Lenin Coin Stamp Russian Ussr Cccp Cold Soviet Union World War I Ii Vintage Old For Sale
Vladimir Lenin Stampwith 1970 Ruble CoinThis is a Lenin Stamp and Coin Set.The Coin is in Very Good Condition considering it is over 40 years old It has an image of Lenin and the years 1870 & 1970 He was born in 1870 so 1970 would have been his 100th Birthday The back has a soviet symbol The Stamp is is surrounded by a image of LeninThere is Russian Writing on itIt is dated 1981It is in Excellent ConditionI bought them from a flea market in Lithuania Own a piece of History!!!Starting at a Penny...With ..If your the only buyer you win it for 1p....Grab a Bargain!!!! I have a lot of Soviet on so Check out my other items!
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Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (Russian: Владимир Ильич Ленин; 22 April [O.S. 10 April] 1870 – 21 January 1924) was a Russian Marxist revolutionary and communist politician who led the October Revolution of 1917. As leader of the Bolsheviks, he headed the Soviet state during its initial years (1917–1924), as it fought to establish control of Russia in the Russian Civil War and worked to create a socialist economic system.As a politician, Lenin was a persuasive orator, as a political scientist his extensive theoretic and philosophical developments of Marxism produced Marxism–Leninism, the pragmatic Russian application of Marxism. Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Soviet UnionIn office30 December 1922 – 21 January 1924Preceded by Position createdSucceeded by Alexey RykovChairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Russian SFSRIn office8 November 1917 – 21 January 1924Preceded by Position createdSucceeded by Alexey RykovInformal leader of the Russian Communist PartyIn office17 November 1903 – 21 January 1924Preceded by Position createdSucceeded by Joseph Stalin(as General Secretary)Personal detailsBorn Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov(Russian: Владимир Ильич Ульянов)22 April 1870Simbirsk, Russian EmpireDied 21 January 1924 (aged 53) (stroke)Gorki, Russian SFSR, Soviet UnionNationality SovietRussianPolitical party Russian Communist Party (bolsheviks)Spouse(s) Nadezhda Krupskaya (1898–1924)Profession Lawyer, revolutionary, politicianReligion None (atheist) Leaders of the Communist Party of the Soviet UnionLenin Stalin Khrushchev Brezhnev Andropov Chernenko Gorbachev Ivashko (acting) Premiers of the Soviet UnionPremiers Lenin (1923–1924) Rykov (1924–1930) Molotov (1930–1941) Stalin (1941–1953) Malenkov (1953–1955) Bulganin (1955–1958) Khrushchev (1958–1964) Kosygin (1964–1980) Tikhonov (1980–1985) Ryzhkov (1985–1991) Pavlov (Jan.–Aug. 1991) Silayev (Sep.–Dec. 1991)First Deputies Kuybyshev (1934–35) Voznesensky (1941–46) Molotov (1942–57) Bulganin (1950–55) Beria (Mar.–June 1953) Kaganovich (1953–57) Mikoyan (1955–64) Pervukhin (1955–57) Saburov (1955–57) Kuzmin (1957–58) Kozlov (1958–60) Kosygin (1960–64) Ustinov (1963–65) Mazurov (1965–78) Polyansky (1965–73) Tikhonov (1976–80) Arkhipov (1980–86) Aliyev (1982–87) Gromyko (1983–85) Talyzin (1985–88) Murakhovsky (1985–89) Maslyukov (1988–90) Voronin (1989–90) Niktin (1989–90) Velichko (Jan.–Nov. 1991) Doguzhiyev (Jan.–Nov. 1991)First Deputy Premiers Deputy Premiers Prime Ministers of Russia Prime Ministers of RussiaRussian Empire Witte · Goremykin · Stolypin · Kokovtsov · Goremykin · Stürmer · Trepov · Golitsyn Russian Republic Lvov · KerenskyRussian SFSR Lenin · Rykov · Syrtsov · Sulimov · Bulganin · Vakhrushev · Khokhlov · Kosygin · Rodionov · Chernousov · Puzanov · Yasnov · Kozlov · Polyansky · Voronov · Solomentsev · Vorotnikov · Vlasov · Silayev · Lobov · YeltsinRussian Federation Gaidar · Chernomyrdin · Kiriyenko · Primakov · Stepashin · Putin · Kasyanov · Fradkov · Zubkov · PutinPremiers of the USSR Significant works by Vladimir LeninThe Development of Capitalism in Russia (1899) What Is to Be Done? (1902) One Step Forward, Two Steps Back (1904) Two Tactics of Social Democracy in the Social Revolution (1905) Materialism and Empirio-criticism (1909) Philosophical Notebooks (1913) The Right of Nations to Self-Determination (1914) Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism (1916) The State and Revolution (1917) The Proletarian Revolution and the Renegade Kautsky "Left-Wing" Communism: An Infantile Disorder (1920) Russian Revolution of 1917 and the Russian Civil War[hide]EventsRevolutionary February Revolution July Days Kornilov affair October Revolution Kerensky–Krasnov uprisingCivil war Russian Civil War Kiev Bolshevik Uprising Ukrainian War of Independence Finnish Civil War Heimosodat Polish-Ukrainian War Polish-Soviet War Estonian War of Independence Latvian War of Independence Lithuanian Wars of Independence Red Army invasion of Georgia Armenian–Azerbaijani War Left-wing uprisings against the Bolsheviks Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War Siberian Intervention [hide]Major groupsProvisional Committee of the State Duma Russian Provisional Government White Movement Pro-independence movements Petrograd Soviet Council of the People's Commissars Military Revolutionary Committee Russian Constituent Assembly (elections) Red Guards Tsentralna Rada Ukrainian People's Republic[hide]Political partiesKadets Russian Social Democratic Labour Party Bolsheviks Mensheviks Socialist-Revolutionary Party Left[hide]Major figuresMonarchists Nicholas II of RussiaRussian Republic Georgy Lvov Pavel Milyukov Alexander GuchkovWhite Movement Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel Aleksandr Kolchak Anton Denikin Pyotr Krasnov Nikolai YudenichBolsheviks Vladimir Lenin Lev Kamenev Grigory Zinoviev Leon Trotsky Joseph StalinRight SRs Alexander Kerensky Stepan Petrichenko Boris Savinkov[hide]International effectsRevolutions of 1917–23 Courtine Rebellion German Revolution Bavarian Soviet Republic Hungarian Soviet Republic Hungarian–Romanian War of 1919 Polish-Ukrainian War Polish–Soviet War Slovak Soviet Republic Finnish Civil War Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic People from RussiaLeaders and religious Pre-1168 1168–1917 1922–1991 1991–present RSFSR leaders General secretaries Soviet premiers (1st deputies) Soviet heads of state (and their spouses) Prime ministers (1st deputies) Foreign ministers Prosecutors general Metropolitans and patriarchs Saints Military and explorers Field marshals Soviet marshals Admirals Aviators CosmonautsScientists and inventors Aerospace engineers Astronomers and astrophysicists Biologists Chemists Earth scientists Electrical engineers IT developers Linguists and philologists Mathematicians Naval engineers Physicians and psychologists Physicists Weaponry makersArtists and writers Architects Ballet dancers Composers Opera singers Novelists Philosophers Playwrights PoetsSportspeople Chess players Russia i/ˈrʌʃə/ or /ˈrʊʃə/ (Russian: Россия, tr. Rossiya, IPA: [rɐˈsʲijə] ( listen)), officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation (Russian: Российская Федерация, tr. Rossiyskaya Federatsiya, IPA: [rɐˈsʲijskəjə fʲɪdʲɪˈratsɨjə] ( listen)), is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both via Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia, and North Korea. It also has maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk, and the United States by the Bering Strait. At 17,075,400 square kilometres (6,592,800 sq mi), Russia is the largest country in the world, covering more than one eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area. Russia is also the eighth most populous nation with 143 million people. It extends across the whole of northern Asia and 40% of Europe, spanning nine time zones and incorporating a wide range of environments and landforms. Russia has the world's largest reserves of mineral and energy resources. It has the world's largest forest reserves and its lakes contain approximately one-quarter of the world's fresh water.The nation's history began with that of the East Slavs, who emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Kievan Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde, and came to dominate the cultural and political legacy of Kievan Rus'. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland in Europe to Alaska in North America.Following the Russian Revolution, Russia became the largest and leading constituent of the Soviet Union, the world's first constitutionally socialist state and a recognized superpower, which played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human spaceflight. The Russian Federation was founded following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, but is recognized as the continuing legal personality of the Soviet state.Modern-day Russia has the world's 9th largest economy by nominal GDP or the 6th largest by purchasing power parity, with the 5th largest nominal military budget. It is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power and a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, a member of the G8, G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the Eurasian Economic Community, the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), and is the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States. Administrative divisions of the federal subjects of RussiaRepublics Adygea · Altai · Bashkortostan · Buryatia · Chechnya · Chuvashia · Dagestan · Ingushetia · Kabardino-Balkaria · Kalmykia · Karachay-Cherkessia · Karelia · Khakassia · Komi · Mari El · Mordovia · North Ossetia–Alania · Sakha · Tatarstan · Tuva · Udmurtia Krais Altai · Kamchatka · Khabarovsk · Krasnodar · Krasnoyarsk · Perm · Primorsky · Stavropol · ZabaykalskyOblasts Amur · Arkhangelsk · Astrakhan · Belgorod · Bryansk · Chelyabinsk · Irkutsk · Ivanovo · Kaliningrad · Kaluga · Kemerovo · Kirov · Kostroma · Kurgan · Kursk · Leningrad · Lipetsk · Magadan · Moscow · Murmansk · Nizhny Novgorod · Novgorod · Novosibirsk · Omsk · Orenburg · Oryol · Penza · Pskov · Rostov · Ryazan · Sakhalin · Samara · Saratov · Smolensk · Sverdlovsk · Tambov · Tomsk · Tula · Tver · Tyumen · Ulyanovsk · Vladimir · Volgograd · Vologda · Voronezh · YaroslavlFederal cities Moscow · St. PetersburgAutonomous oblast JewishAutonomous okrugs Chukotka · Khanty–Mansi · Nenets · Yamalo-NenetsHistory Timeline · Proto-Indo-Europeans · Scythians · Bosporan Kingdom · Khazaria · East Slavs · Rus' Khaganate · Kievan Rus' · Novgorod Republic · Vladimir-Suzdal · Mongol invasion of Rus' · Tatar invasions · Volga Bulgaria · Golden Horde · Grand Duchy of Moscow · Tsardom of Russia · Russian Empire · World War I · Russian Revolution (1917) · Russian Civil War · Russian SFSR · Soviet Union · World War II · Cold War · Soviet war in Afghanistan · Russian Federation · Military history · Postal history Geography Subdivisions · Ural Mountains · Siberia · European Russia · West Siberian Plain · Caucasus Mountains · Caspian Sea · North Caucasus · Cities and towns · Islands · Economic regions · Rivers · Volcanoes · ClimateGovernance Constitution · Government · President · Federal Assembly · Law · Foreign relations · Constitutional Court · Public Chamber · State Council · JudiciaryPolitics Elections · Political parties · Human rightsEconomy Agriculture · Inventions · Tourism · Banking · Central Bank · Russian ruble · Transport · Communications · CorruptionDemographics Russians · Public holidays · Languages · Religion · Crime · 2002 Census · 2010 Census · Famous RussiansCulture Architecture · Literature · Ballet · Avant-garde · Cinema · Material culture · Music (Opera) · Language · Cuisine · Martial arts · Folklore · Russian Internet · SportsSymbols National flag · Other flags · Coat of arms · National anthem Largest cities1 Moscow Москва Moscow 11,800,9922 Saint Petersburg Санкт-Петербург Saint Petersburg 4,900,5203 Novosibirsk Новосибирск Novosibirsk 1,397,1914 Yekaterinburg Екатеринбург Sverdlovsk 1,332,2645 Nizhny Novgorod Нижний Новгород Nizhny Novgorod 1,272,5276 Samara Самара Samara 1 164 9007 Kazan Казань Tatarstan 1 143 6008 Omsk Омск Omsk 1,129,1209 Chelyabinsk Челябинск Chelyabinsk 1,093,69910 Rostov-on-Don Ростов-на-Дону Rostov 1,048,99111 Ufa Уфа Bashkortostan 1,024,84212 Volgograd Волгоград Volgograd 1,021,20013 Perm Пермь Perm 985,79414 Krasnoyarsk Красноярск Krasnoyarsk 947,80115 Voronezh Воронеж Voronezh 843,49616 Saratov Саратов Saratov 830,95317 Tolyatti Тольятти Samara 720,34618 Krasnodar Краснодар Krasnodar 710,68619 Izhevsk Ижевск Udmurtia 611,04320 Yaroslavl Ярославль Yaroslavl 606,336 World Heritage Sites in Russia by federal districtChurch of the Ascension in Kolomenskoye · Moscow Kremlin and Red SquareNovodevichy Convent · Trinity Sergius LavraWhite Monuments of Vladimir and Suzdal · Historic Centre of YaroslavlCuronian Spit1 · Ferapontov Monastery · Kizhi Pogost · Virgin Komi ForestsHistoric Monuments of Novgorod and SurroundingsHistoric Centre of Saint Petersburg and SurroundingsSolovetsky Islands · Struve Geodetic Arc2Far Eastern Volcanoes of Kamchatka · Central Sikhote-Alin · Wrangel IslandSiberian Golden Mountains of Altai · Lake Baikal · Putorana Plateau · Uvs Nuur Basin3Volga Kazan KremlinNorth Caucasian Citadel, Ancient City and Fortress Buildings of DerbentIndex of Soviet Union-related articlesFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaArticles related to the former nation known as the Soviet Union include:Soviet Union topicsHistory Timeline · Russian Revolution · (February · October) · Russian Civil War · Russian SFSR · Treaty on the Creation of the USSR · New Economic Policy · Stalinism · Great Purge · Great Patriotic War · Cold War · Khrushchev Thaw · 1965 reform · Stagnation · Perestroika · Glasnost · Dissolution Politics Cabinets · Central Committee · Collective leadership · Communist Party · Congress · Constitution · Deputy Premier · Elections · First Deputy Premier · Foreign relations · General Secretary · Government · Law · Leaders · Politburo · Premier · President · Presidential Council · Party Organisation · State Council · State Ideology · Supreme CourtGeography Subdivisions · Ural Mountains · Siberia · European Russia · West Siberian Plain · Caucasus Mountains · Caspian Sea · North CaucasusEconomy Agriculture · Central Bank · Communications · Corruption · Energy policy · Five-Year Plan · Inventions · Soviet ruble · TransportDemographics Soviets · Languages · Religion · Crime · 1989 CensusCulture Architecture · Literature · Ballet · Propaganda · Opera · Cinema · Music · Marxism–Leninism · Leninism · Brezhnevism · Soviet Internet · SportsSymbols National flag · Other flags · Coat of arms · National anthemCategory · Portal · WikiProject · Joseph Stalin · Leonid Brezhnev · Era of StagnationContents: 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z See also0–9A Agriculture of the Soviet UnionAndropov, Yuri – Soviet leader from 1982–1984B BolshevikBrezhnev, Leonid – Soviet leader from 1964–1982C Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet UnionChernobyl disasterChekaChernenko, Konstantin – Soviet leader from 1984–1985Closed cityCold WarCollective farmingCollective leadershipCollectivisation in the USSRCommemorative coins of the Soviet UnionCommunismCommunist Party of the Soviet UnionCommunist Party of ArmeniaAzerbaijan Communist PartyCommunist Party of ByelorussiaCommunist Party of EstoniaGeorgian Communist PartyCommunist Party of KazakhstanCommunist Party of KirghiziaCommunist Party of LatviaCommunist Party of LithuaniaCommunist Party of MoldovaCommunist Party of the Russian SFSRCommunist Party of TajikistanCommunist Party of TurkmenistanCommunist Party (Bolsheviks) of UkraineCommunist Party of UzbekistanComradeConsumer goods in the Soviet UnionCongress of People's DeputiesCouncil of Ministers of the USSRCouncil of People's CommissarsCriticisms of communismCuban-Soviet relationsCulture of the Soviet UnionD Dates of establishment of diplomatic relations with the USSRDemographics of the Soviet UnionDeputies of the Soviet UnionE Economy of the Soviet UnionEducation in the Soviet UnionEnergy policy of the Soviet UnionEra of Stagnation (Template)"Evil Empire"F The Flag of the Soviet UnionFamily in the Soviet UnionFamines in Russia and USSRFirst Deputies of the Soviet UnionFirst Ladies of the Soviet UnionFlag of the Soviet UnionFlag of the Armenian SSRFlag of Azerbaikan SSRFlag of Byelorussian SSRFlag of the Estonian SSRFlag of the Georgian SSRFlag of the Karelo-Finnish SSRFlag of the Kazakh SSRFlag of the Kirghiz SSRFlag of the Latvian SSRFlag of the Lithuanian SSRFlag of the Moldavian SSRFlag of the Russian SSRFlag of the Tajik SSRFlag of the Transcaucasion SFSRFlag of the Turkmen SSRFlag of the Ukrainian SSRFlag of the Uzbek SSRForeign relations of the Soviet UnionForeign trade of the Soviet UnionG General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet UnionGorbachev, Mikhail – Soviet leader from 1985 to 1991Government of the Soviet UnionMinistry of External AffairsMinistry of FinanceMinistry of Finance of the RSFSRMinistry of HealthMinistry of JusticeMinistry of EducationAnd others...Great PurgeGromyko, Andrei – Soviet Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1957–1985 and Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet from 1985–1988GulagH History of the Soviet UnionHistory of Soviet Russia and the Soviet Union (1917–1927), from the October Revolution to Stalin's consolidation of powerHistory of the Soviet Union (1927–1953), the Stalin eraHistory of the Soviet Union (1953–1964), post-Stalinist power struggle and the Khrushchev EraHistory of the Soviet Union (1964–1982), the Brezhnev EraHistory of the Soviet Union (1982–1991), failed attempts to preserve the Soviet Union, ended by its dissolutionHistory of Russian animationHistory of the Jews in Russia and Soviet UnionHolodomorHuman rights in the Soviet UnionI IntouristInvoluntary settlements in the Soviet UnionIraq–Russia relationsJ This section is empty. You can help by adding to it.K KGBKolkhozKomsomolKorean Air Lines Flight 007Kosygin, Alexei – The longest serving Chairman of the Council of Ministers (e.g. Premier)Kosygin reform – A renowned Soviet economic reformKhrushchev, Nikita – Soviet leader from 1953–1964 and Premier from 1957–1964KulakL Labor armyLanguages of the Soviet UnionLenin, Vladimir – First leader of the Soviet Union from 1922–1924LeninismLikbezList of Antarctic expeditions by the Soviet UnionList of heads of state of the Soviet UnionList of Gulag campsList of leaders of the Soviet UnionList of people on stamps of the Union of Soviet Socialist RepublicsList of Soviet movies of the year by ticket salesList of United States – Soviet Union summitsLiteraturnaya GazetaM Main Directorate of State Security (USSR)Malenkov, Georgy – Soviet leader in 1953MarxismMarxism-LeninismMass graves in the Soviet UnionMilitary Collegium of the Supreme Court of the USSRMinistry for State Security (USSR)Mitrokhin ArchiveN NKVDNKVD Order no. 00439NKVD Order no. 00447NKVD Order no. 00485NKVD Order no. 00486NKVD Order no. 00593NKVD Order no. 00689NKVD troikaSpecial Council of the NKVDP People's Commissariat for State Security (USSR)People's correspondentPolitburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet UnionPravdaPremier of the Soviet UnionPresident of the Soviet UnionPresidium of the Supreme SovietProcurator General of the Soviet UnionPropiskaPurges of the Communist Party of the Soviet UnionR Rail transport in the Soviet UnionReady for Labour and Defence of the USSRRed ArmyResearch in the Soviet UnionRussian Civil WarRussian avant gardeRykov, Alexey – Soviet premier from 1924–1930Ryzhkov, Nikolai – Soviet premier from 1985–1991S Sino–Soviet border conflictSocialismSovetskiy SportSoviet (council)Soviet Air ForcesSoviet NavySoviet Naval AviationSoviet Republic (system of government)Republics of the Soviet UnionArmenian SSRAzerbaijan SSRByelorussian SSREstonian SSRGeorgian SSRKazakh SSRLatvian SSRLithuanian SSRRussian SFSRTajik SSRTurkmen SSRUzbek SSRUkrainian SSRSoviet space programSoviet UnionSoviet Union at the OlympicsSoviet Union national rugby union teamSoviet Union women's national rugby union teamSovietizationSpecial Council of the NKVDSpiritual Administration of the Muslims of Central Asia and KazakhstanStalin, Joseph – Soviet leader from 1924–1953StalinismState capitalismState emblem of the Soviet UnionState ideology of the Soviet UnionState Political DirectorateState Quality Mark of the USSRSuppressed research in the Soviet UnionT Tikhonov, Nikolai – Soviet Chairman of the Council of Ministers 1980–1985 and First Deputy from 1976–1980Transportation in the Soviet UnionTrotskyismU Unified Sports Classification System of the USSRUSSR Olympic Team Flag BearersUSSR Border TroopsV Voluntary Sports Societies of the USSRVoyska PVOW White movementY Yanayev, Gennady – Soviet Acting President of the Soviet Union in 1991Young Pioneer organization of the Soviet UnionYoung Guard (Soviet resistance)Z Zangief Famous Russians Statesmen and military MonarchsMain article: Russian rulersRurik, ruler of Novgorod, progenitor of the Rurikid Dynasty, traditionally the first ruler of RussiaVladimir the GreatOleg "the Seer", conqueror of Kiev and founder of Kievan Rus', famous for his wars with ByzantiumIgor "the Old", the first historically well-attested Rurikid rulerOlga, the first woman ruler of Rus' (regent), the first Christian among Russian rulersSvyatoslav I, united all East Slavs under Kievan rule and destroyed the Khazar KhaganateVladimir I "the Great", turned from pagan to saint and enacted the Christianization of Kievan Rus'Yaroslav I "the Wise", reigned in the period when Kievan Rus' reached the zenith of its cultural flowering and military power, founder of YaroslavlVladimir II Monomakh, defender of Rus' from Cuman nomads, presided over the end of the Golden Age of KievMstislav I "the Great", the last powerful Grand Prince of Kiev, after his reign Kievan Rus fell into feudal declineYury I "the Long-Handed", founder of Moscow and the key figure in transition of political power from Kiev to Vladimir-SuzdalAndrey I "the Pious", the first Grand Prince of VladimirAlexander NevskyVsevolod "the Big Nest", the Grand Prince of Vladimir during its Golden Age, had 14 childrenYury II, Grand Prince of Vladimir during the Mongol invasion of Rus'Yaroslav II, the first Grand Prince of Vladimir after the Mongol invasion, the first European to travel into MongoliaAlexander Nevsky, Prince of Novgorod and Grand Prince of Vladimir, military hero famous for the Battle of Neva and the Battle of the Ice, patron saint and the Name of RussiaAndrey II, brother of Alexander Nevsky, his companion in the Battle of the Ice and the journey to Karakorum, progenitor of the Shuisky familyDaniel of Moscow, the first Grand Prince of MoscowYury of Moscow, also Grand Prince of Vladimir and Novgorod, led early Muscovite