Kamasutra - Pdf Ebooks With Master Resell Rights
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Kamasutra - Pdf Ebooks With Master Resell Rights :
IT may be interesting to some persons to learn how it came about that Vatsyayana wasfirst brought to light and translated into the English language. It happened thus. Whiletranslating with the pundits the `Anunga Runga, or the stage of love', reference wasfrequently found to be made to one Vatsya. The sage Vatsya was of this opinion, or ofthat opinion. The sage Vatsya said this, and so on. Naturally questions were asked whothe sage was, and the pundits replied that Vatsya was the author of the standard work onlove in Sanscrit literature, that no Sanscrit library was complete without his work, andthat it was most difficult now to obtain in its entire state. The copy of the manuscriptobtained in Bombay was defective, and so the pundits wrote to Benares, Calcutta andJeypoor for copies of the manuscript from Sanscrit libraries in those places. Copieshaving been obtained, they were then compared with each other, and with the aid of aCommentary called `Jayamangla' a revised copy of the entire manuscript was prepared,and from this copy the English translation was made. The following is the certificate ofthe chief pundit:`The accompanying manuscript is corrected by me after comparing four different copiesof the work. I had the assistance of a Commentary called "Jayamangla" for correcting theportion in the first five parts, but found great difficulty in correcting the remainingportion, because, with the exception of one copy thereof which was tolerably correct, allthe other copies I had were far too incorrect. However, I took that portion as correct inwhich the majority of the copies agreed with each other.'The `Aphorisms on Love' by Vatsyayana contain about one thousand two hundred andfifty slokas or verses, and are divided into parts, parts into chapters, and chapters intoparagraphs. The whole consists of seven parts, thirty-six chapters, and sixty-fourparagraphs. Hardly anything is known about the author. His real name is supposed to beMallinaga or Mrillana, Vatsyayana being his family name. At the close of the work this iswhat he writes about himself:`After reading and considering the works of Babhravya and other ancient authors, andthinking over the meaning of the rules given by them, this treatise was composed,according to the precepts of the Holy Writ, for the benefit of the world, by Vatsyayana,while leading the life of a religious student at Benares, and wholly engaged in thecontemplation of the Deity. This work is not to be used merely as an instrument forsatisfying our desires. A person acquainted with the true principles of this science, whopreserves his Dharma (virtue or religious merit), his Artha (worldly wealth) and his Kama(pleasure or sensual gratification), and who has regard to the customs of the people, issure to obtain the mastery over his senses. In short, an intelligent and knowing personattending to Dharma and Artha and also to Kama, without becoming the slave of hispassions, will obtain success in everything that he may do.'It is impossible to fix the exact date either of the life of Vatsyayana or of his work. It issupposed that he must have lived between the first and sixth century of the Christian era,on the following grounds. He mentions that Satakarni Satavahana, a king of Kuntal,
killed Malayevati his wife with an instrument called kartari by striking her in the passionof love, and Vatsya quotes this case to warn people of the danger arising from some oldcustoms of striking women when under the influence of this passion. Now this king ofKuntal is believed to have lived and reigned during the first century A.D., andconsequently Vatsya must have lived after him. On the other hand, Virahamihira, in theeighteenth chapter of his `Brihatsanhita', treats of the science of love, and appears to haveborrowed largely from Vatsyayana on the subject. Now Virahamihira is said to have livedduring the sixth century A.D., and as Vatsya must have written his works previously,therefore not earlier than the first century A.D., and not later than the sixth century A.D.,must be considered as the approximate date of his existence.On the text of the `Aphorisms on Love', by Vatsyayana, only two commentaries havebeen found. One called `Jayamangla' or `Sutrabashya', and the other `Sutra vritti'. Thedate of the `Jayamangla' is fixed between the tenth and thirteenth century A.D., becausewhile treating of the sixty-four arts an example is taken from the `Kavyaprakasha' whichwas written about the tenth century A.D. Again, the copy of the commentary procuredwas evidently a transcript of a manuscript which once had a place in the library of aChaulukyan king named Vishaladeva, a fact elicited from the following sentence at theend of it.`Here ends the part relating to the art of love in the commentary on the "VatsyayanaKama Sutra", a copy from the library of the king of kings, Vishaladeva, who was apowerful hero, as it were a second Arjuna, and head jewel of the Chaulukya family.'Now it is well known that this king ruled in Guzerat from 1244 to 1262 A.D., andfounded a city called Visalnagur. The date, therefore, of the commentary is taken to benot earlier than the tenth and not later than the thirteenth century. The author of it issupposed to be one Yashodhara, the name given him by his preceptor being Indrapada.He seems to have written it during the time of affliction caused by his separation from aclever and shrewd woman, at least that is what lie himself says at the end of each chapter.It is presumed that he called his work after the name of his absent mistress, or the wordmay have some connection with the meaning of her name.This commentary was most useful in explaining the true meaning of Vatsyayana, for thecommentator appears to have had a considerable knowledge of the times of the olderauthor, and gives in some places very minute information. This cannot be said of theother commentary, called `Sutra vritti', which was written about A.D. 1789, by NarsingShastri, a pupil of a Sarveshwar Shastri; the latter was a descendant of Bhaskur, and soalso was our author, for at the conclusion of every part he calls himself Bhaskur NarsingShastri. He was induced to write the work by order of the learned Raja Vrijalala, while hewas residing in Benares, but as to the merits of this commentary it does not deserve muchcommendation. In many cases the writer does not appear to have understood the meaningof the original author, and has changed the text in many places to fit in with his ownexplanations.A complete translation of the original work now follows. It has been prepared incomplete accordance with the text of the manuscript, and is given, without furthercomments, as made from it.
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