Rare and interesting original ancient Islamic coins measuring 14-15mm. in diameter. Original tone. In uncleaned state as pictured. Authenticity guaranteed. Original Islamic coin.
Abdülhamid was imprisoned for most of the first forty-two years of his life by his cousins Mahmud I and Osman III and his older brother Mustafa III, as was custom. He received his early education from his mother Râbi'a Sharmi Sultana, from whom he studied history and learned calligraphy.
His imprisonment made him aloof in regard to state affairs and
malleable to the designs of his advisors. Yet he was also very religious
and a pacifist by nature. At his accession the financial straits of the treasury were such that the usual donative could not be given to the janissaries. War was, however, forced on him and less than a year after his accession the complete defeat of the Turks at Battle of Kozluja led to the humiliating Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca on July 21, 1774.
In spite of his failures, Abdülhamid was regarded as the most gracious Sultan of the Ottomans. He administrated the fire brigade
during the fire in 1782. In Constantinople, he won the admiration of
his people as he was so religious that he was called a "Veli" (saint).
He also traced a reform policy, followed the governmental
administrations closely and worked with statesmen. When Abdülhamid came
to the throne the army asked for gratuities and the sultan claimed that:
"There are, no longer, gratuities in our treasury, all of our soldier
sons should learn". He also began the restoration of the military
system. He is credited with better education standards. He tried to
renovate the Janissary corps and the naval forces. He established a new
artillery troop. He made a census in the Janissary corps.
Slight successes against rebellious outbreaks in Syria and the Morea could not compensate for the loss of the Crimea
which Russia greatly coveted. War was once more declared against Russia
in 1787 and in the following year the Russians were joined by Austria.
The Swedes and Prussians joined the conflict on the side of the
Ottomans, but provided no assistance. While the Ottomans held their own
in the conflict they ultimately lost with Ochakov falling in 1788 to the Russians (all of its inhabitants being massacred.)
In the year 1789, Tipu Sultan ruler of the Sultanate of Mysore sent an embasy to the Ottoman capitol of Istanbul, to Sultan Abdul Hamid I requesting urgent assistance against the British East India Company and had proposed an offensive and defensive consortium; Sultan Abdul Hamid I, informed the ambassadors of the Sultanate of Mysore that the Ottoman Empire was still recuperating from the Austro-Ottoman War and the Russo-Turkish Wars.
Abdülhamid died four months later at the age of sixty-four in
Constantinople. He was buried in Bahcekapi, a tomb he had built for
rn in Constantinople. His mother was Râbi'a Sharmi Sultana.
Ahmed III (Ottoman Turkish: احمد ثالث Aḥmed-i sālis) (December 30/31, 1673 – July 1, 1736) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and a son of Sultan Mehmed IV (1648–87). His mother was Mâh-Pâre Ummatullah (Emetullah) Râbi'a Gül-Nûş Valide Sultan, originally named Evmania Voria, who was an ethnic Greek. He was born at Hajioglupazari, in Dobruja. He succeeded to the throne in 1703 on the abdication of his brother Mustafa II (1695–1703). Nevşehirli Damat İbrahim Pasha and his daughter, Princess Hatice (wife of the former) directed the government from 1718 to 1730, a period referred to as the Tulip Era.
Ahmed III cultivated good relations with France, doubtless in view of Russia's menacing attitude - in fact, both his wives were Frenchwomen. He afforded refuge in Ottoman territory to Charles XII of Sweden (1682–1718) after the Swedish defeat at the hands of Peter I of Russia (1672–1725) in the Battle of Poltava of 1709. In 1710 he convinced the Ottoman Sultan Ahmed III to declare war against Russia, and the Ottoman forces under Baltacı Mehmet Pasha won a major victory at the Battle of Prut. In the aftermath, Russia returned Azov back to the Ottomans, agreed to demolish the fortress of Taganrog and others in the area, and to stop interfering in the affairs of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Miniature of Ahmed III.
Forced against his will into war with Russia, Ahmed III came nearer than any Ottoman sovereign before or since to breaking the power of his northern rival, whose armies his grand vizier Nevşehirli Damat İbrahim Pasha succeeded in completely surrounding at the Pruth River Campaign
in 1711. The subsequent Ottoman victories against Russia enabled the
Ottoman Empire to advance to Moscow, had the Sultan wished. However,
this was halted as a report reached Constantinople that the Safavids were invading the Ottoman Empire, causing a period of panic, turning the Sultan's attention away from Russia.
Sultan Ahmed III had become unpopular by reason of the excessive pomp
and costly luxury in which he and his principal officers indulged; on
September 20, 1730, a mutinous riot of seventeen janissaries, led by the Albanian Patrona Halil,
was aided by the citizens as well as the military until it swelled into
an insurrection in front of which the Sultan was forced to give up the
Ahmed voluntarily led his nephew Mahmud I (1730–54) to the seat of sovereignty and paid allegiance to him as Sultan of the Empire. He then retired to the Kafes previously occupied by Mahmud and died at Topkapı Palace after six years of confinement.
Character of Ahmed III's rule
Sultan Ahmed III receives French ambassador Vicomte d'Andrezel at Topkapı Palace.
French ambassador Marquis de Bonnac being received by Sultan Ahmed III.
The reign of Ahmed III, which had lasted for twenty-seven years, although marked by the disasters of the Great Turkish War, was not unsuccessful. The recovery of Azov and the Morea, and the conquest of part of Persia, managed to counterbalance the Balkan territory ceded to the Habsburg Monarchy through the Treaty of Passarowitz, after the Ottoman Empire was defeated in Austro-Turkish War of 1716-18. In 1716, he sent an army of 33,000 men to capture Corfu from the Republic of Venice.
Ahmed III left the finances of the Ottoman Empire in a flourishing condition, which had remarkably been obtained without excessive taxation or extortion procedures. He was a cultivated patron of literature and art, and it was in his time that the first printing press authorized to use the Arabic or Turkish languages was set up in Constantinople, operated by Ibrahim Muteferrika
(while the printing press had been introduced to Constantinople in
1480, all works published before 1729 were in Greek, Armenian, or
It was in this reign that an important change in the government of the Danubian Principalities was introduced: previously, the Porte had appointed Hospodars, usually native Moldavian and Wallachian boyars, to administer those provinces; after the Russian campaign of 1711, during which Peter the Great found an ally in Moldavia Prince Dimitrie Cantemir, the Porte began overtly deputizing Phanariote Greeks in that region, and extended the system to Wallachia after Prince Stefan Cantacuzino established links with Eugene of Savoy. The Phanariotes constituted a kind of Dhimmi nobility, which supplied the Porte with functionaries in many important departments of the state.
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Islamic Silver Coins/ottoman Empire/cairo/egypt/misr/ Osman, Abdul Hamid, Selim: $11