expansionIvan I "the Moneybag", brought wealth and power to Moscow by maintaining his loyalty to the Golden Horde and acting as its chief tax collector in RussiaSimeon "the Proud", continued the policies of his father Ivan I, died of the Black DeathIvan the GreatIvan II "the Fair", an apathetic ruler who succeeded his brother SimeonDmitry Donskoy, saint and war hero, the first Prince of Moscow to openly challenge Mongol authority in Russia, famous for the Battle of KulikovoVasily I, avoided serious confrontation with the Golden Horde and attempted an alliance with the Grand Duchy of LithuaniaVasily II "the Blind", reigned during the long Muscovite Civil WarIvan III "the Great", reunited the Central and Northern Rus', put an end to the Mongol yoke, brought Renaissance architecture to RussiaVasily III, successfully continued the policies of his father Ivan IIIIvan IV, the first Tsar of Russia, called "the Terrible" in the West while more correct translation is "the Awesome", transformed Russia into multiethnic, multiconfessional and transcontinental stateFyodor I, the last Rurikid monarchBoris Godunov, the first non-Rurikid monarchIvan the TerribleFyodor II, the second and the last ruler from the Godunov Dynasty, cartographerFalse Dmitriy I, the first impostor during the Time of TroublesVasili IV Shuisky, Tsar elected during the Time of TroublesFalse Dmitry II, the second impostor during the Time of TroublesMikhail, the first Romanov monarch, oversaw the largest ever expansion of Russia's territory, reaching the PacificAleksey, called "the Quietest" despite rather tumultuous reignFyodor III, founder of the Slavic Greek Latin AcademyTsarevna Sophia, regent during the minority of Ivan V and Peter IIvan V, until his death was the joint ruler with his brother Peter IPeter the GreatPeter I "the Great", the first Russian Emperor, polymath craftsman and inventor, modernized Russian Army and westernized culture, won the Great Northern War, founded the Russian Navy and the new capital Saint PetersburgCatherine I, the first Russian EmpressPeter II, attempted partial reversal of Petrine reforms and briefly relocated the capital back to MoscowAnna, famous for building the first ice palaceIvan VI, reigned for a year while a baby, then was deposited and imprisonedElizabeth, "the Merry Empress" during the era of high BaroquePeter III, pro-Prussian ruler deposited by his wife Catherine IICatherine II "the Great", German-born Russian Empress during the Age of Enlightenment, significantly expanded Russia's territoryPaul I (though there was no Paul II), the Grand Master of the Knights HospitallerCatherine the GreatAlexander I "the Blessed", oversaw the victory over Napoleon, headed Russia's delegation at the Congress of ViennaConstantine, Grand Duke who abdicated the Russian throne in favour of Nicholas I, which formed a background for the Decembrist RevoltNicholas I, famous for his conservative policies, oversaw the construction of the first Russian RailwaysAlexander II "the Liberator", enacted the "Great Reforms" in Russian economy and social structure, including the emancipation reform of 1861Alexander III, "the Peacemaker", oversaw conservative, but progressive and peaceful reignNicholas II, the last actual Emperor, forced to abdicate after the February Revolution, killed with his family during the Russian Civil WarMikhail II, nominally the last monarch, abdicated the day after Nicholas IIStatesmen of the Tsardom and EmpireMain articles: Russian Prime Ministers, Russian Foreign Ministers, and Russian Ministers of WarAleksey Arakcheyev, Minister of War of Alexander I, organized military-agricultural coloniesVasily GolitsynAleksey Bestuzhev-Ryumin, Foreign Minister and Chancellor in the reign of Empress Elizabeth, brought Russia into the Seven Years' WarAlexander Bezborodko, Foreign Minister of Emperor PaulJacob Bruce, associate of Peter the Great, general, naturalist and astronomer, negotiated the Peace of NystadZakhar Chernyshev, general during the Seven Years' War, Minister of War of Catherine II, governor of Belarus and MoscowAbram Gannibal, general and military engineer of Black African origin, governor of Reval, the great-grandfather of Alexander Pushkin and hero of his novel Peter the Great's NegroNikolay Girs, Foreign Minister of Alexander III, an architect of the Franco-Russian AllianceVasily Golitsyn, 17th century commander of the Russian Army, Foreign Minister and a favourite of Tsarevna Sophia, abolished rank priority in the military, concluded Eternal Peace Treaty of 1686 with Poland, one of the most educated Russians of the timeAleksey GorchakovFyodor Golovin, associate of Peter the Great, General Admiral, the first Russian Field Marshal and Chancellor, the first Russian count and the first to receive the Order of St.Andrew, negotiated the Treaty of Nerchinsk and the Treaty of KarlowitzGavriil Golovkin, Foreign Minister in the reigns of Peter I and the three next monarchsAlexander Gorchakov, Foreign Minister and Chancellor of Alexander II, a friend and rival of Otto von Bismarck, denounced the Treaty of Paris (1856), advocated the League of the Three EmperorsIvan Goremykin, twice the Prime Minister of Imperial RussiaIvan Gramotin, managed foreign affairs during the Time of Troubles and the reign of Tsar MikhailAlexander Guchkov, founder and head of the Union of 17 October party, Chairman of the Duma and Minister of War in the Russian Provisional GovernmentAleksandr MenshikovNikolay Ignatyev, statesman and diplomat, obtained Outer Manchuria for Russia in the Convention of Peking, negotiated the Treaty of San Stefano, proponent of Pan-SlavismAlexander Izvolsky, Foreign Minister who concluded the Anglo-Russian EntenteAlexander Kerensky, the second and the last Prime Minister of the Russian Provisional GovernmentIvan Khovansky-Taratuy, led the Streltsy in the Moscow Uprising of 1682, heri of the opera Khovanschina by MussorgskyVladimir Kokovtsov, Finance Minister and Prime Minister of Russia before World War IVladimir Kovalevsky, director of the Commerce and Manufacturing Department of the Imperial Ministry of Finance, Deputy Finance MinisterBoris Kurakin, the first permanent Russian ambassador abroad, supervisor of Russian embassies during the reign of Peter IFranz Lefort, tutor of Peter the Great, general and diplomat, oversaw the foundation of the Russian NavyAfanasy Ordin-NashchokinAleksey Lobanov-Rostovsky, Foreign Minister who concluded the Li–Lobanov Treaty with ChinaGeorgy Lvov, the first Prime Minister of the Russian Provisional GovernmentArtamon Matveev, late Foreign Minister of Tsar Alexey, creator of the Tsar Book of TitlesAleksandr Menshikov, associate and friend of Peter the Great, de facto ruler of Russia for two years after Peter's death, Generalissimus, Prince, the first Governor of Saint PetersburgPavel Milyukov, founder of the Constitutional Democratic Party, Foreign Minister in the Russian Provisional GovernmentDmitry Milyutin, the last Russian Field Marshal, Minister of War who replaced military recruitment with conscription and brought other sweeping changes into the Russian Army during the reign of Alexander IIBurkhard Christoph von Münnich, Field Marshal, statesman, governor of St Petersburg, builder of the Ladoga Canal, and founder of the first Cadet Corps in RussiaGrigory Potyomkin-TavricheskyMikhail Muravyov, Foreign Minister at the end of the 19th century, initiated the Hague Peace ConferenceNikolay Muravyov-Amursky, governor of the East Siberia, coloniser of the Amurland and Primorsky Krai, concluded the Treaty of Aigun and the Treaty of Beijing (1860) with ChinaKarl Nesselrode, Foreign Minister of Alexander II and Nicholas I, a leading European conservative statesman of the Holy AllianceAfanasy Ordin-Nashchokin, Foreign Minister of Tsar Alexey, negotiated the Treaty of Valiesari with Sweden, the Truce of Niemieża, and the advantageous Truce of Andrusovo with PolandAlexey Orlov, key man in Catherine II's enthronment, initiated the anti-Ottoman Orlov Revolt in Greece, captured Princess Tarakanova, bred the Orlov TrotterGrigory Orlov, favourite of Catherine the Great who enthroned her, progenitor of Bobrinsky family, founder of the Free Economic Society, owner of the Orlov DiamondMikhail SperanskyAndrey Osterman, concluded the Peace of Nystad with Sweden, co-authored the Table of Ranks, served as Foreign Minister in the reign of Empress AnnaIvan Osterman, the late Foreign Minister of Catherine IINikita Panin, Foreign Minister and political mentor to Catherine the GreatKonstantin Pobedonostsev, tutor to Alexander III and Éminence grise of his imperial politicsGrigory Potyomkin-Tavrichesky, a favourite of Catherine II, conqueror and the first governor of Novorossiya, founder of Sevastopol and YekaterinoslavGrigori Rasputin, mystic and healer who influenced the latter politics of Nicholas IIAlexey Razumovsky, a Cossack who rose to become the morganatic spouse of Empress ElizabethPyotr StolypinKirill Razumovsky, the last Hetman of Ukrainian Cossacks, the president of the Russian Academy of SciencesFeodor Rostopchin, Foreign Minister of Paul I, Governor of Moscow who ordered the city to be burnt before the advancing Napoleons Grande ArméeNikolay Rumyantsev, Foreign Minister during the French invasion of Russia, founder of the Rumyantsev MuseumSergey Sazonov, Foreign Minister at the start of World War IPyotr Shafirov, a Foreign Minister of Peter I, concluded the Treaty of the PruthIvan Shuvalov, the Maecenas of the Russian Enlightenment, the first Russian Minister of Education, founder of the Moscow State University and Russian Academy of ArtsPyotr Shuvalov, associate of Empress Elizabeth, founder of Izhevsk, weaponry inventor, reformer of Russian artilleryMikhail Speransky, the chief reformer during the reign of Alexander I, father of Russian liberalism, oversaw the publication of the Full Collection of Laws of the Russian EmpireEkaterina Vorontsova-DashkovaPyotr Stolypin, Interior Minister and then Prime Minister, put down the Russian Revolution of 1905, initiated Stolypin reformSergey Uvarov, classical scholar and statesman, president of the Russian Academy of Sciences, invented the ideological formula Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and NationalityIvan Viskovatov, the first head of Posolsky Prikaz (the Foreign Ministry of the Russian Tsardom)Mikhail Vorontsov, Foreign Minister and Chancellor during the Seven Years' WarEkaterina Vorontsova-Dashkova, the closest female friend of Catherine the Great, a major figure of the Russian Enlightenment, a director of the Imperial Academy of Arts and Sciences and the founder of Russian AcademySergei Witte, Finance Minister who later became the first Prime Minister of Russia, presided over extensive industrialization of the country, and supervised the construction of the Trans-Siberian RailwaySoviet leaders and statesmenMain articles: Soviet leaders, Soviet Premiers, Soviet heads of state, and Soviet Foreign MinistersViktor Abakumov, head of the SMERSH counter-intelligence agency and the MGB secret policeLeonid BrezhnevYury Andropov, head of KGB under Brezhnev, leader of the Soviet Union in 1982–84Lavrenty Beria, chief of the Soviet security under Stalin, supervised the Soviet wartime production during World War II and than the Soviet atomic bomb projectLeonid Brezhnev, leader of the Soviet Union in 1964–82, oversaw relative economic stagnation but less strained foreign relationsNikolai Bukharin, Politburo member in the 1920s, editor of government newspapers Pravda and Izvestia, author of The ABC of CommunismNikolai Bulganin, Soviet Premier in 1937–38 and in 1955–58, supporter of KhrushchevKonstantin Chernenko, leader of the Soviet Union in 1984–85Georgy Chicherin, the first Soviet Foreign MinisterFeliks Dzerzhinsky, founder of the Cheka, the first Soviet secret police, worked on the problem of street children socializationVladimir LeninMikhail Gorbachev the last General Secretary of the Communist Party, launched the policies of glasnost and perestroika, the first and only president of the Soviet Union who led it to its collapseAndrei Gromyko, Soviet Foreign Minister in 1957–1985, known as the "Mr. No" in the WestLazar Kaganovich, the "Iron Lazar", Politburo member in 1930–57, oversaw the Soviet collectivization and industrialization, a close associate of StalinMikhail Kalinin, formal Head of state of the Soviet Union during the 1920s and 1930sLev Kamenev, one of the Soviet leaders in the early 1920sNikita Khrushchev, leader of the Soviet Union in 1953–64, launched de-Stalinisation and many erratic policies, backed the progress of the early Soviet space programAlexei Kosygin, Soviet Premier under Brezhnev, author of the eventually stifled Kosygin reform which included elements of capitalist managementVyacheslav MolotovVladimir Lenin, founder of Bolshevik party, the leader of the October Revolution, the first Soviet head of state in 1917–22, founder of the Soviet Union, creator of LeninismMaxim Litvinov, Soviet Foreign Minister in the 1930sAnatoly Lunacharsky, the first Soviet Minister of EnlightenmentGeorgy Malenkov, a close associate of Stalin, Soviet Premier and one of the leaders after Stalin's deathAnastas Mikoyan, Trade Minister and Food Minister for many years, called "the Survivor" for a very long high profile political careerVyacheslav Molotov Soviet Premier in the 1930s, Foreign Minister during World War II, a close associate of StalinValentin Pavlov, the first to assume the title Prime Minister of the Soviet Union, led the August Coup in attempt to depose GorbachevNikolai Podgorny, formal head of state under BrezhnevJoseph StalinAlexei Rykov, Soviet Premier in 1924–30Nikolai Ryzhkov, Soviet Premier under GorbachevIvan Silayev, Soviet Premier in 1991 and Minister of Civil Aviation in the 1980sJoseph Stalin, the longest ruling Soviet leader, proponent of socialism in one country policy, oversaw the Soviet collectivization and industrialization, Generalissimo of the Soviet Union who led the country to victory in the Great Patriotic War, oversaw the post-war economy restoration, formed the Eastern bloc and engaged in the Cold WarYakov Sverdlov, the first de jure head of the Russian SFSREduard Shevardnadze, the last Soviet Foreign Minister, later a President of GeorgiaMikhail Suslov, leading ideologist during the Brezhnev eraLeon TrotskyNikolai Tikhonov, Soviet Premier in the early 1980sLeon Trotsky, the second-in-command during the October Revolution, the first Soviet Foreign Minister (concluded the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk), founder of the Red Army, Defense Minister in 1918–25, proponent of the world revolution and creator of Trotskyism, founder of the Fourth InternationalAndrey Vyshinsky, Soviet Prosecutor General under Stalin, Foreign Minister in 1949–53Genrikh Yagoda, Interior Minister and head of the NKVD in the 1930s, executedGennady Yanayev, the leader of the August Coup that attempted to depose GorbachevNikolai Yezhov, Interior Minister and head of the NKVD during the period of the Great Purge, was executed soon afterGrigory Zinoviev, one of the Soviet leaders in the early 1920sPresidents and contemporary politiciansMain articles: Russian Presidents and Russian Prime MinistersViktor Chernomyrdin, Prime Minister of Russia for the most of 1990sAleksey KudrinYegor Gaidar, Prime Minister in 1992, launched the controversial shock therapy reforms aimed into installation of liberal market economy in RussiaBoris Gryzlov, current Speaker of Russia's State Duma (the lower house of parliament) and a leader of the ruling United Russia partyMikhail Fradkov, Prime Minister in 2004–07, currently the head of Russian Foreign Intelligence ServiceSergei Ivanov, Defense Minister of Russia for most of Putin's presidencyMikhail Kasyanov, Prime Minister in 2000–04, liberal politicianSergei Kiriyenko, Prime Minister in 1998, currently the head of Rosatom (the state nuclear energy corporation)Viktor Khristenko, acting Prime Minister in 2004, current Industry MinisterAlexey Kudrin, Minister of Finance of Russia from 2000, Euromoney's "Finance Minister of the Year 2010"Dmitry MedvedevSergey Lavrov, current Foreign Minister of RussiaYury Luzhkov, Mayor of Moscow from 1992 to 2010Valentina Matviyenko, governor of St. Petersburg since 2003 to 2011Dmitry Medvedev, President of Russia since 2008Sergei Mironov, current Speaker of Russia's Federation Council (the upper house of parliament) and a leader of the Fair Russia partyYevgeny Primakov, Foreign Minister in 1996–98 and Prime Minister in 1998–99, presided over the start of economic recovery and a significant change of the foreign policyVladimir Putin, the second President of Russia in 2000–08, Prime Minister of Russia in 1999–2000 and currently since 2008Vladimir PutinAlexander Rutskoy, the first Vice President of Russia in 1991–93, was proclaimed acting president for a short time in the course of the Russian constitutional crisis of 1993Anatoliy Serdyukov, current Defense Minister of Russia since 2007Anatoly Sobchak, first post-Soviet mayor of St. PetersburgSergei Stepashin, Prime Minister in 1999, currently the head of the Account Chamber of Russia (the state audit agency)Boris Yeltsin, the first President of Russia in 1991–99Vladimir Zhirinovsky, founder and the leader of the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia, Vice-Chairman of the State DumaGennady Zyuganov, head of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation since 1993Viktor Zubkov, Prime Minister in 2007–08, the current Deputy Prime Minister and chairman of the board of directors of GazpromMilitaryArmyMain articles: Russian Field Marshals and Soviet MarshalsMikhail Annenkov, conqueror of Central Asia, builder of the strategical Transcaspian RailwayVasily ChapaevS. F. Apraksin, commander-in-chief at the Battle of Gross-Jägersdorf during the Seven Years’ WarIvan Bagramyan, Soviet Marshal, prominent in the Baltic Offensive during World War IIPyotr Bagration, general and hero of the Napoleonic Wars, mortally wounded in the Battle of BorodinoAleksandr Baryatinsky, Field Marshal, perfected the mountain warfare tactics of the Russian Army, captured Imam Shamil during the Caucasian WarAlexander Bekovich-Cherkassky, leader of the first Russian military expeditions into Central Asia, founder of KrasnovodskVasily Blücher, one of the first five Soviet Marshals, prominent in the Russian Civil War and the Northern Expedition in ChinaMaria Bochkareva, founder of the Women's Battalion of Death during World War IJacob Bruce, Field Marshal, commander of artillery in the Battle of PoltavaAleksei Brusilov, World War I General, led the tactically innovative Brusilov Offensive, destroying the military of Austria-Hungary almost completelyDenis DavydovSemyon Budyonny, Civil War commander, statesman, triple Hero of the Soviet UnionVasily Chapayev, legendary Civil War commander, prototype for Chapaev movie and Chapayev and Void novel, hero of many Russian jokesMikhail Chernyayev, general, captured Tashkent during the conquest of Central Asia, the Governor of Russian TurkestanVasily Chuikov, commander and hero in the Battle of Stalingrad, Soviet Marshal, double HSUDenis Davydov, general, guerilla fighter and soldier-poet of the Napoleonic Wars, invented a genre of hussar poetry noted for its hedonism and bravadoAnton Denikin, Civil War general, one of the leaders of White MovementHans Karl von Diebitsch-Zabalkansky, Field Marshal, took Adrianople during the Russo-Turkish War (1828–1829)Nadezhda Durova, "the Cavalry Maiden", a female hero of the Napoleonic warsAlexander Gorbatyi-Shuisky, voevoda of Tsar Ivan IV, hero of the Russo-Kazan Wars and the final Siege of Kazan (1552)Nadezhda DurovaLeonid Govorov, World War II Soviet Marshal, led Operation Spark (1943) which broke the blockade of LeningradAndrei Grechko, World War II Soviet Marshal, Soviet Defence Minister under BrezhnevIvan Gudovich, Field Marshal, conquered Khadjibey and Anapa in the Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792), conquered Dagestan in the Russo-Turkish War (1806–1812)Iosif Gurko, commander and hero of the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878), won the battles of Shipka Pass, Gorni Dubnik and Plovdiv, liberated the Bulgarian capital SofiaMikhail Frunze, revolutionary, a prominent Civil War commanderKonstantin Kaufmann, conqueror of the Khanate of Khiva, the first governor of Russian TurkestanIvan Konev, Soviet Marshal, led Red Army on the Eastern Front,Mikhail Kutuzov double HSULavr Kornilov, World War I general, notable for Kornilov AffairNikolay Krylov, Soviet Marshal, commander of the Strategic Rocket Forces under Brezhnev, double HSUMikhail Kutuzov, hero of the Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792), defeated Napoleon's Grande Armée during French invasion of Russia in 1812, turning the tide of the Napoleonic WarsAndrey Kurbsky, associate and then a leading political opponent of Tsar Ivan IV, hero of the Russo-Kazan WarsPeter Lacy, Field Marshal, led the Siege of Danzig (1734), commander-in-chief during Russo-Swedish War (1741–1743)Rodion Malinovsky, Soviet Marshal, prominent at the Battle of Stalingrad and the Battle of Budapest, Soviet Defense Minister under KhrushchevAlexander Matrosov, World War II soldier, self-sacrificed himself to win the battle, Hero of the Soviet UnionKonstantin RokossovskyAleksandr Menshikov, associate of Peter the Great, Field Marshal in the Great Northern War, won the principal Battle of PoltavaKirill Meretskov, Soviet Marshal, led the Petsamo–Kirkenes Offensive which liberated the northern Norway from Nazi occupation, prominent in the Soviet invasion of ManchuriaMikhail Miloradovich, hero of the Napoleonic Wars, killed in attempt to pacify the Decembrist revoltKuzma Minin, national hero, merchant who led Russia's struggle for independence against Poland-Lithuania during the Time of TroublesBurkhard Christoph von Münnich, Field Marshal, statesman, founder of the first Cadet Corps in Russia, led the Siege of Danzig (1734), commander-in-chief during Russo-Austrian-Turkish War (1735–1739)Rodion Oslyabya, a monk from Trinity Sergius Lavra, hero of the Battle of KulikovoFabian Gottlieb von Osten-Sacken, conquered the Duchy of Warsaw and governed Paris during the War of the Sixth CoalitionIvan Panfilov, World War II general, hero of the Battle of Moscow, the commander of Panfilovtsy, HSUPyotr Rumyantsev-ZadunayskyIvan Paskevich, hero and commander in the Russo-Persian War (1826–1828) and the Russo-Turkish War (1828–1829), crushed the Polish November Uprising and the Hungarian Revolution of 1848Lyudmila Pavlichenko, World War II Soviet sniper, credited with 309 kills, the most successful female sniper in historyAlexander Peresvet, a monk from Trinity Sergius Lavra, hero of the Battle of