Bethlehem of Galilee, and were eventually deported. In 1962 the State of Israel paid 54 million Deutsche Marks in compensation to property owners whose assets were nationalized.
Sarona, together with the three other agricultural settlements - Wilhelma, Bethlehem of Galilee and Waldheim
- became "perimeter" compounds into which all Germans living in
Palestine were interned. Sarona held close to 1,000 persons behind a
guarded, 4m high barbed-wire fence. In July 1941, 198 people from
Sarona, together with almost 400 from the other internment camps, were
deported to Australia on the Queen Elizabeth. They were interned in Tatura
in Central Victoria Australia until 1947. By November 1944, most of the
remaining Sarona residents had been moved to the camp in Wilhelma. The
last group was sent there in September 1945.
The former Sarona houses were taken over by the British army and
mandatory government, and as such were the target of raids and attacks
by the Zionist underground organizations during their 19451947 struggle
against British rule.
State of Israel
In 1948, when the British Mandate ended and British troops left
Sarona, the old houses and army barracks were used by the newly-formed
Israeli government as offices. The area became known as the "Kirya."
A part became a military compound, comprising the Israeli Ministry of
Defense, the General Staff of the Israeli Defense Forces, and various
other military installations. Other parts of former Sarona were used to
house other ministries of the Israeli government.
With the rapid growth of Tel Aviv, the Kirya became prime real-estate
in the heart of the city. When plans for redeveloping the area were
proposed in the mid-1970s, preservationists successfully campaigned
against demolition. Consulting with historians, it was decided that
Sarona was of heritage value
and that 18 structures with distinct architectural styles would be
preserved. Civil government departments were moved out of the Sarona's
low buildings and into a single high office building erected at its
Eastern end. During the widening of Kaplan Street, Sarona's main
thoroughfare, considerable effort was made to move the historic
buildings intact. These are destined to become an area of cafés and
recreation. A high-rise headquarters building was also erected in the
military section, though historic buildings in the compound remain in
low starting price !
condition see and enlarge all photos !
on the images for big pictures
!Key: Judaica, Judaika, Jewish, Jüdisch, Yiddish, Jiddisch, Israel,
Palestine, Palästina, Deutschland, Germany, Allemagne, Synagogue,
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