Kulikovo, fought with the Tatar champion Chelubey in single combat where they killed each otherGrigory Potyomkin-Tavrichesky, conqueror and coloniser of Novorossiya, reformer of the Russian Army, led the Siege of Ochakov (1788) during the Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792)Dmitry Pozharsky, national hero, prince who led Russia's struggle for independence against Poland-Lithuania during the Time of TroublesAlexander Prozorovsky, commander-in-chief during the Russo-Turkish War (1806–1812)Nikolay Raevsky, hero of the Napoleonic Wars and the Battle of BorodinoRoza ShaninaAnikita Repnin, Field Marshal in the Great Northern War, conquer and the first governor of RigaNicholas Repnin, Field Marshal and diplomat, hero of the Russo-Turkish wars, key man in the Partitions of Poland, pacified the Germans in the War of the Bavarian SuccessionKonstantin Rokossovsky, Soviet and Polish Marshal, Defense Minister of Poland, double HSU, oversaw the main Soviet battle operations of the Eastern Front (World War II), commanded the Moscow Victory Parade of 1945Grigory Romodanovsky, leading Russian general of Tsar Alexey's reign, commander-in-chief during the Russo-Turkish War (1676–1681)Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich, commander-in-chief of the Russian Army at the start of World War I, then commanded the Caucasus frontPyotr Rumyantsev-Zadunaysky, hero of the Seven Years' War, won the battles of Larga and Kagula and concluded the Russo-Turkish War of 1768–74 by the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca, military writerPyotr Saltykov, most prominent Russian commander-in-chief during the Seven Years’ War,Mikhail Skobelevwon the battle of Paltzig and the battle of Kunersdorf, captured BerlinIgor Sergeyev, the only Marshal of the Russian Federation, Defense Minister in the late 1990sRoza Shanina, World War II Soviet sniper, 54 confirmed killsBoris Shaposhnikov, Soviet Marshal, Chief of the General Staff during the start of the German invasion, military theorist and author of The Brain of the ArmyAleksei Shein, the first Russian Generalissimo, commander-in-chief during Azov campaignsBoris Sheremetev, Field Marshal in the Great Northern War, won the battle of Erastfer and the battle of PoltavaIvan Sidorenko, World War II Soviet sniper, over 500 confirmed killsMikhail Skobelev, the "White General", conqueror of Central Asia and hero of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78Sergei Sokolov, Soviet Marshal, chief commander during the Soviet war in AfghanistanAlexander SuvorovVasily Sokolovsky, Soviet Marshal, prominent in the Battle of Moscow and the Battle of Kursk, military theoristAlexander Suvorov, greatest Russian general of the 18th century, Generalissimo who never lost a battle, won at Kinburn, Ochakov and Focşani during the Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792), crushed Kościuszko Uprising, led an outstanding Italian and Swiss expedition, author of The Science of VictorySemyon Timoshenko, World War II Soviet Marshal, won the Winter War, senior professional officer of the Red Army at the start of the German invasionFyodor Tolbukhin, World War II Soviet Marshal, liberated Bulgaria and YugoslaviaMichael Barclay de Tolly, Field Marshal, led a strategic retreat during the French invasion of Russia, led Russian Army to Paris in the War of the Sixth CoalitionGennady Troshev, chief general during the Second Chechen War, Hero of RussiaMikhail Tukhachevsky, Red Army commander during the Russian Civil War, Soviet Marshal, military theoristVasily ZaytsevDmitriy Ustinov, Soviet Marshal, proponent of the Soviet space program, Defence Minister in the late Brezhnev eraAleksandr Vasilevsky, Soviet Marshal, Chief of the Soviet General Staff during most of World War II, led the Soviet invasion of Manchuria, double HSUMikhail Vorontsov, Field Marshal, hero of the Napoleonic Wars, captured Varna in the Russo-Persian War (1826–1828), led decisive campaigns of the Caucasian WarEduard Totleben, general and military engineer, hero of the Siege of Sevastopol (1854–1855)Kliment Voroshilov, Civil War commander, statesman, double HSUMikhail Vorotynsky, defeated the Ottoman and Crimean Khanate army in the Battle of Molodi, eliminating the threat of Ottoman expansion into RussiaPeter Wittgenstein, Field Marshal, defended St Petersburg in 1812, hero of the War of the Sixth CoalitionAlexander Yegorov, Civil War commander, one of the first five Soviet MarshalsGeorgy ZhukovAleksey Yermolov, hero of the Napoleonic Wars and the Battle of Borodino, military ruler of the Caucasus at the start of the Caucasian WarIvan Yakubovsky, Soviet Marshal, commander-in-chief of the Warsaw Pact under Brezhnev, double HSUAndrey Yeryomenko, World War II Soviet Marshal, prominent in the Battle of StalingradYunus-bek Yevkurov, paratrooper, commander of Russian peacekeepers during the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia, President of Ingushetia, Hero of RussiaVasily Zaytsev, Soviet sniper, killed 412 enemy soldiers and officers, including 6 snipers, a hero of the Battle of StalingradGeorgy Zhukov, Soviet Marshal, Chief of the General Staff and representative of STAVKA, four times the Hero of the Soviet Union, oversaw all the main Soviet battle operations of the Eastern Front (World War II), inspected the Moscow Victory Parade of 1945NavyMain article: Russian AdmiralsFyodor Apraksin, General Admiral, won the Battle of Gangut during the Great Northern War, led the Russian Navy in the Russo-Persian War (1722–1723)Fyodor ApraksinAksel Berg, Admiral and scientist, major developer of radiolocation and cyberneticsVasily Chichagov, Admiral, polar explorer, won the battles of Öland, Reval and Vyborg Bay, effectively bringing the Russo-Swedish War of 1788-90 to an endCornelius Cruys, Vice-Admiral, the first commander of the Russian Baltic FleetFyodor Dubasov, Admiral, placed Dalny and Port Arthur under Russian controlSergey Gorshkov, Admiral, led major landing operations during WII, commander-in-chief of the Soviet Navy during most of the Cold WarSamuel Greig, Admiral, won the Battle of Chesma during the Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774) and the Battle of Hogland during the Russo-Swedish War (1788–1790)Ivan Grigorovich, Admiral, chief of Port Arthur's port during the Siege of Port ArthurVasily ChichagovIvan Isakov, Soviet Admiral during World War II, oceanographerVladimir Istomin, Rear-Admiral, hero of the Siege of Sevastopol (1854–1855) during the Crimean War, died in actionAleksandr Kolchak, Admiral, polar explorer, a leader of the White movement during the Russian Civil WarVladimir Konovalov, Soviet Counter Admiral, distinguished World War II submarine commanderVladimir Kornilov, Vice-Admiral, hero of the Siege of Sevastopol (1854–1855), died in the Battle of MalakoffNikolay Krabbe, Admiral and Naval Minister, co-founded the first Russian naval bases in Primorsky Krai, oversaw the development of naval artillery and ironclad shipsNikolay Kuznetsov, Admiral, World War II commander-in-chief of the Soviet NavyMikhail Lazarev, Admiral, three times circumnavigator and discoverer of Antarctica,Pavel Nakhimovdestroyed five enemy warships as a commander of Azov in the Battle of Navarino, tutor to Nakhimov, Kornilov and IstominStepan Makarov, Vice-Admiral, inventor and explorer, performed the first ever successful torpedo attack (during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878), built the first torpedo boat tender and the first polar icebreaker, author of the insubmersibility theory, killed in the Russo-Japanese War when his ship struck a naval minePavel Nakhimov, Admiral, circumnavigated the world with Mikhail Lazarev, fought in the Battle of Navarino, annihilated the Ottoman fleet in the Battle of Sinope, commander and hero at the Siege of Sevastopol (1854–1855)Filipp Oktyabrsky, Soviet Admiral, a leader of defence in the Siege of Sevastopol (1941–1942)Andrey Popov, Admiral, hero of the Crimean War, led a Russian flotilla to support the Union during the American Civil War, designed the first true Russian battleship Pyotr VelikiyFyodor UshakovJosé de Ribas, Vice-Admiral, founder of Odessa, hero of the Siege of IzmailGrand Duke Alexei Alexandrovich, General Admiral and Naval Minister during the Russo-Japanese WarGrand Duke Konstantin Nikolayevich, General Admiral and statesman, oversaw the rapid transition of the Russian Navy to ironclad warshipsZinovy Rozhestvensky, Vice-Admiral, coommander during the Russo-Japanese War, wounded in the Battle of TsushimaAlexei Senyavin, re-established the Don Military Flotilla and played a crucial role in Russia's gaining access to the Black SeaDmitry Senyavin, Admiral, won the battle of the Dardanelles (1807) and the battle of Athos against Ottomans during the Napoleonic WarsNaum Senyavin, Vice-Admiral, won the Battle of Osel during the Great Northern WarGrigory Spiridov, Admiral, destroyed the Ottoman fleet in the Battle of Chesma during the Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774)Jean de Traversay, Admiral, commanded the Russian Black Sea Fleet and Russian Baltic Fleet, organised early Russian circumnavigationsVasily ZavoykoVladimir Tributs, Admiral, a leading navy commander during the Siege of Leningrad, led the Soviet evacuation of TallinnFyodor Ushakov, the most illustrious Russian Admiral of the 18th century, saint, won the battles of Fidonisi, Kerch Strait, Tendra and Cape Kaliakra during the Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792), single-handedly carved out the Greek Septinsular Republic, did not lose a single ship in 43 battlesIvan Yumashev, Admiral, reclaimed Southern Sakhalin and Kuril Islands for the USSR during the Soviet–Japanese War (1945), commander-in-chief of the Soviet Navy in the late 1940sVasily Zavoyko, fought in the Battle of Navarino, twice circumavigated the globe, explored the estuary of the Amur River, repelled the superior British-French forces in the Siege of Petropavlovsk during the Crimean WarMatija Zmajević, Vice-Admiral, hero of the battle of Gangut and the battle of Grengam during the Great Northern WarAir ForceMain article: Russian aviatorsYekaterina Budanova, World War II pilot, one of the world's two female fighter acesValery ChkalovValery Chkalov, leader of the first ultralong flight from Moscow to the Russian Far East, leader of the first transcontinental flight by airplane over the North Pole, Hero of the Soviet UnionMikhail Devyatayev, fighter pilot known for his incredible escape aboard a stolen bomber from a Nazi concentration camp on the Baltic island of Usedom, HSUNikolai Gastello, the first Soviet pilot to direct his burning aircraft on a ground target, HSUAlexander Golovanov, Chief Marshal of Aviation at the end of World War II, commander of Long Range AviationSergey Gritsevets, fighter ace during the Spanish Civil War and the Battle of Khalkhin Gol, the first to become twice the Hero of the Soviet UnionValentina Grizodubova, one of the first Soviet female pilots and Heroes of the Soviet Union, set a record for woman's ultralong flightsMikhail Gromov, set a record during the transcontinental flight over the North Pole, founded the Gromov Flight Research Institute, HSUIvan KozhedubVladimir Ilyushin, test pilot for OKB Sukhoi, HSUNikolai Kamanin, polar aviator, among the first to receive the title Hero of the Soviet Union, trained the first ever cosmonauts, including Yuri Gagarin, Gherman Titov and Alexei LeonovAlexander Kazakov, most successful Russian flying ace of World War I, the first to perform an aerial ramming and surviveVladimir Kokkinaki, most famous Soviet test pilot, set twenty-two world records, a president of the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale, double HSUIvan Kozhedub, top fighter ace in the aviation of the Allies of World War II, credited with 62 individual victories, thrice the Hero of the Soviet UnionPavel Kutakhov, World War II fighter ace, Chief Marshal of Aviation under Leonid Brezhnev, double HSUSigismund Levanevsky, polar aviator, among the first to receive the title Hero of the Soviet Union, died in a transpolar flight attemptLydia LitvyakAnatoly Liapidevsky, polar aviator, the very first person to receive the title Hero of the Soviet Union, General Major of AviationLydia Litvyak, World War II pilot, one of the world's two female fighter aces, HSUAlexey Maresyev, World War II fighter ace, HSU, the prototype for The Story of a Real ManIvan Nagurski, the first polar aviator, World War I flying acePyotr Nesterov, inventor and pioneer of aerobatics, the first pilot to perform the aerobatic loop, died in the world's first aerial ramming during World War IAlexander Novikov, Chief Marshal of Aviation during World War II, double HSUYevgeny Pepelyaev, top Soviet fighter ace in the Korean War, HSUViktor Pokrovsky, World War I flying ace, the first Russian pilot to capture an enemy plane and pilotAlexander Pokryshkin, World War II fighter ace, credited with 59 individual victories, triple Hero of the Soviet Union, Marshal of AviationPyotr NesterovGeorgy Prokofiev, balloonist who coordinated military stratospheric balloon program in 1930s, set world record in altitude on USSR-1Viktor Pugachyov, test pilot and pioneer of supermaneuverability, the first to show Pugachev's Cobra maneuver of Su-27Endel Puusepp, long-range bomber pilot, famous for flying a Soviet delegation over the front line from Moscow to Washington, D.C. and back to negotiate the opening of the Western Front, HSUMarina Raskova, navigator, founder of the three female air regiments during World War II, HSUYevgeniya Rudneva, World War II bomber pilot, one of the Night Witches, HSUYevgeniya Shakhovskaya, the first woman military pilotMark Shevelev, World War II Soviet polar aviation commander, HSULev Shestakov, top Soviet fighter ace during the Spanish Civil War, HSUYakov Smushkevich, commanded the Soviet aviation in the Spanish Civil War and the Battle of Khalkhin Gol, double HSUFile:29277015 pokr.jpgAlexander PokryshkinNelson Stepanyan, World War II dive bomber pilot, destroyed scores of enemy ships, tanks, cars, planes and guns, double HSUAmet-khan Sultan, World War II fighter ace, double HSU, test pilot, died on a crashNikolay Sutyagin, top Korean War Soviet fighter ace, HSUVictor Talalikhin, World War II fighter ace, among the first to perform aerial ramming at night, HSUAndrey Vitruk, World War II fighter ace, Major General of Aviation, Hero of the Soviet Union and the Hero of YugoslaviaMikhail Vodopianov, polar aviator, among the first to receive the title Hero of the Soviet Union, commanded the first World War II Soviet air raid on Berlin in 1941Yekaterina Zelenko, World War II pilot, the only woman ever to have performed and died in aerial ramming, HSUReligion Orthodox leadersMain article: Metropolitans and Patriarchs of MoscowMetropolitan Alexius, saint, ruled Russia during Prince Dmitry Donskoy's minorityPatriarch KirillPatriarch Alexy I, the longest serving Patriarch in the Soviet eraPatriarch Alexy II, the first post-Soviet Patriarch, oversaw the period of major church restoration and religious renaissansePatriarch Hermogenes, saint, inspired the popular uprising against foreign occupation, putting an end to the Time of TroublesMetropolitan Innocent, saint, missionary in Alaska and the Russian Far EastMetropolitan Isidore, attempted a reunion with the Roman Catholic Church, which instead led to independence of the Russian Orthodox ChurchPatriarch Joachim, founder of the Slavic Greek Latin Academy, the first higher education establishment in RussiaPatriarch Job, the last Metropolitan and the first Patriarch of Moscow and All RussiaMetropolitan Jonah, saint, the first independent Metropolitan of Moscow and all RussiaPatriarch Kirill, current Patriarch of Moscow and all RussiaPatriarch PhilaretMetropolitan Macarius, saint, prominent iconographerMetropolitan Maximus, saint, Metropolitan of Kiev who moved the see of Russian metropolitans to VladimirPatriarch Nikon, introduced major church reforms which eventually led to a lasting schism in the Russian Orthodox Church, known as RaskolMetropolitan Peter, patron saint of Moscow, moved the see of Russian metropolitans from Vladimir to MoscowMetropolitan Philaret, saint, the principal Russian theologician of the 19th centuryPatriarch Philaret, de facto ruler of Russia during the minority of his son, Tsar MikhailMetropolitan Philip, saint and martyr in the reign of Ivan IVPatriarch Pimen, oversaw the end of the persecution of Christianity in the Soviet Union and the 1000th anniversary of the Baptism of Rus'Patriarch TikhonPlaton Levshin, president of the Most Holy Synod during the Age of Enlightenment, author of the first systematic course of the history of Russian Orthodox ChurchPatriarch Sergius, led the Russian Orthodox Church during World War II, when the earlier Soviet militant atheism was scaled down and the Church was re-legalisedStephen Yavorsky, the first president of the Most Holy Synod, which replaced the Patriarchate after Peter I's reignTheofan Prokopovich, the second president of the Most Holy Synod, co-founder of the Russian Academy of Sciences, religious poet and sermon writerPatriarch Tikhon, the first Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia after restoration of the Patriarchate in the early Soviet eraOrthodox saintsMain article: Russian saintsAlexander Nevsky, Prince of Novgorod and Vladimir, military hero, patron saint and the Name of RussiaAmbrose of Optina, starets of the Optina MonasteryBoris and GlebAndrei Rublev, famous icon-painter, author of the TrinityAnthony of Kiev, co-founder of the Kiev Pechersk Lavra, the first monastery in RussiaBasil Fool for Christ, yurodivy who gave his name to St. Basil's Cathedral on the Red SquareBoris and Gleb, children of Vladimir the Great, the first saints canonized in Kievan Rus'Tsarevich Dmitry, son of Ivan IV, mysteriously died or killed, later impersonated by the impostors False Dmitry I and False Dmitry II during the Time of TroublesDmitry Donskoy, war hero, the first Prince of Moscow to openly challenge Mongol authority in RussiaEudoxia of Moscow, wife of Dmitry Donskoy, healer, founded the Ascension Monastery and the Church of the Nativity of the Theotokos, the oldest surviving building in MoscowFeodor Kuzmich, starets who according to a legend was in fact Alexander I of Russia who faked his death to become a hermitFyodor Ushakov, the most illustrious Russian Admiral of the 18th century, did not lose a single ship in 43 battlesHerman of AlaskaGrand Duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna, senior sister of the last Russian Empress Alexandra Feodorovna, became a prominent nun after her husband was murdered by revolutionary terrorists, founded the Marfo-Mariinsky ConventGennady of Novgorod, compiled the first complete codex of the Bible in Slavic, the Gennady BibleHerman of Valaam, preached Christianity to Karelians and Finns, co-founder of the Valaam MonasteryHerman of Alaska, one of the first Eastern Orthodox missionaries to the New World, patron saint of the AmericasIoakim Korsunianin, the first bishop of Novgorod the Great and builder of the original wooden Saint Sophia Cathedral in NovgorodJob of Pochayiv, defender of Russian Orthodoxy in Ukraine, built the Pochayiv LavraJohn of Kronstadt, patron saint of St Petersburg, mystic and religious writerJohn of Shanghai and San Francisco, a leader of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of RussiaJoseph Volotsky, prominent caesaropapist ideologist, founder of Joseph-Volokolamsk MonasteryKirill of Beloozero, founder of Kirillo-Belozersky MonasterySeraphim of SarovLuka Voyno-Yasenetsky, outstanding surgeon, the founder of purulent surgery, bishop, spiritual writerMaria Skobtsova, noblewoman, poet, nun, and member of the French Resistance during World War IIMaximus the Greek, 16th century humanist scholarMichael of Chernigov, powerful Kievan Prince killed by Mongol-Tatars for his adherence to the Christian faithMikhail of Tver, Grand Prince of Vladimir killed by MongolsNestor the Chronicler, author of the Primary Chronicle (the earliest East Slavic chronicle)Nicholas II of Russia, the last Russian Emperor, killed in the Civil War with his family; they were beatified as new-martyrsNicholas of Japan, brought the Eastern Orthodoxy to JapanNil Sorsky, leader of Non-possessors movementOlga of Kiev, the first Christian among Russian rulersPeter and Fevronia, saint married couple, an ideal of familySergius of RadonezhSavvatiy, founder of Solovetsky MonasterySeraphim of Sarov, mystic and patron saint of Russia, the greatest of the 19th century startsySergius of Radonezh, patron saint of Russia, spiritual and monastic reformer, founder of the Trinity Sergius Lavra, blessed Dmitry Donskoy for the Battle of KulikovoSergius of Valaam, brought Christianity to Karelians and Finns, co-founder of the Valaam MonasteryStephan of Perm, 14th century missionary, converted Komi Permyaks to Christianity and invented the Old Permic scriptTheodosius of Kiev, co-founder of the Kiev Pechersk LavraVladimir I of Kiev "the Great", Kievan Prince who turned from pagan to saint and enacted the Christianization of Kievan Rus'Xenia of Saint Petersburg, fool for Christ, patron saint of St Petersburg, gave all her possessions to the poor and wandered for 45 years around the streetsExplorers Main article: Russian explorersSiberian explorersVladimir Atlasov, explorer and coloniser of KamchatkaSemyon DezhnyovPyotr Beketov, discoverer of Buryatia, founder of Yakutsk and ChitaIvan Chersky, geologist and explorer of Siberia, explained the origin of Lake BaikalSemyon Dezhnyov, discoverer of Kolyma, Chukchi Peninsula, Bering Strait and the east extrimity of Eurasia, Cape DezhnyovJohann Georg Gmelin, traveled over 34,000 km through Siberia, discovered that the Caspian Sea lies below the ocean levelKurbat Ivanov, discoverer of Lake Baikal, author of the earliest maps of the Russian Far East and the Bering Strait areaYerofey Khabarov, the second Russian to explore the Amur River, founder of KhabarovskStepan Krasheninnikov, explorer and author of the first detailed description of KamchatkaAlexander Middendorf, explorer of the Taymyr Peninsula, founder of permafrost science, discoverer of Putorana PlateauNicolae Milescu, explorer of Siberia and China, the first to point out Baikal's unfathomable depthNikolay Muravyov-AmurskyIvan Moskvitin, the first Russian to reach the Pacific Ocean, discoverer of the Sea of OkhotskNikolay Muravyov-Amursky, explorer and coloniser of the Amurland and Primorsky KraiGennady Nevelskoy, founder of Nikolayevsk-on-Amur, proved that Sakhalin is an islandVladimir Obruchev, geologist, explorer of Siberia and Central Asia, wrote the comprehensive Geology of Siberia and two popular science fiction and travel novels, Plutonia and Sannikov LandMaksim Perfilyev, discoverer of Transbaikalia, founder of Yeniseysk and BratskFedot Popov, discoverer of Chukotka and the Bering Strait, possible discoverer of KamchatkaVassili Poyarkov, discoverer of the Amurland, the first Russian to sail down the Amur RiverDemid Pyanda, credited with discovery of the Lena River and Yakutia, made a 8,000 km long journey along the previously unknown Siberian riversSemyon Remezov, author of the Remezov Chronicle and the first large format cartographic atlas of SiberiaYermak TimofeyevichNikolay Shkot, explorer of Sakhalin and Primorsky Krai, a founder of Nakhodka and VladivostokAlexander Sibiryakov, sponsor of the multiple expeditions in Siberia and the ArcticMikhail Stadukhin, discoverer of Kolyma, Chukotka and the northern Okhotsk SeaAnikey Stroganov, coloniser of Perm Krai and the Urals, established the early trade between Russia and Siberian tribesSemyon Stroganov, coloniser of the Urals and Siberia, sponsor of Yermak's conquest of the Khanate of SibirVasily Tatishchev, supervisor of the first instrumental mapping of Russia, coloniser of the Urals and Siberia, founder of Perm and YekaterinburgTatyana Ustinova, discoverer of the Valley of Geysers in Kamchatka, the world's second largest geyser concentrationYermak Timofeyevich, conqueror of Siberia, explorer of West Siberian riversIvan Yevreinov, author of the first instrumental maps of Kamchatka and the Kuril IslandsExplorers of Russian AmericaAlexander Baranov, explorer and governor of Russian America, founder of Fort Ross in CaliforniaBeringVitus Bering, organiser of the Great Northern Expedition, explorer of the Bering Sea and the Bering Strait, founder of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, discoverer of the southern Alaska, the Aleutian Islands and the Commander IslandsAleksei Chirikov, discoverer of the Aleutian Islands and the northwestern coast of North AmericaIvan Fyodorov, discoverer of AlaskaMikhail Gvozdev, discoverer of Alaska, author of the first instrumental maps of the Okhotsk Sea and Sakhalin shoresGerasim Izmailov, author of the first detailed map of the Aleutian Islands, founder of the first permanent Russian settlement in AmericaOtto von Kotzebue, circumnavigator, discoverer of a number of Pacific islands and Kotzebue Sound on AlaskaGavriil Pribylov, discoverer of the Pribilof IslandsGrigory ShelikhovNikolai Rezanov, founder of the Russian-American Company, protagonist of the rock opera Juno and AvosGavriil Sarychev, explorer of the Sea of Okhotsk and the Aleutian IslandsGrigory Shelikhov, founded the precursor of the Russian-American Company and the first permanent Russian settlements in AmericaLavrenty Zagoskin, author of the first detailed description of the inner areas of AlaskaCircumnavigatorsFaddey Bellingshausen, discoverer of Antarctica, double circumnavigator, discoverer of a number of Pacific islandsIvan KruzenshternLudwig von Hagemeister, triple circumnavigator, builder of the first tall ships to sail on Lake BaikalFyodor Konyukhov, adventurer, the first Russian to complete the Three Poles Challenge and Explorers Grand Slam, set a record for the solo yacht circumnavigation of AntarcticaOtto von Kotzebue, circumnavigator, discoverer of over 400 Pacific islands and Kotzebue Sound on AlaskaIvan Kruzenshtern, leader of the first Russian circumnavigation, discoverer of a number of Pacific islandsMikhail Lazarev, discoverer of Antarctica and a number of Pacific islands, triple circumnavigator, war heroYuri Lisyansky, leader of the first Russian circumnavigation, discoverer of a number of Pacific islandsFyodor Litke, oceanographer, explorer of Novaya Zemlya, Bering Sea, Bonin Islands, and the Carolines, double circumnavigatorKonstantin Posyet, participant of the circumnavigation on the frigate Pallas,Nikolai Rezanovexpert on Japan, explorer of the Possiet Bay, Minister of Ways and Communications of RussiaYevfimy Putyatin, leader of the circumnavigation on Pallas, diplomat, explorer of the Sea of JapanNikolai Rezanov, leader of the first Russian circumnavigation, explorer of the Russian America, protagonist of the rock opera Juno and AvosFyodor Tolstoy, "the American", mischief-making participant of the first Russian circumnavigation, celebrity adventurerIvan Unkovsky, leader of the circumnavigation on PallasFerdinand Wrangel, explorer of the East Siberian Sea and Alaska, triple circumnavigatorVasily Zavoyko, double circumnavigator, explored the estuary of the Amur River, war heroTravelers in the tropicsAlexander Bulatovich, military advisor of Menelek II of Ethiopia, explorer of Eastern AfricaAfanasy NikitinWilhelm Junker, explorer of Eastern and Equatorial AfricaGrigory Langsdorf, explorer of Alaska and BrazilNicholai Miklukho-Maklai, anthropologist who lived and traveled among the natives of Papua New Guinea and Pacific islands, prominent anti-racistAfanasy Nikitin, one of the first Europeans to travel and to document his visit to India, author of A Journey Beyond the Three SeasYuri Senkevich, participant of Thor Heyerdahl's voyages on the Ra, Ra II and Tigris (papyrus and reed boats), anchorman of the Travelers' Club TV show for the record 30 yearsExplorers of Central AsiaAlexander Bekovich-Cherkassky, leader of the first Russian military expeditions into Central Asia, founder of KrasnovodskNikolai PrzhevalskyAlexey Fedchenko, naturalist and explorer, discovered the Trans-Alay Range in Pamir MountainsGrigory Grumm-Grzhimaylo, discoverer of Ayding Lake (the second lowest land point on Earth)Nikolai Korzhenevskiy, explorer of the Pamir, discoverer of Akademiya Nauk Range and Peak KorzhenevskayaPyotr Kozlov, explorer of Mongolia, Xinjiang and Tibet, discoverer of the ancient Tangut city of Khara-KhotoIvan Petlin, the first Russian to reach China on an official diplomatic mission, left a popular description of his journeyGrigory Potanin, explorer of Mongolia, Tibet and ChinaNikolai Przhevalsky, traveled over 40,000 km through Central Asia, discovered the only extant species of wild horseNicholas Roerich, painter, philosopher, archeologist, writer and public figure, explorer of Mongolia, China and IndiaPyotr Semyonov-Tyan-ShanskyAlexander Nevsky, medieval Russian Prince, saint and national hero, one of the first Europeans to travel into Mongolia (with his brother and father)Pyotr Semyonov-Tyan-Shansky, explorer of the Tian Shan Mountains, discoverer of the Peak Khan Tengri, for 40 years the head of the Russian Geographical SocietyNikolai Severtzov, explorer of the Tian Shan and Pamir Mountains, prominent naturalistGombojab Tsybikov, explorer and the first photographer of TibetPolar explorersPyotr Anjou, explorer of the New Siberian Islands and Arctic coastlineFaddey BellingshausenFaddey Bellingshausen, discoverer of AntarcticaVitus Bering, organiser of the Great Northern Expedition, explorer of the Bering Sea and the Bering StraitGeorgy Brusilov, commander of Svyataya Anna, a prototype for The Two CaptainsSemion Chelyuskin, discoverer of the north extrimity of Eurasia, Cape ChelyuskinArtur Chilingarov, leader of the Arktika 2007 expedition, the first to reach the seabed under the North PoleValery Chkalov, led the first transcontinental flight by airplane over the North PoleSemyon Dezhnyov, discoverer of Kolyma, Chukchi Peninsula, Bering Strait and Cape DezhnyovYakov Gakkel, oceanographer, creator of the first bathymetric map of the Arctic OceanMatvei Gedenschtrom, explorer of the New Siberian Islands, discoverer of Siberian polynyaMaria Klenova, a founder of marine geology, made the first complete seabed map of the Barents Sea, one of the first women explorers of AntarcticErnst Krenkel, radioman for many polar expeditions, set a world record of long-distance radio communication (between Franz Josef Land and Antarctica)Artur ChilingarovDmitry Laptev, explorer of the Laptev Sea shoresKhariton Laptev, explorer of the Laptev Sea shoresMikhail Lazarev, discoverer of Antarctica, war heroFyodor Litke, explorer of Novaya Zemlya, Bering Sea, and PacificStepan Makarov, oceanographer, builder of the first polar icebreaker, war heroStepan Malygin, author of the first Russian manual on navigation, leader of the western unit of the Great Northern ExpeditionAlexander Middendorf, explorer of Taymyr Peninsula, founder of permafrost science, discoverer of Putorana Plateau and the North Cape sea currentIvan Nagurski, the first polar aviatorDmitry Ovtsyn, explorer of Taymyr Peninsula, mapped the Gydan PeninsulaPyotr Pakhtusov, explorer of Novaya ZemlyaMikhail LazarevIvan Papanin, the head of the first manned drifting ice station North Pole-1Fedot Popov, discoverer of Chukotka and the Bering StraitVasili Pronchishchev, discovered the Byrranga Mountains and multiple islands off Taymyr PeninsulaMaria Pronchishcheva, the first female Arctic explorerVladimir Rusanov, explorer of Novaya Zemlya and Svalbard, a prototype for The Two CaptainsAnatoly Sagalevich, performed the world's deepest fresh water dive (1637 m in Lake Baikal), explored the remains of RMS Titanic, the first to reach the seabed under the North PoleRudolf Samoylovich, founder of the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, saver of the Airship Italia crewYakov Sannikov, explorer of the New Siberian Islands, originated the legend about the Sannikov LandIvan PapaninOtto Schmidt, leader of the first passage of the Northern Sea Route without wintering, supervized many Arctic expeditionsGeorgy Sedov, explorer of Novaya Zemlya and Kolyma River, died in attempt to reach the North Pole, a prototype for The Two CaptainsPyotr Shirshov, member of the North Pole-1 crew, founder of Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, proved that there is life in high latitudes of the Arctic OceanAlexander Sibiryakov, sponsor of the multiple expeditions in Siberia and the Arctic, including that of Adolf Erik NordenskiöldMikhail Somov, head of the second Soviet drifting ice station North Pole-2, leader of the 1st Soviet Antarctic Expedition, founder of the first Soviet Antarctic stations Mirny and VostokEduard Toll, explorer of Yakutia and the Arctic, died in search of the legendary Sannikov LandYevgeny Tolstikov, head of the North Pole-4, led the 3rd Soviet Antarctic Expedition, discoverer of the Gamburtsev MountainsAlexey Tryoshnikov, head of the North Pole-3, led the 2nd and the 13th Soviet Antarctic ExpeditionsEduard TollNikolay Urvantsev, explorer of Severnaya Zemlya, discoverer of nickel in Taimyr and founder of NorilskGeorgy Ushakov, founder of the first settlement on the Wrangel Island, explorer of Severnaya Zemlya, discoverer of Ushakov Island (the last unknown island outside any archipelago)Boris Vilkitsky, discoverer of Severnaya Zemlya (the last archipelago on Earth to be explored), led the first voyage from Vladivostok to Arkhangelsk via the Northern Sea RouteVladimir Vize, scientific leader of many Arctic expeditions, predicted the location of Vize Island through the analysis of the pack ice movement in the Kara SeaVladimir Voronin, leader of the first passage of the Northern Sea Route without wintering, captain of SS ChelyuskinFerdinand Wrangel, explorer of the East Siberian Sea and AlaskaCosmonautsMain article: CosmonautsPavel Belyayev, a member of the first two-person space crewYuri GagarinGeorgy Beregovoy, the oldest human to go into space (by date of birth, 1921)Valery Bykovsky, performer of the longest solo spaceflightKonstantin Feoktistov, a member of the first three-person space crewYuri Gagarin, the first ever human to travel into spaceYevgeny Khrunov, participant of the first dual spacewalk and crew transfer between spacecraftVladimir Komarov, a member of the first three-person space crew, the first human to die during a space mission (landing accident)Sergei Krikalyov, accumulated most time in space (803 days) during six flightsAleksei Leonov, the first to perform a spacewalk, a member of the first two-person space crew, space painterAleksei LeonovMusa Manarov, the first to spend in orbit over a yearAndrian Nikolayev, participant of the first parallel flight, the first to perform spacecraft-to-spacecraft communications, the first to spend two weeks in spaceValeri Polyakov, performer of the longest continuous spaceflight (437 days)Pavel Popovich, participant of the first parallel flight, the first to perform spacecraft-to-spacecraft communicationsSvetlana Savitskaya, second woman to fly into space, the first to perform a spacewalkVitaly Sevastyanov, the first to spend two weeks in spaceAnatoly Solovyev, the person who made most spacewalks and accumulated most time spacewalking (over 82 hours)Valentina Tereshkova, the first woman and civilian in spaceValentina TereshkovaGherman Titov, the second human to orbit the Earth, the first who spent a whole day and slept in space, the youngest cosmonaut/astronaut so farVladimir Titov, the first to spend in orbit over a yearBoris Yegorov, a member of the first three-person space crew, the first physician in spaceAleksei Yeliseyev, participant of the first dual spacewalk and crew transfer between spacecraftInventors and engineers Main articles: Russian inventors and Russian inventionsPolymath inventorsGenrich Altshuller, inventor of TRIZ ("The Theory of Solving Inventor's Problems")Ivan KulibinIvan Kulibin, mechanic and optician, inventor of searchlight, screw-drive elevator, self-rolling carriage (with flywheel, brake, gear box, and bearing), searchlight optical telegraph, mechanic artificial legMikhail Lomonosov, polymath scientist and artist, inventor of coaxial rotor and the first model helicopter, off-axis reflecting telescope and night vision telescope, co-developed Russian porcelain and re-invented smaltAndrey Nartov, inventor of mechanic slide rest, rose engine lathe, quick-firing battery, cannon telescopic sightPeter the Great, monarch and craftsman, inventor of decimal currency, yacht club, sounding line with separating plummet, founder of the Russian NavyAndrey NartovVladimir Shukhov, polymath engineer, inventor of thermal cracking, thin-shell structure, tensile structure, hyperboloid structure, gridshell and cylindric oil depot, built Shukhov Towers and created modern theory of pipeline transportLeon Theremin, inventor and spy, created theremin, terpsitone, rhythmicon (the first drum machine) and passive resonant cavity bug, introduced interlace techniqueWeaponry makersMain article: Russian weaponry makersAndrey Chokhov, maker of the Tsar Cannon, the world's largest bombard by caliberVasily DegtyaryovVasily Degtyaryov, designer of Degtyaryov-series firearms, inventor of self-loading carbineIvan Fyodorov, 16th century inventor of multibarreled mortar, introduced printing to RussiaVladimir Fyodorov, inventor of assault rifle (Fedorov Avtomat)Leonid Gobyato, inventor of modern mortarMikhail Kalashnikov, inventor of AK-47 and AK-74 assault rifles, world's most popular (produced more than all other types of assault rifles combined)Yuly Khariton, chief designer of the Soviet atomic bomb, co-developer of the Tsar BombSergei Korolyov, inventor of the first intercontinental ballistic missile (R-7 Semyorka)Mikhail Koshkin, designer of T-34 medium tank, the best and most produced tank of World War IIMikhail KalashnikovNikolai Lebedenko, designer of the Tsar Tank, the largest armoured vehicle in historyVictor Makeyev, developer of the first intercontinental submarine-launched ballistic missileNestor Makhno, anarchist, legendary inventor of tachankaAlexander Morozov, designer of T-54/55 (the most produced tank in history)Sergey Mosin, inventor of the Mosin–Nagant rifle, one of the most produced in historyAlexander Nadiradze, inventor of mobile ICBM (RT-21 Temp 2S) and the first reliable mobile ICBM RT-2PM TopolAndrey Nartov, polymath inventor, designed quick-firing battery and cannon telescopic sightSergey Nepobedimy, designed the first supersonic anti-tank guided missile SturmSergey Mosinand other Soviet rocket weaponryAleksandr Porokhovschikov, inventor of Vezdekhod (the first prototype continuous track tank, or tankette, and the first continuous track amphibious ATV)Andrei Sakharov, physicist, inventor of explosively pumped flux compression generator, co-developer of the Tsar Bomb, Nobel Peace Prize winnerPyotr Shuvalov, founder of Izhevsk, inventor of canister shot mortar, introduced the unicorne mortarVladimir Simonov, inventor of underwater assault rifleFedor Tokarev, designer of TT-33 handgun and SVT-40 self-loading rifle, main Soviet guns of WIIVladimir Utkin, designer of the railway car-launched ICBM (RT-23 Molodets)Ivan Vyrodkov, inventor of battery-towerLand transport developersFyodor PirotskyFyodor Blinov, inventor of tracked wagon and steam-powered caterpillar tractorCherepanovs, Yefim and his son Miron, makers of the first steam locomotive in RussiaIvan Elmanov, inventor of monorailIvan Kulibin, mechanic and optician, inventor of self-rolling carriage (with flywheel, brake, gear box, and bearing)Yury Lomonosov, designer of the first successful mainline diesel locomotivePavel Melnikov, Transport Minister, builder of the first Russian Railways, inroduced Russian broad gaugeFyodor Pirotsky, inventor of railway electrification system and electric tramLeonty Shamshurenkov, inventor of the first self-propelling carriage (a precursor to quadrocycle and automobile)Pyotr Shilovsky, inventor of gyrocarNaval engineersMain article: Russian naval engineersRostislav Alexeyev, designer of high-speed Raketa hydrofoils and ekranoplans, including the Caspian Sea MonsterAlexey KrylovAnatoly Alexandrov, inventor of degaussing, developer of naval nuclear reactors (including one for the first nuclear icebreaker)Mikhail Britnev, designer of the first metal-hull icebreaker PilotStefan Drzewiecki, inventor of electric-powered and midget submarines, designed the first serial submarine, developed the blade element theoryBoris Jacobi, inventor of electric boat, developer of modern naval miningKonstantin Khrenov, inventor of underwater weldingAlexei Krylov, inventor of gyroscopic damping of ships, author of the insubmersibility theoryFyodor Litke, explorer, inventor of recording tide measurerStepan Makarov, Admiral, war hero, oceanographer, inventor of torpedo boat tender, builder of the first polar icebreaker, author of the insubmersibility theoryStepan MakarovVictor Makeyev, developer of the first intercontinental submarine-launched ballistic missileLudvig Nobel, designer of the modern oil tankerPavel Schilling, inventor of electric naval mineIgor Spassky, designer of the Sea Launch platform and over 200 nuclear submarines, including the world's largest submarines (Typhoon class)Vladimir Yourkevitch, designer of SS Normandie, developer of modern ship hull designAerospace engineersMain article: Russian aerospace engineersOleg AntonovRostislav Alexeyev, designer of high-speed Raketa hydrofoils and ekranoplans, including the Caspian Sea MonsterOleg Antonov, designer of the An-series aircraft, including A-40 winged tank and An-124 (the largest serial cargo aircraft, later modified to world's largest fixed-wing aircraft An-225)Georgy Babakin, designed the first soft lander spacecraft Luna 9Vladimir Barmin, designer of the first rocket launch complex (Baikonur Cosmodrome)Alexander Bereznyak, designer of the first fighter rocket-powered aircraft, BI-1Georgy Beriev, designer of the Be-series amphibious aircraftGeorgy Bothezat, inventor of quadrotor helicopter (The Flying Octopus)Vladimir Chelomey, designer of the first space station Salyut 1, creator of Proton rocket (the most used heavy lift launch system)Valentyn GlushkoEvgeniy Chertovsky, inventor of pressure suitNicolas Florine, builder of the first successful tandem rotor helicopterValentyn Glushko, inventor of hypergolic propellant and electrically powered spacecraft propulsion, designer of the world's most powerful liquid-fuel rocket engine RD-170Pyotr Grushin, inventor of anti-ballistic missileMikhail Gurevich, designer of the MiG-series fighter aircraft, including world's most produced jet aircraft MiG-15 and most produced supersonic aircraft MiG-21Sergey Ilyushin, designed the Il-series fighter aircraft, including Il-2 bomber (the most produced military aircraft in history)Sergei KorolyovAleksei Isaev, designer of the first rocket-powered fighter aircraft, BI-1Mstislav Keldysh, co-developer of the first satellite (Sputnik) and Keldysh bomberKerim Kerimov, the secret figure behind the Soviet space programNikolay Kamov, designed the Ka-series coaxial rotor helicoptersAlexander Kemurdzhian, inventor of space rover (Lunokhod)Nikolai Kibalchich, pioneer of rocketry, author of an early propulsive device designSergei Korolyov, the Farther of the Soviet space program, inventor of the first intercontinental ballistic missile and the first space rocket (R-7 Semyorka), creator of the first satellite (Sputnik), supervisor of the first human spaceflightGleb Kotelnikov, inventor of knapsack parachute and drogue parachuteSemyon Lavochkin, designer of the La-series aircraft and the first operational surface-to-air missile S-25 BerkutGleb KotelnikovMikhail Lomonosov, polymath, inventor of coaxial rotor and the first helicopterGleb Lozino-Lozinskiy, designer of the Buran space shuttle and Spiral projectArkhip Lyulka, designer of the Lyulka-series aircraft engines, including the first double jet turbofanVictor Makeyev, developer of the first intercontinental SLBMArtem Mikoyan, designer of the MiG-series fighter aircraft, including world's most produced jet MiG-15 and most produced supersonic aircraft MiG-21Mikhail Mil, designer of the Mi-series helicopters, including Mil Mi-8 (the world's most produced helicopter) and Mil Mi-12 (the world's largest helicopter)Alexander Mozhaysky, author of the first attempt to create heavier-than-air craft in Russia, designed the largest of 19th century airplanesAlexander Nadiradze, designer of the first mobile ICBM RT-21 Temp 2S and the first reliable mobile ICBM RT-2PM TopolNikolai Polikarpov, designer of the Po-series aircraft, including Po-2 Kukuruznik (world's most produced biplane)Igor SikorskyAlexander Procofieff de Seversky, inventor of ionocraft and gyroscopically stabilized bombsightGuy Severin, designed the first spacewalk supporting systemIgor Sikorsky, inventor of airliner and strategic bomber (Sikorsky Ilya Muromets), father of modern helicopter, founder of the Sikorsky AircraftBoris Shavyrin, inventor of air-augmented rocketPavel Sukhoi, designer of the Su-series fighter aircraftVladimir Syromyatnikov, designer of the Androgynous Peripheral Attach SystemMikhail Tikhonravov, designer of Sputniks, including the first artificial satellite Sputnik 1Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, principal pioneer of astronauticsKonstantin TsiolkovskyAlexei Tupolev, designer of the Tu-series aircraft, including the first supersonic transport Tu-144Andrey Tupolev, designer of the Tu-series aircraft, including the turboprop long-range airliner Tu-114 and turboprop strategic bomber Tu-95Vladimir Vakhmistrov, supervisor of Zveno project (the first bomber with parasite aircrafts)Alexander Yakovlev, designer of the Yak-series aircraft, including the first regional jet Yak-40Friedrich Zander, designed the first liquid-fuel rocket in the Soviet Union, GIRD-X, pioneer of astronauticsNikolai Zhukovsky, founder of modern aero- and hydrodynamics, pioneer of aviationStructural engineersNikolai Belelyubsky, major bridge designer, invented a number of construction schemesVladimir ShukhovAgustín de Betancourt, polymath-engineer, urban planner, designed the Moscow Manege and the giant dome of St. Isaac's Cathedral, founded GoznakVladimir Barmin, designer of the world's first rocket launch complex (Baikonur Cosmodrome)Akinfiy Demidov, built the Leaning Tower of Nevyansk (the first structure with rebars and cast iron cupola, as well as the first lightning rod in Europe)Alexey Dushkin, designer of the first deep column station, MayakovskayaAlexander Hrennikoff, founder of the Finite Element MethodNikolai Nikitin, engineer of the largest Soviet structures: Moscow State University, Luzhniki Stadium, The Motherland Calls and Ostankino Tower (once the world's tallest freestanding structure)Lavr Proskuryakov, builder of multiple bridges along the Trans-Siberian Railway, inventor and tutorVladimir Shukhov, engineer-polymath, inventor of breakthrough industrial designs (hyperboloid structure, thin-shell structure, tensile structure, gridshell), builder of Shukhov Towers and multiple other structuresElectrical engineersMain article: Russian electrical engineersSchillingZhores Alferov, physicist, inventor of heterotransistor, Nobel Prize winnerNikolay Benardos, inventor of carbon arc welding (the first practical arc welding method)Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky, inventor of three-phase electric powerBoris Jacobi, inventor of electroplating, electrotyping, galvanoplastic sculpture and electric boatKonstantin Khrenov, inventor of underwater weldingAlexander Lodygin, one of the inventors of incandescent light bulb, inventor of electric streetlight and tungsten filamentOleg Losev, inventor of light-emitting diode and crystadineVasily Petrov, inventor of electric arc and arc weldingFyodor Pirotsky, inventor of railway electrification system and electric tramAlexander Poniatoff, inventor of videotape recorderPavel YablochkovGeorg Wilhelm Richmann, inventor of electrometer, died from ball lightning during an experimentPavel Schilling, inventor of shielded cable, electric mine and electromagnetic telegraphNikolay Slavyanov, inventor of shielded metal arc weldingAleksandr Stoletov, physicist, inventor of photoelectric cellPavel Yablochkov, inventor of Yablochkov candle (the first commercially viable electric lamp), AC transformer and headlampIT developersMain article: Russian IT developersGeorgy Adelson-Velsky, inventor of AVL tree algorithm, developer of Kaissa (the first World Computer Chess Champion)Yevgeny KasperskyBoris Babaian, developer of the Elbrus supercomputersSergey Brin, inventor of the Google web search engineNikolay Brusentsov, inventor of ternary computer (Setun)Mikhail Donskoy, a leading developer of Kaissa, the first computer chess championVictor Glushkov, a founder of cybernetics, inventor of the first personal computer MIRAnatoly Karatsuba, developed the Karatsuba algorithm (the first fast multiplication algorithm)Yevgeny Kaspersky, developer of Kaspersky anti-virus productsLeonid Khachiyan, developed the Ellipsoid algorithm for linear programmingSemen Korsakov, the first to use punched cards for information storage and searchEvgeny Landis, inventor of AVL tree algorithmAlexey PajitnovSergey Lebedev, developer of the first Soviet and European electronic computers, MESM and BESMVladimir Levenshtein, developed the Levenshtein automaton, Levenshtein coding and Levenshtein distanceWillgodt Theophil Odhner, inventor of the Odhner Arithmometer, the most popular mechanical calculator in the 20th centuryAlexey Pajitnov, inventor of TetrisEugene Roshal, developer of the FAR file manager, RAR file format, WinRAR file archiverValentin Turchin, inventor of Refal programming language, introduced metasystem transition and supercompilationDavid Yang, developer of Cybiko, founder of ABBYY companyOptics and photography pioneersFranz Aepinus, inventor of achromatic microscopeDmitry MaksutovNikolay Basov, physicist, co-inventor of laser and maser, Nobel Prize winnerYuri Denisyuk, inventor of 3D holographySemyon Kirlian, inventor of Kirlian photographyIvan Kulibin, polymath inventor, introduced candle searchlight and searchlight-based optical telegraphSergey Levitsky, inventor of the bellows camera, pne of the earliest photography pioneersMikhail Lomonosov, polymath scientist and artist, inventor of off-axis reflecting telescope and night vision telescopeAlexander Makarov, inventor of orbitrapDmitry Maksutov, inventor of the Maksutov telescopeSergey Prokudin-GorskyBoris Mamyrin, inventor of reflectronAlexander Prokhorov, physicist, co-inventor of laser and maser, Nobel Prize winnerSergey Prokudin-Gorsky, pioneer of colour photography, inventor of colour film slides and colour motion pictures, famous for his multiple colour photos of Russian EmpireYevgeny Zavoisky, inventor of EPR spectroscopy, co-developer of NMR spectroscopyCommunication engineersHovannes Adamian, inventor of the first RGB-based mechanical colour TV systemAlexander PopovLeonid Kupriyanovich, inventor of man-portable mobile phone and pocket mobile phoneOleg Losev, inventor of crystadine radioConstantin Perskyi, inventor of the word "television", TV pioneerAlexander Popov, inventor of lightning detector, one of the inventors of radioBoris Rosing, the first to use cathode ray tube in a TV systemPavel Schilling, inventor of electric telegraphLeon Theremin, polymath, inventor of interlaceVladimir Zworykin, "the Father of television", inventor of iconoscope and kinescopeMusical instrument makersVasily Andreyev, developed the standard balalaika, revived domra and gusliVasily AndreyevVladimir Baranov-Rossine, inventor of Optophonic PianoMotorins, Ivan his son Mikhail, makers of the Tsar Bell, the largest bell in the worldYevgeny Murzin, inventor of the ANS synthesizerAndrei Sychra, inventor of the Russian guitarLeon Theremin, inventor of theremin (the first successful electronic musical instrument), terpsitone and rhythmicon (the first drum machine)Johann Wilde, inventor of nail violinMiscellaneous inventorsVitaly Abalakov, mountaineer, inventor of the camming devices and V-threadSergey Malyutin'Alexandre Alexeieff, inventor of pinscreen animationAnatoly Kharlampiev, developer of sambo martial artLisitsyns family, producers of the first Russian samovarsSergey Malyutin, painter, inventor of matryoshka dollVera Mukhina, sculptress, inventor of welded sculptureLucien Olivier, inventor of Salad OlivierIvan Polzunov, inventor of the two-cylinder steam enginePyotr Prokopovich, inventor of beehive frame and queen excluderFranz San GalliIda Rosenthal, inventor of modern brassiere, the standard of cup sizes and nursing braAlexander Sablukov, inventor of centrifugal fanFranz San Galli, inventor of radiatorYefim Smolin, inventor of table-glassViktor Vasnetsov, inventor of budenovkaLudwik Zamenhof, inventor of EsperantoScientists and scholars Main article: Russian scientistsPolymathsKarl Baer, polymath naturalist,Karl Baerformulated the geological Baer's law of river erosion and embryological Baer's laws, founded the Russian Entomological Society, co-founded the Russian Geographical SocietyAlexander Borodin, chemist and composer, author of the famous opera Prince Igor, discovered Borodin reaction, co-discovered Aldol reactionAlexander Chizhevsky, interdisciplinary scientist, biophysicist, philosopher and artist, founder of heliobiology and modern air ionification, Russian cosmistJohann Gottlieb Georgi, naturalist, chemist, mineralogist, ethnographer and explorer, the first to describe omul fish of Baikal, published the first full-scale work on ethnography of indigenous peoples of RussiaMikhail Lomonosov, polymath scientist, artist and inventor; founder of the Moscow State University; proposed the law of conservation of matter; disproved the phlogiston theory; invented coaxial rotor and the first helicopter;Mikhail Lomonosovinvented the night vision telescope and off-axis reflecting telescope; discovered the atmosphere of Venus; suggested the organic origin of soil, peat, coal, petroleum and amber; pioneered the research of atmospheric electricity; coined the term physical chemistry; the first to record freezing of mercury; co-developed the Russian porcelain, re-discovered smalt and created a number of mosaics dedicated to Petrine era; author of an early account of Russian history and the first opponent of the Normanist theory; reformed Russian literary language by combining Old Church Slavonic with vernacular tongue in his early grammar; influenced Russian poetry through his odesNikolay Lvov, polymath artist, geologist, philologist and ethnographer, compiled the first major collection of Russian folk songs, adapted rammed earth technology for northern climate, built the Priory Palace in Gatchina, pioneered HVAC technology, invented carton-pierreAlexander Middendorf, zoologist and explorer, discoverer of the Putorana Plateau, founder of permafrost science, studied the influence of permafrost on living beings, coined the term radula, prominent hippologist and horse breederNikolay LvovVladimir Obruchev, geologist, paleontologist, geographer and explorer of Siberia and Central Asia, author of the comprehensive Geology of Siberia and two popular science fiction novels, Plutonia and Sannikov LandPeter Simon Pallas, polymath naturalist, geographer, ethnographer, philologist, explorer of European Russia and Siberia, discoverer of the first pallasite meteorite (Krasnojarsk meteorite) and multiple animals, including the Pallas's cat, Pallas's Squirrel, and Pallas's GullYakov Perelman, a founder of popular science, author of many popular books, including the Physics Can Be Fun and Mathematics Can Be FunNicholas Roerich, artist, philosopher, archeologist, explorer of Central Asia, public figure, initiator of the international Roerich’s Pact on the defense of cultural objects, author of over 7000 paintingsPyotr Semyonov-Tyan-Shansky, geographer, geologist, entomologist, explorer of the Tian Shan Mountains, discoverer of the Peak Khan Tengri, for 40 years the head of the Russian Geographical Society, statistician, organiser of the first Russian Empire CensusVladimir VernadskyVasily Tatishchev, statesman, economist, geographer, ethnographer, philologist and historian, supervisor of the first instrumental mapping of Russia, coloniser of the Urals and Siberia, founder of Perm and Yekaterinburg, discovered and published Russkaya Pravda, Sudebnik and the controversial Ioachim Chronicle, wrote the first full-scale account of Russian history, compiled the first encyclopedic dictionary of Russian languageVladimir Vernadsky, philosopher, geologist, a founder of geochemistry, biogeochemistry and radiogeology, creator of noosphere theory, popularized the term biosphere, major Russian cosmistIvan Yefremov, paleontologist, philosopher, sci-fi and historical novelist, founder of taphonomy, author of The Land of Foam, Andromeda: A Space-Age Tale and Thais of AthensEarth scientistsMain article: Russian Earth scientistsDmitry Anuchin, anthropologist and geographer, coined the term anthroposphere, determined the location of the Volga river sourceVasily DokuchaevKarl Baer, naturalist, formulated the geological Baer's law on river erosionLeonid Brekhovskikh, founder of modern acoustical oceanography, discovered the deep sound channel, the first to observe mesoscale ocean eddiesIvan Chersky, geologist, explorer of Siberia, explained the origin of Lake Baikal, pioneered the geomorphological evolution theoryPyotr Chikhachyov, early geographer and geologist of Central Asia, discovered Kuznetsk Coal BasinVasily Dokuchaev, founder of soil science, created the first soil classification, determined the five factors for soil formationAlexander Fersman, a founder of geochemistry, discovered copper in Monchegorsk, apatites in Khibiny, sulfur in Central AsiaBoris Golitsyn, inventor of electromagnetic seismograph, the President of International Association of SeismologyGrigory Gamburtsev, major Soviet seismologist, invented a number of methods and devicesIvan Gubkin, founder of the Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and GasAlexander Karpinsky, geologist and mineralogist, the first President of the Soviet Academy of SciencesAlexander MiddendorfVladimir Köppen, meteorologist, author of the commonly used Köppen climate classificationStepan Krasheninnikov, geographer, the first Russian naturalist, made the first scientific description of KamchatkaNikolai Kudryavtsev, author of modern abiogenic theory for origin of petroleum, coordinated oil and gas exploration in SiberiaLeonid Kulik, meteorite researcher, the first to study the Tunguska eventMikhail Lomonosov, polymath, suggested the organic origin of soil, peat, coal, petroleum and amber; pioneer researcher of atmospheric electricityAlexander Middendorf, zoologist, explorer, founder of permafrost science, determined the southern border of permafrostPavel Molchanov, meteorologist, inventor of radiosondeVladimir Obruchev, geologist and explorer, author of the comprehensive Geology of Siberia and two popular science fiction novels, Plutonia and Sannikov LandFarman Salmanov, discoverer of giant oil fields in West SiberiaVladimir ObruchevPyotr Semyonov-Tyan-Shansky, explorer of the Tian Shan Mountains, for 40 years the head of the Russian Geographical Society, prominent statistician and organiser of the first Russian Empire CensusNikolay Shatsky, made a comprehensive tectonic map of North Eurasia, introduced Riphean and Baikalian geological stagesPyotr Shirshov, polar explorer, founder of the Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, proved that there is life in high latitudes of the Arctic OceanYuly Shokalsky, the first head of the Soviet Geographical Society, coined the term World OceanAleksey Tillo, made the first correct hypsometric map of European Russia, coined the term Central Russian Upland, measured the lengths of main Russian riversAndrey Tikhonov, mathematician, inventor of magnetotellurics in geologyVladimir Vernadsky, philosopher, geologist, a founder of geochemistry, biogeochemistry and radiogeology, creator of noosphere theory, popularized the term biosphereBiologists and paleontologistsMain article: Russian biologistsJohann Friedrich Adam, discovered the Adams mammoth, the first complete woolly mammoth skeletonAndrey BolotovKarl Baer, naturalist, founded the Russian Entomological Society, formulated embryological Baer's lawsDmitry Belyaev, domesticated silver foxNikolai Bernstein, neurophysiologist, coined the term biomechanicsAndrey Bolotov, major 18th century agriculturist, discovered dichogamy, pioneered cross-pollinationMikhail Chailakhyan, researcher of flowering, described the florigen hormoneAlexander Chizhevsky, founder of heliobiology and modern air ionificationAndrey Famintsyn, plant physiologist, inventor of grow lamp, developer of symbiogenesis theoryYuri Filipchenko, entomologist, coined the terms microevolution and macroevolutionJohann Georg Gmelin, the first researcher of Siberian floraDmitry IvanovskyAlexander Gurwitsch, originated the morphogenetic field theory and discovered the biophotonIlya Ivanov, researcher of artificial insemination and the interspecific hybridization of animals, attempted to create a human-ape hybridDmitry Ivanovsky, discoverer of virusesGeorgii Karpechenko, inventor of rabbage (the first ever non-sterile hybrid obtained through crossbreeding)Nikolai Koltsov, discoverer of cytoskeletonVladimir Komarov, plant geographer, President of the Soviet Academy of Sciences, founder of the Komarov Botanical InstituteIlya Mechnikov, pioneer researcher of immune system, probiotics and phagocytosis, coined the term gerontology, Nobel Prize in Medicine winnerKonstantin Merezhkovsky, major lichenologist, developer of symbiogenesis theory, a founder of endosymbiosis theoryIvan Michurin, pomologist, selectionist and geneticist, practitioned crossing of geographically distant plants, created hundreds of fruit cultivarsIvan MichurinAlexander Middendorf, zoologist and explorer, studied the influence of permafrost on living beings, coined the term radula, prominent horse breederVictor Motschulsky, prominent researcher of beetlesSergei Navashin, discovered double fertilizationAlexey Olovnikov, predicted existence of Telomerase, suggested the Telomere hypothesis of aging and the Telomere relations to cancerAleksandr Oparin, biologist and biochemist, proposed the "Primordial soup" theory of life origin, showed that many food production processes are based on biocatalysisHeinz Christian Pander, embryologist, discovered germ layersPeter Simon Pallas, polymath naturalist, explorer, discoverer of multiple animals, including the Pallas's cat, Pallas's Squirrel, and Pallas's GullIvan Pavlov, founder of modern physiology, the first to research classical conditioning, Nobel Prize in Medicine winnerNikolai VavilovVladimir Pravdich-Neminsky, published the first EEG and the evoked potential of the mammalian brainCarl Schmidt, researcher of biochemical crystal structures, proved the chemical similarity of animal and plant cellsBoris Schwanwitsch, entomologist, applied colour patterns of insect wings to military camouflage during World War IIIvan Sechenov, founder of electrophysiology and neurophysiologyGeorg Wilhelm Steller, naturalist, participant of Vitus Bering's voyages, discoverer of Steller's Jay, Steller's Eider, extinct Steller's Sea Cow and multiple other animalsLina Stern, pioneer researcher of blood-brain barrierArmen Takhtajan, developer of Takhtajan system of flowering plant classification, major biogeographerKliment Timiryazev, plant physiologist and evolutionist, major researcher of chlorophyllSergey VinogradskyLev Tsenkovsky, pioneer researcher of the ontogenesis of lower plants and animalsMikhail Tsvet, inventor of chromatographyNikolai Vavilov, botanist and geneticist, gathered the world's largest collection of plant seeds, identified the centres of origin of main cultivated plantsSergey Vinogradsky, microbiologist, ecologist and soil scientist, pioneered the biogeochemical cycle concept, discovered lithotrophy and chemosynthesis, invented the Winogradsky column for breeding of microorganismsIvan Yefremov, paleontologist, sci-fi author, founded taphonomySergey Zimov, creator of the Pleistocene ParkPhysicians and psychologistsMain article: Russian physiciansVladimir Bekhterev, neuropathologist,Gavriil Ilizarovfounder of objective psychology, noted the role of the hippocampus in memory, a developer of reflexology, studied the Bekhterev’s DiseaseVladimir Betz, discovered Betz cells of primary motor cortexSergey Botkin, major therapist and court physicianNikolay Burdenko, major developer of neurosurgeryKonstantin Buteyko, developed the Buteyko method for the treatment of breathing disordersVladimir Demikhov, major pioneer of transplantologyVladimir Filatov, ophthalmologist, corneal transplantation pioneerSvyatoslav Fyodorov, inventor of radial keratotomyGeorgy Gause, inventor of gramicidin S and other antibioticsIlya MechnikovOleg Gazenko, founder of space medicine; selected and trained Laika, the first space dogVera Gedroitz, the first female Professor of Surgery in the worldWaldemar Haffkine, invented the first vaccines against cholera and bubonic plagueGavriil Ilizarov, invented Ilizarov apparatus, developed distraction osteogenesisNikolai Korotkov, invented auscultatory blood pressure measurement, pioneered vascular surgerySergey Korsakov, studied the effects of alcoholism on the nervous system, described Korsakoff's syndrome, introduced paranoia conceptAleksey Leontyev, founder of activity theory in psychologyPeter Lesgaft, founder of the modern system of physical education in RussiaAlexander Luria, co-developer of activity theory and cultural-historical psychology, major researcher of aphasiaIlya Mechnikov, pioneer researcher of immune system, probiotics and phagocytosis; coined the term gerontology, Nobel Prize in Medicine winnerIvan PavlovPyotr Nikolsky, dermatologist, discoveror of Nikolsky's signAlexey Olovnikov, predicted existence of Telomerase, suggested the Telomere hypothesis of aging and the Telomere relations to cancerIvan Pavlov, founder of modern physiology, the first to research classical conditioning, Nobel Prize in Medicine winnerNikolay Pirogov, pioneer of ether anaesthesia and modern field surgery, the first to perform anaesthesia in the field conditions, invented a number of surgical operationsLeonid Rogozov, performed an appendectomy on himself during the 6th Soviet Antarctic Expedition, a famous case of self-surgeryGrigory Rossolimo, pioneer of child neuropsychologyIvan Sechenov, founder of electrophysiology and neurophysiology, author of the classic work Reflexes of the BrainIvan SechenovLina Stern, pioneer researcher of blood-brain barrierFyodor Uglov, the oldest practicing surgeon in historyAlexander Varshavsky, researched ubiquitination, Wolf Prize in Medicine winnerLuka Voyno-Yasenetsky, founder of purulent surgery, saintLev Vygotsky, founder of cultural-historical psychology, major contributor to child development and psycholinguistics, introduced zone of proximal development and cultural mediation conceptsJosias Weitbrecht, the first to describe the construction and function of intervertebral discsSergei Yudin, inventor of cadaveric blood transfusionAlexander Zalmanov, developer of turpentine bath therapyBluma Zeigarnik, psychiatrist, discovered the Zeigarnik effect, founded experimental psychopathologyEconomists and sociologistsAlexander Chayanov, developed the consumption-labour-balance principleLeonid KantorovichGeorges Gurvitch, major developer of sociology of knowledge and sociology of lawLeonid Kantorovich, mathematician and economist, founded linear programming, developed the theory of optimal allocation of resources, Nobel Prize in Economics winnerNikolai Kondratiev, discoverer of the Kondratiev wavesAndrey Korotayev, historian, anthropologist, a founder of cliodynamics, prominent developer of social cycle theoryGleb Krzhizhanovsky, developer of the GOELRO plan, the first Chief of GosplanSimon Kuznets, discovered the Kuznets swings, built the Kuznets curve, disproved the Absolute Income Hypothesis, Nobel Prize in Economics winnerVladimir Lenin, leader of the October Revolution and founder of the Soviet Union, introduced planned economy and LeninismPitirim SorokinEvsei Liberman, laid the scientific support for the Soviet Kosygin reform in economyWassily Leontief, developed input-output analysis and the Leontief paradox, Nobel Prize in Economics winnerVasily Nemchinov, created the mathematical basis for the Soviet central planningGrigory Orlov, founder of the Free Economic SocietyPitirim Sorokin, sociologist, a prominent developer of the social cycle theoryEugen Slutsky, statistician and economist, developed the Slutsky equationStanislav Strumilin, pioneer of the planned economy, developed the first five year plansHistorians and archeologistsMain article: Russian historiansMikhail Artamonov, historian and archaeologist,Mikhail Artamonovfounder of modern Khazar studies, excavated a great number of Scythian and Khazar kurgans and settlements, including SarkelArtemiy Artsikhovsky, archaeologist, discoverer of birch bark documents in NovgorodVasily Bartold, turkologist, the "Gibbon of Turkestan", an archaeologist of SamarcandKonstantin Bestuzhev-Ryumin, 19th century historian and paleographer, founder of the Bestuzhev Courses for womenNikita Bichurin, a founder of Sinology, published many documents on Chinese and Mongolian history, opened the first Chinese-language school in RussiaNikolay Danilevsky, ethnologist, philosopher and historian, a founder of Eurasianism, the first to present an account of history as a series of distinct civilisationsIgor Diakonov, historian and linguist, a prominent researcher of Sumer and AssyriaBoris Farmakovsky, archaeologist of Ancient Greek colony OlbiaNikolay DanilevskyVladimir Golenishchev, egyptologist, excavated Wadi Hammamat, discovered over 6,000 antiquities, including the Moscow Mathematical Papyrus, the Story of Wenamun, and various Fayum portraitsTimofey Granovsky, a founder of mediaeval studies in Russia, disproved the historicity of VinetaBoris Grekov, major researcher of Kievan Rus' and the Golden HordeLev Gumilev, historian and ethnologist, prominent researcher of the ancient Central Asian peoples, related ethnogenesis and biosphere, influenced the rise of Neo-EurasianismBoris Hessen, physicist who brought externalism into modern historiography of sciencePyotr Kafarov, prominent sinologist, discovered The Secret History of the MongolsNikolai Karamzin, sentimentalist writer and historian, author of the 12-volume History of the Russian StateNikolai KaramzinVasily Klyuchevsky, dominated Russian historiography at the turn of the 20th century, shifted focus from politics and society to geography and economyAlexander Kazhdan, Byzantinist, editor of the Oxford Dictionary of ByzantiumNikodim Kondakov, prominent researcher of Byzantine artAndrey Korotayev, historian and anthropologist, a founder of cliodynamics, a prominent developer of social cycle theoryPyotr Kozlov, explorer of Central Asia, discoverer of the ancient Tangut city of Khara-Khoto and Xiongnu royal burials at Noin-UlaNikolay Likhachyov, the first and foremost Russian sigillographer, major developer of auxiliary historical disciplinesAleksey Lobanov-Rostovsky, statesman, published the major Russian Genealogical BookMikhail Lomonosov, polymath scientist and artist, the first opponent of the Normanist theory, published an early account of Russian historyFriedrich Martens, legal historian, drafted the Martens Clause of the Hague Peace ConferenceSt. NestorVladimir Minorsky, prominent historian of PersiaGerhardt Friedrich Müller, co-founder of the Russian Academy of Sciences, explorer and the first academic historian of Siberia, a founder of ethnography, author of the first academic account of Russian history, put forth the Normanist theoryAleksei Musin-Pushkin, prominent collector of ancient Russian manuscripts, discoverer of The Tale of Igor's CampaignNestor the Chronicler, author of the Primary Chronicle (the first East Slavic chronicle) and several hagiographies, saintAlexey Okladnikov, prominent historian and archaeologist of Siberia and MongoliaSergey Oldenburg, a founder of Russian Indology and the Academic Institute of Oriental StudiesGeorge Ostrogorsky, preeminent 20th century ByzantinistAvraamy Palitsyn, 17th century historian of the Time of TroublesEvgeny Pashukanis, legal historian, wrote The General Theory of Law and MarxismTatyana ProskuryakovaBoris Piotrovsky, prominent researcher of Urartu, Scythia, and Nubia, long-term director of the Hermitage MuseumMikhail Piotrovsky, orientalist, current director of the Hermitage MuseumMikhail Pogodin, leading mid-19th century Russian historian, proponent of the Normanist theoryMikhail Pokrovsky, Marxist historian prominent in 1920sNatalia Polosmak, archaeologist of Pazyryk burials, discoverer of Pazyryk Ice MaidenAlexander Polovtsov, statesman, historian and Maecenas, founder of the Russian Historian SocietyTatyana Proskuryakova, Mayanist scholar and archaeologist, deciphered the ancient Maya scriptSemyon Remezov, cartographer and the first historian of Siberia, author of the Remezov ChronicleMikhail Rostovtsev, archeologist and economist, the first to thoroughly examine the social and economic systems of the Ancient World, excavated Dura-EuroposSergey SolovyovNicholas Roerich, painter, archeologist, explorer of Central Asia, initiated the international Roerich’s Pact on historical monuments protectionSergei Rudenko, discoverer of Scythian Pazyryk burialsBoris Rybakov, historian and chief Soviet archaeologist for 40 years, primary opponent of the Normanist theoryViktor Sarianidi, discoverer of the Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex and the Bactrian Gold in Central AsiaMikhail Shcherbatov, a man of Russian Enlightenment, conservative historianSergey Solovyov, principal Russian 19th century historian, author of the 29-volume History of RussiaVasily Struve, orientalist and historian of the Ancient World, put forth the Marxist theory of five socio-economic formations that dominated the Soviet educationYevgeny Tarle, author of the famous studies on Napoleon's invasion of Russia and on the Crimean WarVasily TatischevVasily Tatischev, statesman, geographer and historian, discovered and published the Russkaya Pravda, Sudebnik and the controversial Ioachim Chronicle; wrote the first full-scale account of Russian historyMikhail Tikhomirov, major paleographer, published the Complete Collection of Russian ChroniclesBoris Turayev, author of the first full-scale History of Ancient EastPeter Turchin, population biologist and historian, coined the term cliodynamicsAleksey Uvarov, founder of the first Russian archaeological society, discovered over 750 ancient kurgansNikolai Yadrintsev, discoverer of Genghis Khan's capital Karakorum and the Orkhon script of ancient TürksValentin Yanin, preeminent researcher of the birch bark documentsLinguists and ethnographersMain article: Russian linguistsVasily Abaev, major researcher of Iranian languagesIvan Baudouin de CourtenayAlexander Afanasyev, leading Russian folklorist, recorded and published over 600 Russian fairy tales, by far the largest folktale collection by any one man in the worldIvan Baudouin de Courtenay, co-invented the concept of phoneme and the systematic treatment of linguistical alternations, pioneered synchronic analysis and mathematical linguisticsVladimir Bogoraz, researcher of Chukchi people, founder of the Institute of the Peoples of the NorthOtto von Böhtlingk, prominent Indologist and Sanskrit grammarianFyodor Buslaev, philologist and folklorist, representative of the Mythological school of comparative literatureVladimir Dahl, the Russian language lexicographer of the 19th century, folklorist and turkologist, author of the Explanatory Dictionary of the Live Great Russian languageJohann Gottlieb Georgi, explorer, published the first full-scale work on ethnography of indigenous peoples of RussiaDmitry Gerasimov, medieval translator, diplomat and philologist, correspondent of European Renaissance scholarsVladimir DahlVladislav Illich-Svitych, founder of Nostratic linguisticsVyacheslav Ivanov, founder of glottalic theory of Indo-European consonantismRoman Jakobson, preeminent 20th century linguist and literary theorist, a founder of phonology, major Slavist, author of Jackobson's Communication ModelPyotr Kafarov, prominent sinologist, developed the cyrillization of Chinese, discovered The Secret History of the MongolsYuri Knorozov, linguist, epigrapher and ethnographer, deciphered the Maya script, proposed a decipherment for the Indus scriptNikolay Krushevsky, co-inventor of the concept of phoneme and the systematic treatment of linguistical alternationsGerasim Lebedev, pioneer of Indology, introduced Bengali script typing to Europe, founded the first European-style theater in IndiaDmitry Likhachov, major 20th century expert on Old Russian language and literatureNicholai Miklukho-MaklaiMikhail Lomonosov, polymath scientist and artist, wrote a grammar that reformed Russian literary language by combining Old Church Slavonic with vernacular tongueNikolay Lvov, polymath artist and scientist, compiled the first significant collection of Russian folk songs, published epic bylinasRichard Maack, naturalist and ethographer of SiberiaSergey Malov, turkologist, classified the Turkic alphabets, deciphered the ancient Orkhon scriptNicholas Marr, put forth a pseudo-linguistic Japhetic theory on the origin of languageIgor Melchuk, structural linguist, author of Meaning-Text TheoryNicholai Miklukho-Maklai, anthropologist who lived and traveled among the natives of Papua New Guinea and Pacific islands, prominent anti-racistSemyon Novgorodov, Yakut politician and linguist, creator of written Yakut language (Sakha scripts)Marina Orlova, etymologist and Internet celebrity, host of the most popular YouTube guru channel, HotForWordsNikolai TrubetzkoyStephan of Perm, 14th century missionary, converted Komi Permyaks to Christianity and invented the Old Permic scriptYevgeny Polivanov, linguist, orientalist and polyglot, developed the cyrillization of JapaneseNicholas Poppe, prominent Altaic-language researcherVladimir Propp, formalist scholar, major researcher of folk tales and mythologyIsaac Jacob Schmidt, the first researcher of Mongolian languageLeopold von Schrenck, naturalist and ethnographer, coined the term Paleo-Asiatic peoples, the first director of the Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and EthnographyAleksey Shakhmatov, a founder of textology, prepared major 20th century reforms of Russian orthography, pioneered the systematic research of Old Russian and medieval Russian literatureAndrey ZaliznyakLev Shcherba, phonetician and phonologist, author of the glokaya kuzdra phraseFyodor Shcherbatskoy, Indologist, initiated the scholarly study of Buddhist philosophy in the WestIzmail Sreznevsky, leading 19th century Slavist, published Codex Zographensis, Codex Marianus and Kiev FragmentsSergei Starostin, prominent supporter of Altaic theory, proposed the Dené–Caucasian languages macrofamily, reconstructed several Eurasian proto-languagesVasily Tatischev, geographer, ethnographer and historian, compiled the first encyclopedic dictionary of Russian languageTenevil, Chukchi reindeer herder who created a writing system for the Chukchi languageNikolai Trubetzkoy, principal developer of phonology and inventor of morphophonology, defined phoneme, a founder of the Prague School of structural linguisticsDmitry Ushakov, author of the academic Explanatory Dictionary of the Russian LanguageLudwik ZamenhofMax Vasmer, leading Indo-European, Finno-Ugric and Turkic etymologist, author of the Etymological dictionary of the Russian languageViktor Vinogradov, linguist and philologist, founder of the Russian Language InstituteAlexander Vostokov, coined the term Old Church Slavonic, discovered the Ostromir Gospel (the most ancient book in East Slavic language), pioneered the research of Russian grammarAndrey Zaliznyak, author of the comprehensive systematic description of Russian inflection, prominent researcher of the Old Novgorod dialect and birch bark documents, proved the authentity of the Tale of Igor's CampaignLudwik Zamenhof, inventor of Esperanto, the most widely spoken constructed international auxiliary languageMathematiciansMain article: Russian mathematiciansAleksandr Aleksandrov, developer of CAT(k) space and Alexandrov's uniqueness theorem in geometryPafnuti ChebyshevPavel Alexandrov, author of the Alexandroff compactification and the Alexandrov topologyDmitri Anosov, developed Anosov diffeomorphismVladimir Arnold, an author of the Kolmogorov–Arnold–Moser theorem in dynamical systems, solved Hilbert's 13th problem, raised the ADE classification and Arnold's rouble problemsSergey Bernstein, developed the Bernstein polynomial, Bernstein's theorem and Bernstein inequalities in probability theoryNikolay Bogolyubov, mathematician and theoretical physicist, author of the edge-of-the-wedge theorem, Krylov–Bogolyubov theorem, describing function and multiple contributions to quantum mechanicsNikolai Chebotaryov, author of Chebotarev's density theoremPafnuti Chebyshev, prominent tutor and founding father of Russian mathematics,Leonhard Eulercontributed to probability, statistics and number theory, author of the Chebyshev's inequality, Chebyshev distance, Chebyshev function, Chebyshev equation etc.Boris Delaunay, inventor of Delaunay triangulation, organised the first Soviet Student Olympiad in mathematicsVladimir Drinfeld, mathematician and theoretical physicist, introduced quantum groups and ADHM construction, Fields Medal winnerEugene Dynkin, developed Dynkin diagram, Doob–Dynkin lemma and Dynkin system in algebra and probabilityLeonhard Euler, preeminent 18th century mathematician, arguably the greatest of all time, made important discoveries in mathematical analysis, graph theory and number theory, introduced much of the modern mathematical terminology and notation (mathematical function, Euler's number, Euler circles etc.)Yevgraf Fyodorov, identified Periodic graph in geometry, the first to identify all of the 230 space groups of crystalsBoris Galerkin, developed the Galerkin method in numerical analysisSofia KovalevskayaIsrael Gelfand, contributed to many areas of mathematics, including group theory, representation theory and linear algebra, author of the Gelfand representation, Gelfand pair, Gelfand triple, integral geometry etc.Alexander Gelfond, author of Gelfond's theorem, provided means to obtain infinite number of transcendentals, including Gelfond–Schneider constant and Gelfond's constant, Wolf Prize in Mathematics winnerMikhail Gromov, a prominent developer of geometric group theory, inventor of homotopy principle, introduced Gromov's compactness theorems in geometry and topology, Gromov norm, Gromov product etc., Wolf Prize winnerLeonid Kantorovich, founder of linear programming, introduced the Kantorovich inequality and Kantorovich metric, developed the theory of optimal allocation of resources, Nobel Prize in Economics winnerAleksandr Khinchin, developed the Pollaczek-Khinchine formula, Wiener–Khinchin theorem and Khinchin inequality in probabilityNikolai LobachevskyAndrey Kolmogorov, preeminent 20th century mathematician, Wolf Prize winner; developed probability axioms, Chapman–Kolmogorov equation and Kolmogorov extension theorem in probability; Kolmogorov complexity etc.Maxim Kontsevich, author of the Kontsevich integral and Kontsevich quantization formula, Fields Medal winnerSofia Kovalevskaya, the first woman professor in Northern Europe and Russia, the first female professor of mathematics, discovered the Kovalevskaya TopMark Krein, developed the Tannaka-Krein duality, Krein–Milman theorem and Krein space, Wolf Prize winnerNikolay Krylov, author of the edge-of-the-wedge theorem, Krylov–Bogolyubov theorem and describing functionYuri Linnik, developed Linnik's theorem in analytic number theoryNikolai Lobachevsky, a Copernicus of Geometry who created the first non-Euclidean geometry (Lobachevskian or hyperbolic geometry)Aleksandr LyapunovNikolai Lusin, developed Luzin's theorem, Luzin spaces and Luzin sets in descriptive set theoryAleksandr Lyapunov, founder of stability theory, author of the Lyapunov's central limit theorem, Lyapunov equation, Lyapunov fractal, Lyapunov time etc.Yuri Manin, author of the Gauss–Manin connection in algebraic geometry, Manin-Mumford conjecture and Manin obstruction in diophantine geometryGrigory Margulis, worked on lattices[disambiguation needed] in Lie groups, Wolf Prize and Fields Medal winnerAndrey Markov, invented the Markov chains, proved Markov brothers' inequality, author of the hidden Markov model, Markov number, Markov property, Markov's inequality, Markov processes, Markov random field, Markov algorithm etc.Yuri Matiyasevich, author of Matiyasevich's theorem in set theory, provided negative solution for Hilbert's tenth problemPyotr Novikov, solved the word problem for groups and Burnside's problemAndrey MarkovSergey Novikov, worked on algebraic topology and soliton theory, developed Adams–Novikov spectral sequence and Novikov conjecture, Wolf Prize and Fields Medal winnerAndrei Okounkov, researcher of infinite symmetric groups and Hilbert scheme, Fields Medal winnerMikhail Ostrogradsky, mathematician and physicist, author of divergence theorem and partial fractions in integrationGrigori Perelman, major contributor to Riemannian geometry and topology, proved Geometrization conjecture and Poincaré conjecture, won a Fields medal and the first Clay Millennium Prize Problems Award (declined both)Lev Pontryagin, blind mathematician, developed Pontryagin duality and Pontryagin classes in topology, and Pontryagin's minimum principle in optimal controlLev Schnirelmann, developed the Lusternik–Schnirelmann category in topology and Schnirelmann density of numbersSergei SobolevMoses Schönfinkel, inventor of combinatory logicYakov Sinai, developed the Kolmogorov–Sinai entropy and Sinai billiard, Wolf Prize winnerStanislav Smirnov, prominent researcher of triangular lattice, Fields MedalistSergei Sobolev, introduced the Sobolev spaces and mathematical distributions, co-developed the first ternary computer SetunVladimir Steklov, founder of Steklov Institute of Mathematics, proved theorems on generalized Fourier seriesJakow Trachtenberg, developed the Trachtenberg system of mental calculationAndrey Tikhonov, author of Tikhonov regularization of ill-posed problems, Tikhonov space and Tikhonov's theorem (central in general topology), invented magnetotelluricsPavel Urysohn, developed the metrization theorems, Urysohn's Lemma and Fréchet–Urysohn space in topologyAndrey TikhonovNicolay Vasilyev, inventor of non-Aristotelian logic, the forerunner of paraconsistent and multi-valued logicsIvan Vinogradov, developed Vinogradov's theorem and Pólya–Vinogradov inequality in analytic number theoryVladimir Voevodsky, introduced a homotopy theory for schemes and modern motivic cohomology, Fields MedalistGeorgy Voronoy, invented the Voronoi diagramDmitry Yegorov, author of Egorov's Theorem in mathematical analysisEfim Zelmanov, solved the restricted Burnside problem, Fields Medal winnerAstronomers and cosmologistsMain article: Russian astronomersViktor Ambartsumian, one of the founders of theoretical astrophysics, discoverer of stellar associations, founder of Byurakan ObservatoryAlexander FridmanVladimir Belinski, an author of the BKL singularity model of the UniverseAristarkh Belopolsky, invented a spectrograph based on the Doppler effect, among the first photographers of stellar spectraFyodor Bredikhin, developed the theory of comet tails, meteors and meteor showers, a director of the Pulkovo ObservatoryJacob Bruce, statesman, naturalist and astronomer, founder of the first observatory in Russia (in the Sukharev Tower)Lyudmila Chernykh, astronomer, discovered 268 asteroidsNikolai Chernykh, astronomer, discovered 537 asteroids and 2 cometsAlexander Fridman, discovered the Friedmann equations (metric expansion of space solution to the general relativity field equations), an author of the FLRW metric of UniverseGeorge Gamow, discovered alpha decay via quantum tunneling and Gamow factor in stellar nucleosynthesis,George Gamowintroduced the big bang nucleosynthesis theory, predicted cosmic microwave backgroundMatvey Gusev, the first to prove the non-sphericity of the Moon, pioneer of photography in astronomyNikolai Kardashev, astrophysicist, inventor of Kardashev scale for ranking the space civilizationsIsaak Khalatnikov, an author of the BKL singularityMarian Kowalski, the first to measure the rotation of the Milky WayAnders Johan Lexell, mathematician, researcher of celestial mechanics and comet astronomy, proved that Uranus is a planet rather than a cometAndrei Linde, created the chaotic inflation theory of the UniverseEvgeny Lifshitz, an author of the BKL singularityMikhail Lomonosov polymath, invented the off-axis reflecting telescope, discovered the atmosphere of VenusFriedrich Wilhelm StruveDmitri Dmitrievich Maksutov, invented the Maksutov telescopeViktor Safronov, author of the planetesimal hypothesis of planet formationGrigory Shayn, the first director of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, co-developed a method for stellar rotation measurementIosif Shklovsky, prominent radio astronomer, cosmic rays and extraterrestrial life researcherFriedrich Wilhelm Struve, founder and the first director of the Pulkovo Observatory, prominent researcher of double stars, initiated the construction of 2,820 km long Struve Geodetic Arc, progenitor of the Struve family of astronomersOtto Lyudvigovich Struve, co-developed a method for stellar rotation measurement, directed several U.S. observatoriesOtto Wilhelm von Struve, director of the Pulkovo Observatory, discovered over 500 double starsRashid Sunyaev, co-predicted the Sunyaev–Zel'dovich effect of CMB distortionRashid SunyaevGeorge Volkoff, predicted the existence of neutron starsBoris Vorontsov-Velyaminov, discovered the absorption of light by interstellar dust, author of the Morphological Catalogue of GalaxiesIvan Yarkovsky, discovered the YORP and Yarkovsky effect of meteoroids and asteroidsAleksandr Zaitsev, coined the term Messaging to Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence, conducted the first intercontinental radar astronomy experiment, transmitted the Cosmic CallsYakov Zeldovich, physicist, astrophysicist and cosmologist, the first to suggest that accretion discs around massive black holes are responsible for the quasar radiation, co-predicted the Sunyaev–Zel'dovich effectPhysicistsMain article: Russian physicistsAlexei Abrikosov, discovered how magnetic flux can penetrate a superconductor (the Abrikosov vortex),Zhores AlferovNobel Prize winnerFranz Aepinus, related electricity and magnetism, proved the electric nature of pyroelectricity, explained electric polarization and electrostatic induction, invented achromatic microscopeZhores Alferov, inventor of modern heterotransistor, Nobel Prize winnerLev Artsimovich, builder of the first tokamak, researcher of high temperature plasmaGurgen Askaryan, predicted self focusing of light, discovered Askaryan effect in the particle physicsNikolay Basov, physicist, co-inventor of laser and maser, Nobel Prize winnerNikolay Bogolyubov, co-developed the BBGKY hierarchy, formulated a microscopic theory of superconductivity, suggested a triplet quark model, introduced a new quantum degree of freedom (color charge)Gersh Budker, invented electron cooling, co-invented colliderBoris JacobiSergey Chaplygin, a founder of aero- and hydrodynamics, formulated the Chaplygin's equations and Chaplygin gas conceptPavel Cherenkov, discoverer of Cherenkov radiation, Nobel Prize winnerYuri Denisyuk, inventor of 3D holographyNikolay Dollezhal, designer of the reactor for the first nuclear power plant, developer of VVER-type reactorsLudvig Faddeev, discoverer of Faddeev–Popov ghosts and Faddeev equations in quantum physicsGeorgy Flyorov, an initiator of the Soviet atomic bomb project, co-discoverer of seaborgium and bohrium, founder of the Joint Institute for Nuclear ResearchVladimir Fock, developed the Fock space, Fock state and the Hartree–Fock method in quantum mechanicsIlya Frank, explained the phenomenon of Cherenkov radiation, Nobel Prize winnerPyotr KapitsaYakov Frenkel, introduced the notion of electron hole, discovered the Frenkel defect of a crystal lattice, described the Poole–Frenkel effect in solid-state physicsAndre Geim, inventor of graphene, developer of gecko tape, Nobel Prize winner, and also Ig Nobel Prize winner for diamagnetic levitation of a living frogVitaly Ginzburg, co-author of the Ginzburg–Landau theory of superconductivity, a developer of hydrogen bomb, Nobel Prize winnerVladimir Gribov, introduced pomeron, DGLAP equations and Gribov ambiguityAbram Ioffe, founder of the Soviet physics school, tutor of many prominent scientistsDmitri Ivanenko, proposed the first atomic nucleus and nuclear shell models, predicted the synchrotron radiation, author of the hypothesis of quark starsBoris Jacobi, formulated the Maximum power theorem in electrical engineering, invented electroplating, electrotyping, galvanoplastic sculpture and electric boatIgor KurchatovPyotr Kapitsa, originated the techniques for creating ultrastrong magnetic fields, co-discovered a way to measure the magnetic field of an atomic nucleus discovered superfluidity, Nobel Prize winnerYuly Khariton, chief designer of the Soviet atomic bomb, co-developer of the Tsar BombOrest Khvolson, the first to study the Chwolson ring effect of gravitational lensingIgor Kurchatov, builder of the first nuclear power plant, developer of the first marine nuclear reactors for surface shipsLev Landau, theoretical physicist, developed the Ginzburg–Landau theory of superconductivity, explained the Landau damping in plasma physics, pointed out the Landau pole in quantum electrodynamics, co-author of the famous Course of Theoretical Physics, Nobel Prize winnerGrigory Landsberg, co-discoverer of Raman scattering of lightMikhail Lavrentyev, founder of the Siberian Division of the Soviet Academy of Sciences and Akademgorodok in NovosibirskPyotr Lebedev, the first to measure the radiation pressure on a solid body, thus privoving the Maxwell's theory of electromagnetismLev LandauHeinrich Lenz, discovered the Lenz's law of electromagnetismEvgeny Lifshitz, an author of the BKL singularity model of the Universe, co-author of the Course of Theoretical PhysicsMikhail Lomonosov, polymath scientist, artist and inventor; proposed the law of conservation of matter, disproved the phlogiston theoryOleg Losev, inventor of light-emitting diode and crystadineAlexander Makarov, inventor of orbitrapBoris Mamyrin, inventor of reflectronLeonid Mandelshtam, co-discoverer of Raman effectKonstantin Novoselov, inventor of graphene, developer of gecko tape, Nobel Prize winnerVasily Petrov, discoverer of electric arc, proposed arc lamp and arc weldingHeinrich LenzBoris Podolsky, an author of EPR Paradox in quantum physicsAlexander Polyakov, developed the concepts of Polyakov action, 't Hooft–Polyakov monopole and BPST instantonIsaak Pomeranchuk, predicted synchrotron radiationBruno Pontecorvo, a founder of neutrino high energy physics, whose work led to the discovery of PMNS matrixAlexander Popov, inventor of lightning detector, one of the inventors of radio, recorded the first experimental radiolocation at seaVictor Popov, co-discoverer of Faddeev–Popov ghosts in quantum field theoryAlexander Prokhorov, co-inventor of laser and maser, Nobel Prize winnerGeorg Wilhelm Richmann, inventor of electrometer, pioneer researcher of atmospheric electricity, killed by a ball lightning in experimentAndrei Sakharov, co-developer of tokamak and the Tsar Bomb, inventor of explosively pumped flux compression generator, Nobel Peace Prize winnerVasily PetrovNikolay Semyonov, physical chemist, co-discovered a way to measure the magnetic field of an atomic nucleus, Nobel Prize in Chemistry winnerLev Shubnikov, discoverer of Shubnikov–de Haas effect, one of the first researchers of solid hydrogen and liquid heliumDmitri Skobeltsyn, the first to use cloud chamber for studying cosmic rays, the first to observe positronsAleksandr Stoletov, inventor of photoelectric cell, built the Stoletov curve, pioneered the research of ferromagnetismIgor Tamm, explained the phenomenon of Cherenkov radiation, co-developer of tokamak, Nobel Prize winnerNikolay Umov, discovered the Umov-Poynting vector and Umov effect, the first to propose the formula E = kmc2Petr Ufimtsev, developed the theory that led to modern stealth technologySergey Vavilov, co-discoverer of Cherenkov radiation, formulated the Kasha–Vavilov rule of quantum yieldsAleksandr StoletovVladimir Veksler, inventor of synchrophasotron, co-inventor of synchrotronEvgeny Velikhov, leader of the international program ITER (thermonuclear experimental tokamak)Alexey Yekimov, discoverer of quantum dotsYevgeny Zavoisky, inventor of EPR spectroscopy, co-developer of NMR spectroscopyYakov Zeldovich, physicist and cosmologist, predicted the beta decay of a pi meson and the muon catalysis, co-predicted the Sunyaev–Zel'dovich effect of CMB distortionNikolai Zhukovsky, a founder of aero- and hydrodynamics, the first to study airflow, author of Joukowsky transform and Kutta–Joukowski theorem, founder of TsAGI, pioneer of aviationChemists and material scientistsMain article: Russian chemistsErnest Beaux, inventor of Chanel No. 5, "the world's most legendary fragrance"Aleksandr ButlerovNikolay Beketov, inventor of aluminothermy, a founder of physical chemistryFriedrich Konrad Beilstein, proposed the Beilstein test for halogen detection, compiled the Beilstein database in organic chemistryBoris Belousov, discoverer of Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction, a classical example of non-equilibrium thermodynamicsAlexander Borodin, chemist and composer, the author of the famous opera Prince Igor, discovered Borodin reaction, co-discovered Aldol reactionAleksandr Butlerov, discovered hexamine, formaldehyde and formose reaction (the first synthesis of sugar), the first to incorporate double bonds into structural formulae, a founder of organic chemistry and the theory of chemical structureDmitry Chernov, founder of modern metallography, discovered polymorphism in metals, built the iron-carbon phase diagramAleksei Chichibabin, discovered Chichibabin pyridine synthesis, Bodroux-Chichibabin aldehyde synthesis and Chichibabin reactionKarl Ernst Claus, chemist and botanist, discoverer of rutheniumYevgraf FyodorovAleksandr Dianin, discovered Bisphenol A and Dianin's compoundConstantin Fahlberg, inventor of saccharin, the first artificial sweetenerAlexey Favorsky, discoverer of Favorskii rearrangement and Favorskii reaction in organic chemistryAlexander Frumkin, a founder of modern electrochemistry, author of the theory of electrode reactionsYevgraf Fyodorov, the first to enumerate all of the 230 space groups of crystals, thus founding the modern crystallographyAndre Geim, inventor of graphene, developer of gecko tape, Nobel Prize in Physics winnerVladimir Ipatieff, inventor of Ipatieff bomb, a founder of petrochemistryIsidore, legendary inventor of the Russian vodkaBoris Jacobi, re-discovered and commercialized electroplatingSergei LebedevPyotr Kapitsa, discovered superfluidity while studying liquid helium, Nobel Prize in Physics winnerGottlieb Kirchhoff, discoverer of glucoseIvan Knunyants, inventor of poly-caprolactam, a developer of Soviet chemical weaponsSergei Lebedev, inventor of polybutadiene, the first commercially viable synthetic rubberMikhail Lomonosov, polymath, coined the term physical chemistry, re-discovered smalt, disproved the phlogiston theory, the first to record the freezing of mercuryAleksandr Loran, inventor of fire fighting foamKonstantin Novoselov, inventor of graphene, developer of gecko tape, Nobel Prize in Physics winnerVladimir Markovnikov, author of the Markovnikov's rule in organic chemistry, discoverer of naphthenesDmitri MendeleyevDmitri Mendeleyev, invented the Periodic table of chemical elements, the first to predict the properties of elements yet to be discovered, inventor of pyrocollodion, developer of pipelines and a prominent researcher of vodkaNikolai Menshutkin, discoverer of Menshutkin reaction in organic chemistryIvan Plotnikov, inventor of kirza leatherIlya Prigogine, researcher of dissipative systems, complex systems and irreversibility, Nobel Prize winnerSergey Reformatsky, discovererof the Reformatsky reaction in organic chemistryNikolay Semyonov, physical chemist, author of the chain reaction theory, Nobel Prize winnerVladimir Shukhov, polymath, inventor of chemical crackingMikhail Tsvet, botanist, inventor of chromatographyVictor Veselago, the first researcher of materials with negative permittivity and permeabilityMikhail TsvetDmitry Vinogradov, inventor of the Russian porcelainPaul Walden, discovered the Walden inversion and ethylammonium nitrate, the first room temperature ionic liquidAlexander Zaytsev, author of the Zaitsev's rule in organic chemistryNikolay Zelinsky, inventor of activated charcoal gas mask in Europe during World War I, co-discoverer of Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky halogenation, a founder of petrochemistryNikolai Zinin, discovered benzidine, co-discovered aniline, the first President of the Russian Physical-Chemical SocietyArt Visual artsArchitectsMain article: Russian architectsAloisio da Milano, builder of the Kremlin towers and Terem PalaceAlexander BrullovAloisio the New, builder of the Archangel CathedralGavriil Baranovsky, builder of Elisseeff Emporium and the Buddhist Temple in St PetersburgVasily Bazhenov, architect of the Tsaritsyno Park and the Russian State LibraryNicholas Benois, court architect of Nicholas I of RussiaJoseph Bové, chief architect of Moscow after the Fire of 1812Vincenzo Brenna, court architect of Paul I of RussiaAlexander Brullov, builder of the Pulkovo ObservatoryCharles Cameron, architect of Tsarskoye Selo and Pavlovsk PalaceYury FeltenAlberto Cavos, builder of the Bolshoi Theatre and the Mariinsky TheatreAlexey Dushkin, inventor of the first deep column stationYury Felten, mover of the Thunder Stone, maker of the Summer Garden grille, builder of St Petersburg embankmentsAristotile Fioravanti, builder of the Dormition Cathedral in MoscowIvan Fomin, master of Russian neoclassical revival and postconstructivismMoisei Ginzburg, master of Constructivist architecture, founder of the OSA GroupIlya Golosov, builder of the Zuev Workers' ClubDavid Grimm, builder of the Church of Maria Magdalene and Chersonesus CathedralAlexander KokorinovBoris Iofan, grandmaster of Stalinist architectureMatvei Kazakov, builder of the Kremlin Senate and the Moscow Mayor HallRoman Klein, builder of the Pushkin Museum and TsUMAlexander Kokorinov, builder of the Imperial Academy of ArtsFyodor Kon, builder of the Smolensk Kremlin and Moscow's Bely GorodNikolai Ladovsky, leader of rationalist architecture of ASNOVABerthold Lubetkin, pioneer of International style in BritainNikolay Lvov, polymath scientist and artist, adapted rammed earth technology for northern climate, pioneered HVAC technology, built Priory Palace in GatchinaKonstantin MelnikovGeorg Johann Mattarnovy, architect of KunstkameraKonstantin Melnikov, foremost Avant-garde architect of 1920sAdam Menelaws, architect of AlexandriaAuguste de Montferrand, builder of Saint Isaac's Cathedral and the Alexander ColumnArkady Mordvinov, architect of the tallest hotel in EuropeNikolai Nikitin, engineer of the largest Soviet structures: Moscow State University, Luzhniki Stadium, The Motherland Calls and Ostankino Tower (once the world's tallest)Vyacheslav Oltarzhevsky, architect of the All-Russia Exhibition Centre and Hotel Ukraina (Moscow)Bartolomeo RastrelliPetrok Maly, builder of the Kitai-gorod Wall and the Ascension Church in KolomenskoyeAnatoly Polyansky, architect of the Museum of the Great Patriotic War, MoscowAlexander Pomerantsev, builder of the GUM and the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, SofiaGiacomo Quarenghi, builder of the Hermitage Theatre and Smolny InstituteBartolomeo Rastrelli, grandmaster of Russian baroque, bulder of Peterhof Palace, Saint Andrew's Church in Kiev, Smolny Convent, Catherine Palace, Winter PalaceAntonio Rinaldi, architect of Oranienbaum and Tsarskoye Selo, builder of the Marble PalaceCarlo Rossi, architect of the neoclassical ensembles of St Petersburg, author of the Russian Museum, Alexandrinsky Theater, General Staff Building in St. PetersburgLev RudnevLev Rudnev, builder of Stalinist scyscrapersMarco Ruffo, builder of Kremlin towers and the Palace of FacetsFyodor Schechtel, master of Art Nouveau, builder of Yaroslavsky Rail TerminalVladimir Shchuko, builder of the Lenin Library, master of Stalinist architectureAleksey Shchusev, builder of Lenin's Mausoleum on Red Square and the Hotel Moskva (Moscow)Vladimir Sherwood, builder of the State Historical MuseumVladimir Shukhov, engineer-polymath, inventor of breakthrough industrial designs(hyperboloid structure, thin-shell structure, tensile structure, gridshell), builder of Shukhov Towers and multiple other structuresKonstantin ThonPietro Antonio Solari, builder of the Spasskaya tower and the Palace of FacetsVasily Stasov, inventor of the Russian Revival style, builder of the Moscow Triumphal Gates and Narva Triumphal GatesAndrei Stackenschneider, builder of the Mariinsky Palace and Beloselsky-Belozersky PalaceIvan Starov, builder of the Tauride PalacePavel Suzor, builder of the Singer HouseVladimir Tatlin, author of Tatlin's Tower projectKonstantin Thon, builder of the Grand Kremlin Palace, Kremlin Armoury and the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour (the world's tallest Orthodox church)Domenico Trezzini, the first architect of St Petersburg, builder of the Peter and Paul Fortress, Summer Palace of Peter the Great, Twelve Collegia and Peter and Paul Cathedral (the world's tallest Orthodox belltower)Andrey VoronikhinVesnin brothers, leaders of constructivist architectureAndrey Voronikhin, builder of the Kazan Cathedral and Saint Petersburg Mining InstitutePostnik Yakovlev, builder of Saint Basil's Cathedral on Red SquareAndreyan Zakharov, builder of the Russian AdmiraltyMikhail Zemtsov, architect of CatherinethalIvan Zholtovsky, master of Stalinist architectureSculptors and jewellersMain article: Russian artistsMikhail Anikushin, monumentalist, author of the celebrated statues of PushkinPeter ClodtMark Antokolski, famous for historical imagesMihail Chemiakin, author of The children – victims of adult vicesPeter Clodt, famous for equestrian statues, author of the Anichkov Bridge Horse TamersVasily Demut-Malinovsky, author of the chariot groups on the Narva Triumphal Gates and the General Staff Building in St. PetersburgPeter Carl Fabergé, jeweller, creator of the Fabergé EggsNaum Gabo, sculptor, pioneer of kinetic artMikhail Gerasimov, forensic sculptor, reconstructed the appearance of Tamerlane, Yaroslav the Wise, Rudaki and many other historical figuresIlya Kabakov, conceptual installation artistPeter Carl FabergéVyacheslav Klykov, author of the monuments to Marshal Zhukov, Saints Cyril and Methodius, the Battle of KurskSergey Konenkov, sculptor, "the Russian Rodin"Mikhail Kozlovsky, neoclassical sculptor, author of the Samson fountain in Peterhof and monument to Suvorov the MarsIvan Martos, author of the Monument to Minin and Pozharsky on Red SquareMikhail Mikeshin, author of the Millennium of Russia, the monument to Catherine II in St Petersburg, the monument to Bohdan Khmelnytsky in KievMikhail MikeshinVera Mukhina, sculptress, inventor of welded sculpture, author of the Worker and Kolkhoz WomanErnst Neizvestny, author of the Lotus Flower at the Aswan Dam in EgyptAlexander Opekushin, author of early monuments to Pushkin, Lermontov, Aleksandr IIBoris Orlovsky, author of the statues of Kutuzov and Barclay de Tolly in front of Kazan Cathedral, St. PetersburgFedot Shubin, neoclassical sculptor, famous 18th century portraitistNikolai Tomsky, author of multiple Lenin statues and the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier (Moscow)Zurab Tsereteli, author of the Peter the Great Statue, To the Struggle Against World Terrorism, St. George statues at the Moscow War Memorial and the Freedom Monument (Tbilisi)Yevgeny Vuchetich, author of the Soviet War Memorial in Berlin, Let Us Beat Swords into Plowshares in the New York UN garden, and The Motherland Calls in VolgogradPaintersMain article: Russian artistsIvan Aivazovsky, author of The Ninth Wave and over 6000 paintings, mostly seascapesIvan AivazovskyFedor Alekseev, prominent landscapist, "the Russian Canaletto"Aleksei Antropov, baroque painter and portraitistIvan Argunov, major 18th century portraitistLéon Bakst, stage and costume designer for the Ballets Russes, author of the Terror AntiquusAlexandre Benois, artist and art critic, influential stage designer, author of the celebrated illustrations to Pushkin's Bronze HorsemanIvan Bilibin, painter and stage designer, famous for illustrations of Slavic mythology and sets for fairytale-based Russian operasVictor Borisov-Musatov, post-impressionist painter, creator of the Russian SymbolismVladimir Borovikovsky, famous portraitist at the turn of the 19th centuryMarc ChagallAlexander Briullov, neoclassical architect and portrait painterKarl Briullov, neoclassical painter, author of The Last Day of PompeiiMarc Chagall, polymath-artist, pioneer of modernism and figurative art, author of famous stained glassesPavel Chistyakov, history and portrait painter, tutor of many celebrated artistsAlexander Deyneka, master of socialist realism, author of the mosaics at Mayakovskaya (Moscow Metro)Dionisy, medieval icon painter, author of frescoes in the Ferapontov MonasteryVladimir Favorsky, graphic artist, famous for woodcut illustrations of the classic booksPavel Fedotov, realist painter, "the Russian Hogarth"Nikolai Ge, realist painter, famous for works on historical and religious motifsWassily KandinskyIgor Grabar, post-impressionist painter, restorer and art historianFeofan Grek, medieval fresco and icon-painter in Byzantine Empire and RussiaAlexander Ivanov, neoclassical painter, author of The Appearance of Christ before the PeopleSergey Ivanov, author of famous illustrations of Russian historyWassily Kandinsky, inventor of the pure abstract art, founder of Der Blaue ReiterOrest Kiprensky, romantic painter and portraitistPavel Korin, history painter, portraitist and art restorerKonstantin Korovin, leading Russian impressionist painterIvan Kramskoi, painter and art critic, author of the Christ in the Desert and the Unknown WomanBoris KustodievArkhip Kuindzhi, landscapist, notable for his light techniqueBoris Kustodiev, author of famous portraits, holiday scenes and "Kustodiev's women" (The Merchant's Wife, Bathing, The Russian Venus)Mikhail Larionov, avant-garde painter, inventor of rayonismAlexey Leonov, cosmonaut and painter, made some of his works in the outer spaceAristarkh Lentulov, avant-garde painter, author of the SkybellIsaac Levitan, landscapist, author of the Over Eternal PeaceDmitry Levitzky, prominent 18th century portrat masterRafail Sergeevich Levitsky, Peredvizhniki artist and court photographer to the Romanov dynastyEl Lissitzky, avante garde painter, typographer, author of Beat the Whites with the Red WedgeKazimir MalevichMikhail Lomonosov, polymath scientist and artist, re-descoverer of smalt, author of mosaics dedicated to Petrine eraAnton Losenko, 18th century history painter and portraitistKonstantin Makovsky, famous for idealized history paintingsKazimir Malevich, inventor of suprematism, author of the Black SquareSergey Malyutin, painter and folk artist, designed the first matryoshka dollVladimir Mayakovsky, futurist poet and propaganda artist, author of the Rosta Windows agitpropMikhail Nesterov, religious symbolist painter, portraitist, author of The Vision of the Youth BartholomewIvan Nikitin, famous Petrine era portraitistIlya RepinVasily Perov, realist painter, author of the Troika and The Hunters at RestKuzma Petrov-Vodkin, symbolist painter, author of the Bathing of a Red HorseVasily Polenov, landscape painter, author of A courtyard in Moscow and Grandma's gardenLiubov Popova, cubist abstractionist paintressIlya Repin, archetypical Russian painter, famous for his portraits and history scenes, author of the Barge Haulers on the Volga and the Reply of the Zaporozhian CossacksAlexander Rodchenko, avante garde artist, graphic designer and constructivist painterNicholas Roerich, artist, scientist, traveler, public figure, initiator of the international Roerich’s Pact, author of over 7000 paintingsNicholas RoerichFyodor Rokotov, prominent Catherine era portraitistAndrei Rublev, most famous Russian icon-painter, author of the TrinityAndrei Ryabushkin, history painter, works devoted mostly to the 17th century RussiaAlexei Savrasov, landscape painter, creator of the lyrical landscape styleZinaida Serebriakova, the most prolific paintress of Russia, famous for female portraits and nudesValentin Serov, impressionist painter, portraitist, author of The Girl with Peaches and The Kidnapping of EuropeTaras Shevchenko, romantic poet and painterIvan Shishkin, author of the most celebrated Russian landscapes: the Morning in a Pine Forest, Rye Fields, the Rain in an Oak ForestKonstantin Somov, prominent Russian literature illustratorFile:Andrey Rublyov.jpgAndrei RublevVasily Surikov, author the famous Russian history paintings: The Morning of Streltsy's Execution, Boyarynya Morozova, The March of Suvorov through the AlpsVasily Tropinin, romantic and realist portraitistSimon Ushakov, prolific late 17th century icon painter, author of the Saviour Not Made by HandsFeodor Vasilyev, lyrical landscape painterApollinary Vasnetsov, Russian history illustrator, many works devoted to MoscowViktor Vasnetsov, famous for Russian history and Slavic mythology images, inventor of budenovka, author of the Flying Carpet, Tsar Ivan The Terrible, the BogatyrsAlexey Venetsianov, prominent genre painter, founder of the "Venetsianov school"Zinaida SerebriakovaVasily Vereshchagin, battle painter, author of The Apotheosis of War and the Blowing from Guns in British IndiaMikhail Vrubel, leader of the Russian Symbolism, author of The Demon Sitting and The Swan PrincessMarianne von Werefkin, avante-garde expressionist paintressNikolai Yaroshenko, realist genre painter and portraitistKonstantin Yuon, Soviet era landscape painterPyotr Zakharov-Chechenets, portrait painter of Chechen originKarp Zolotaryov, late 17th century icon painter, notable for realistic styleLiteratureMain article: Russian writersNovel and short story authorsMain article: Russian novelistsMikhail BulgakovIvan BuninFyodor DostoyevskyNikolai GogolMaxim GorkyBoris PasternakMikhail SholokhovLeo TolstoyIvan TurgenevYevgeny ZamyatinChinghiz Aitmatov, Kyrgyz and Russian writer, author of JamilyaSergei Aksakov, famous for his semi-autobigraphical writings, including A Family ChronicleVasily Aksyonov, author of the Moscow saga Generations of WinterBoris Akunin, famous for his detective fiction, author of The Diamond ChariotSholem Aleichem, important Russian Jewish writer, the famous musical Fiddler on the Roof was based on Aleichem's story Tevye the DairymanLeonid Andreyev, author of The Seven Who Were HangedVladimir Arsenyev, explorer and travelogue writer, author of Dersu Uzala, which inspired the Oscar winning Soviet-Japanese movieMikhail Artsybashev, naturalist writer, author of SaninIsaac Babel, well-known Russian Jewish writer, author of The Odessa TalesPavel Bazhov, the author of a fairy-tale stories collection The Malachite Casket, depicting the life on the UralsAndrei Bely, author of the novel Petersburg, poetAlexander Belyayev, major science fiction writer, author of Amphibian Man and ArielValery Bryusov, important symbolist writer, author of the novel The Fiery AngelMikhail Bulgakov, author of The Master and Margarita, which The Times of London has called one of the masterpieces of the 20th centuryFaddey Bulgarin, conservative journalist and author of the first science fiction and adventure novels in RussianKir Bulychev, author of the science fiction anthology Half a LifeIvan Bunin, short story writer and poet, first Russian to be awarded the Nobel Prize for LiteratureVasil Bykov, known for his works about World War IIAnton Chekhov, famous for his short stories and plays; author of The Lady with the Dog, The Black MonkNikolai Chernyshevsky, influential revolutionary writer, author of What Is to Be Done?Fyodor Dostoyevsky, author of Crime and Punishment, The Idiot, The Possessed, The Brothers KaramazovSergei Dovlatov, Russian writer who emigrated to the USA, author of the novel AffiliateIvan Yefremov, science fiction writer, known for his novel AndromedaAlexander Fadeyev, one of the co-founders of the Union of Soviet Writers and its chairman from 1946 to 1954Arkady Gaidar, children's writer, author of Timur and his Squad, which provided the idea for the Timurite movementDmitry Glukhovsky, author of the post-apocalyptic novel Metro 2033Nikolai Gogol, considered the "father" of Russian realism, author of The Overcoat, The Nose, Dead SoulsIvan Goncharov, author of OblomovMaxim Gorky, founder of socialist realism, author of Twenty-six Men and a GirlAlexandr Grin, author of novels and stories set in the fantasy world of GrinlandiaVasily Grossman, author of Life and Fate, described by Le Monde as "the greatest Russian novel of the twentieth century"Ilya Ilf extremely popular Soviet author of the 1920s and 1930s, who worked in collaboration with Yevgeni Petrov, see Ilf and PetrovFazil Iskander, Abkhaz writer, renowned for his vivid descriptions of Caucasian lifeNikolai Karamzin, prominent sentimentalist writer and major historian, author of Poor LizaValentin Katayev, author of the industrial novel Time, Forward!Veniamin Kaverin, author of the social and adventure novel The Two CaptainsDaniil Kharms, Soviet surrealist and absurdist writerVladimir Korolenko, human rights activist, author of The Blind MusicianAleksandr Kuprin, writer and adventurer, author of The DuelLazar Lagin, soviet satirist and children's writer, best known for his novel Old KhottabychLeonid Leonov, Soviet novelist, he has been called a 20th-century Dostoyevsky for the deep psychological torment of his proseMikhail Lermontov, author of A Hero of our Time, poetNikolai Leskov, author of Lefty and Lady Macbeth of MtsenskEduard Limonov, writer and political dissident, leader of the National Bolshevik PartySergey Lukyanenko, most popular contemporary Russian sci-fi writer, author of the Night WatchDmitry Merezhkovsky, famous Russian historical novelistVladimir Nabokov, author of Lolita, which was ranked at #4 on the list of the Modern Library 100 Best NovelsNikolay Nosov, children's writer, author of the popular Neznaika seriesVladimir Obruchev, geologist and explorer, author of the science fiction and travel novels Plutonia and Sannikov LandYuri Olesha, author of the innovative novel EnvyNikolai Ostrovsky, socialist realist writer, best known for his novel How the Steel Was TemperedBoris Pasternak, author of Doctor Zhivago, poet and translator, Nobel Prize winner (was forced to decline the prize)Konstantin Paustovsky, Soviet author, nominated for the Nobel Prize in 1965Viktor Pelevin, postmodernist writer, author of the short novel Omon RaYevgeni Petrov, extremely popular Soviet author of the 1920s and 1930s, who worked in collaboration with Ilya Ilf, see Ilf and PetrovBoris Pilnyak, major supporter of anti-urbanism and a critic of mechanized society, his most famous work is the novel The Naked YearAleksey Pisemsky, realist writer, author of the novel A Thousand SoulsAndrei Platonov, author of The Foundation PitBoris Polevoy, notable Soviet writer, author of the popular novel Story of a Real Man about pilot Alexei Petrovich MaresievNikolay Pomyalovsky, narodnik writer, author of Seminary SketchesAleksandr Pushkin, the greatest Russian poet, novelist, author of The Captain's DaughterAlexander Radishchev, radical writer, author of Journey from St. Petersburg to MoscowAyn Rand, creator of Objectivism, author of The Fountainhead, and Atlas ShruggedValentin Rasputin, Soviet writer from Siberia, associated with the village prose movementAleksei Remizov, modernist writer, author of The Indefatigable CymbalMikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin, major satirist, author of The Golovlyov FamilyAlexander Serafimovich, author of the Russian Civil War novel The Iron FloodVarlam Shalamov, Gulag survivor, author of Kolyma TalesMikhail Shishkin, widely considered to be one of the best contemporary Russian writersMikhail Sholokhov, Nobel Prize for Literature, author of And Quiet Flows the DonVasily Shukshin, actor, writer, screenwriter, and movie director who specialized in rural themesAleksandr Solzhenitsyn, Nobel Prize for Literature, author of One Day in the Life of Ivan DenisovichVladimir Sorokin, one of the most popular writers in modern Russian literatureBoris and Arkady Strugatsky, collaborative duo of Soviet science fiction writersNadezhda Teffi, prominent humorist writerVladimir Tendryakov, Soviet writer whose works deal mainly with moral and ethical issuesTatyana Tolstaya, writer, TV host, publicist, novelist, and essayist from the Tolstoy familyAleksey Konstantinovich Tolstoy , author of the historical novel Prince Serebryany, one of the authors to use the collective pen name Kozma PrutkovAleksey Nikolayevich Tolstoy, Soviet writer, best known for his works of science fiction, author of AelitaLeo Tolstoy, widely considered to be one of the world's greatest novelists, author of War and Peace and Anna KareninaYury Trifonov, Soviet writer, considered a close contender for the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1981Ivan Turgenev, author of A Sportsman's Sketches, which had an influence on the abolition of serfdom in RussiaYury Tynyanov, important member of the Russian Formalist school, author of Lieutenant KijéLyudmila Ulitskaya, winner of the Russian Booker Prize (2002)Eduard Uspensky, children's writer known for his fictional characters Gena the Crocodile and CheburashkaVladimir Voinovich, author of the well-known novel The Life and Extraordinary Adventures of Private Ivan ChonkinAlexander Volkov, mostly remembered for his series of children's books based on L. Frank Baum's The Wonderful Wizard of OzIvan Yefremov, paleontologist and science fiction writer, founder of taphonomy, author of The Land of Foam, Andromeda: A Space-Age Tale and Thais of AthensYevgeny Zamyatin, author of the dystopian novel We, which influenced George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four, and Ayn Rand's AnthemMikhail Zoshchenko, popular Soviet writer, accociated with the Serapion Brothers, author of Scenes from the BathhousePhilosophers and criticsMain article: Russian philosophersNikolai BerdyaevPavel FlorenskyAleksey KhomyakovVladimir SolovyovDaniil Andreyev, Christian mystic, author of Roza MiraIvan Aksakov, littérateur and notable Slavophile, son of the writer Sergey AksakovMikhail Bakhtin, philosopher, literary critic, semiotician, and scholar who worked on literary theory, ethics, and the philosophy of languageMikhail Bakunin, well-known revolutionary and theorist of collectivist anarchismVissarion Belinsky, influential critic, and editor of two major literary magazines: Otechestvennye Zapiski, and SovremennikNikolai Berdyaev, religious and political philosopherHelena Blavatsky, founder of Theosophy and the Theosophical SocietyAlexander Bogdanov, physician, philosopher, science fiction writer, and a key figure in the early history of the BolsheviksNikolay Chernyshevsky, famous for his philosophical novel What is To Be Done?, he was the leader of the revolutionary democratic movement of the 1860s, and an influence on Vladimir LeninNikolay Danilevsky, naturalist, economist, ethnologist, philosopher, historian, and ideologue of the pan-Slavism and Slavophile movementsNikolay Dobrolyubov, literary critic, journalist, and revolutionary democratPavel Florensky, Orthodox theologian, philosopher, mathematician, electrical engineer, and inventorLeonid Grinin, important modern sociologist and philosopher of historyAlexander Herzen, highly influential proponent of populism, socialism, and collectivizationMikhail Katkov, conservative journalist and literary critic influential during the reign of Alexander IIIIvan Kireyevsky, literary critic and philosopher, co-founder of the Slavophile movementAleksey Khomyakov, religious poet and philosopher, co-founder of the Slavophile movement, coined the term sobornostPeter Kropotkin, naturalist, geographer and one of the world's foremost anarcho-communistsPyotr Lavrov, prominent Russian philosopher, publicist, sociologist, and theorist of narodismKonstantin Leontiev, conservative, monarchist reactionary philosopherAleksei Losev, one of the most prominent figures in Russian philosophical and religious thought of the 20th centuryYuri Lotman, prominent formalist critic, semiotician, and culturologistNikolay Novikov, writer and philanthropist, a man of Russian Enlightenment, often considered to be the first Russian journalistVladimir Odoevsky, well known philosopher, writer, music critic, philanthropist and pedagoguePeter D. Ouspensky, esoteric philosopher, author of In Search of the MiraculousDmitri Pisarev, radical writer and social critic whose works had an important influence on LeninPyotr Pletnyov, poet and literary critic, and a friend of the poet Pushkin, who dedicated his novel in verse Eugene Onegin to PletnyovAyn Rand, objectivist philosopher, best known for her novels The Fountainhead and Atlas ShruggedHelena Roerich, philosopher, writer, public figure, and proponent of living ethicsLev Shestov, influential Ukrainian/Russian existentialist philosopher, author of the well-known works Penultimate Words and All Things are PossibleVladimir Solovyov, philosopher, poet, pamphleteer, and literary critic, who played a significant role in the development of Russian philosophy and poetry at the end of the 19th centuryVladimir Stasov, preeminent 19th century art critic in RussiaLeo Tolstoy, Christian anarchist and pacifist, whose ideas and social writings were the basis of the Tolstoyan movement.Leon Trotsky, Bolshevik, and Marxist, one of the leaders of the Russian Revolution of 1917PlaywrightsMain article: Russian playwrightsAnton ChekhovAlexander OstrovskyKonstantin Aksakov, notable slavophile, author of plays that expressed his views on Russian historyLeonid Andreyev, author of many popular plays, including He Who Gets SlappedMikhail Bulgakov, popular Soviet writer, author of the play FlightAnton Chekhov, famous for his short stories and plays, author of The Cherry Orchard, Uncle Vanya, Three Sisters, The SeagullDenis Fonvizin, known chiefly for his famous play The MinorNikolai Gogol, author of the great satirical play The Government InspectorMaxim Gorky, author of The Lower Depths, a hallmark of socialist realismAleksandr Griboyedov, author of the popular play Woe from WitMikhail Lermontov, author of the play MasqueradeVladimir Mayakovsky, one of the foremost representatives of Russian FuturismDmitriy Merezhkovsky, one of the earliest and most eminent ideologues of Russian Symbolism, author of the play Paul IAlexander Ostrovsky, known for his plays dealing with the merchant class, most notably The StormAleksey Pisemsky, realist writer, author of the well-known play A Bitter Fate, considered to be the first Russian realistic tragedyAlexander Pushkin, Russia's national poet, also known for his plays, including Boris Godunov and The Stone GuestVladimir Sorokin, poet, essayist and playwright who helped lay the foundations of classical Russian literatureAlexander Sumarokov, poet and playwright who single-handedly created classical theatre in RussiaAleksey Konstantinovich Tolstoy, author of historical dramas, including The Death of Ivan the Terrible and Tsar Fyodor IoannovichLeo Tolstoy, one of the greatest Russian writers, author of the plays The Power of Darkness, The Fruits of Enlightenment, and The Living CorpseVasily Trediakovsky, author of the play Khorev (1749), regarded as the first regular Russian dramaIvan Turgenev, author of the well known play A Month in the CountryPoetsMain article: Russian poetsAnna AkhmatovaAleksandr BlokGavrila DerzhavinMikhail LermontovVladimir MayakovskyAlexander PushkinSergei YeseninAnna Akhmatova, modernist poet, author of RequiemBella Akhmadulina, Soviet and Russian poet who has been cited by Joseph Brodsky as the best living poet in the Russian languageInnokenty Annensky, poet, critic, and translator, representative of the first wave of Russian SymbolismGennadiy Aygi, Chuvash poet and translator, his poetry was written both in Chuvash and in RussianEduard Bagritsky, an important Russian and Soviet poet of the Constructivist SchoolKonstantin Balmont, symbolist poet, one of the major figures of the Silver Age of Russian PoetryEvgeny Baratynsky, lauded by Alexander Pushkin as the finest Russian elegiac poet, rediscovered by Anna Akhmatova and Joseph Brodsky as a supreme poet of thought.Ivan Barkov, author of erotic poetryKonstantin Batyushkov, an important precursor of Alexander PushkinAndrey Bely, symbolist poet, namesake of the important Andrei Bely Prize.Olga Berggolts, Soviet poet, most famous for her work on the Leningrad radio during the city's blockade during World War IIAleksandr Blok, leader of the Russian Symbolist movement, author of The TwelveJoseph Brodsky, winner of the 1987 Nobel Prize in LiteratureValery Bryusov, one of the principal members of the Russian Symbolist movementSasha Cherny, poet, satirist, and children's writerKorney Chukovsky, one of the most popular children's poets in the Russian languageDenis Davydov, guerilla fighter and soldier-poet of the Napoleonic Wars, invented a genre of hussar poetry noted for its hedonism and bravadoGavrila Derzhavin, one of the greatest Russian poets before Alexander PushkinVenedikt Erofeev, best known for his 1969 poem in prose Moscow-PetushkiAfanasy Fet, had a profound influence on the Russian Symbolists, especially Annensky and BlokSergei Gorodetsky, associated with the symbolists, and the acmeistsAlexander Gorodnitsky, Soviet/Russian poet, holds a Ph.D. in geological and mineralogical sciencesFedor Nikolaevich Glinka, famous for his martial and religious poetryNikolay Gumilyov, founded the acmeism movementIgor Guberman, acclaimed for his signature aphoristic and satiric quatrains, called "gariki" in RussianVyacheslav Ivanov, poet and playwright associated with the Russian Symbolism movementVelimir Khlebnikov, influential member of the Russian Futurist movement, regarded by his contemporariesas as "a poet's poet"Vladislav Khodasevich, presided over the Berlin circle of Russian emigre litterateursIvan Krylov, Russia's best known fabulistMikhail Lermontov, the most important Russian poet after Alexander Pushkin's death, his influence on later Russian literature is still felt in modern timesMikhail Lomonosov, created the basis of the modern Russian literary languageOsip Mandelstam, Acmeist poet, author of TristiaVladimir Mayakovsky, among the most important representatives of early-20th century Russian FuturismApollon Maykov, his lyrical poems often showcase images of Russian villages, nature, and Russian historySemen Nadson, successful poet who died of tuberculosis at the age of twenty fourVladimir Narbut, Russian poet of Ukrainian descent, member of the Acmeist groupNikolai Alekseevich Nekrasov, one of Russia's most popular poets, author of the long poem Who is Happy in Russia?Boris Pasternak, author of the influential poem My Sister Life, Nobel Prize winner (was forced to decline the prize)Nikolai Ogarev, known to every Russian, not only as a poet, but as the fellow-exile and collaborator of Alexander Herzen on Kolokol, a newspaper printed in England and smuggled into RussiaYakov Polonsky, a leading Pushkinist poetSymeon of Polotsk, an academically trained Baroque Belarusian-Russian poetKozma Prutkov, fictional author invented by Aleksey Konstantinovich Tolstoy and his three cousinsAlexander Pushkin, the greatest Russian poet, author of Eugene OneginK.R., a grandson of Emperor Nicholas I of Russia, a poet and playwright of some renownIgor Severyanin, presided over the circle of the so-called Ego-FuturistsIlya Selvinsky, leader of the Constructivist movementBoris Slutsky, one of the most important representatives of the War generation of Russian poetsFyodor Sologub, influential symbolist poet and writerAlexander Sumarokov, assisted Mikhail Lomonosov in inaugurating the reign of classicism in Russian literatureAleksey Konstantinovich Tolstoy , popular poet and dramatist, known for his humorous and satirical verseVasily Trediakovsky, helped lay the foundations of classical Russian literatureMarina Tsvetaeva, known primarily for her lyric poetry, widely admired by her fellow poetsAleksandr Tvardovsky, chief editor of Novy Mir for many years, author of Vasili TyorkinFyodor Tyutchev, romantic poet, author of The Last LoveMaximilian Voloshin, Symbolist poet, famous freemasonPyotr Yershov, author of the famous fairy-tale poem The Humpbacked HorseSergei Yesenin, one of the most popular and well-known Russian poets of the 20th century, author of Land of ScoundrelsYevgeny Yevtushenko, Soviet/Russian poet, director of several filmsNikolay Zabolotsky, one of the founders of the Russian avant-garde absurdist group OBERIUIuliia Zhádovskaia, many of her poems have been made into popular songsVasily Zhukovsky, credited with introducing the Romantic Movement to Russian literaturePerforming artsActorsYul BrynnerNikita MikhalkovVera Alentova, known for her leading role in the famous 1980 Soviet drama Moscow Does Not Believe in TearsSergei Bodrov Jr., played lead roles in several popular movies, son of playwright, actor, director and producer Sergei BodrovSergei Bondarchuk, acted in and directed the Academy Award winning 1965 film production of War and PeaceYul Brynner, won the Academy Award for best actor in the 1956 film The King and IArmen Dzhigarkhanyan, played in more than 170 films, according to IMDb, founded his own theater in MoscowLeonid Filatov, received many awards, including the Russian Federation State Prize and People's Artist of Russia in 1996Milla Jovovich, actress, model, and musician, best known for her role in the widely popular Resident Evil moviesLila Kedrova, winner of the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress in 1964 for he role as Mme Hortense in Zorba the Greek.Nikita Mikhalkov, co-wrote, directed and acted in the Academy Award winning film Burnt by the SunYevgeny Morgunov, actor, best known as Experienced (Byvaly), a member of an antihero comic trio in a series of films by Leonid GaidaiSolomon Mikhoels, Soviet Jewish actor and the artistic director of the Moscow State Jewish TheaterYury Nikulin, drama and comic actor, best known for his comic roles such as Fool (Balbes), a member of an antihero comic trio in a series of films by Leonid Gaidai, clown and eventually a director at Moscow's Tsvetnoy Boulevard CircusVyacheslav Ivanovich "Slava" Polunin, performance artist and clown creator of the stage spectacles, Asisyai-revue, Slava's Snowshow and Diabolo.Lubov Orlova, theatre actress and gifted singer, the first recognized star of Soviet cinemaArkady Raikin, stand-up comedian who led the school of Soviet and Russian humorists for about half a centuryGeorgy Vitsin, comic actor, best known for his comic roles such as Trus (Coward), a member of an antihero comic trio in a series of films by Leonid GaidaiFyodor Volkov, 18th century actor and founder of the first permanent Russian theaterLeonid Utyosov, a famous Soviet jazz singer and comic actor, the first pop singer to be awarded the title of People's Artist of the USSRNatalie Wood, three-time Academy Award nominee, winner of the Golden Globe Award for her role in the TV series From Here to EternityTheatre directorsKonstantin StanislavskiMichael Chekhov, Russian-American actor, director, author, and theatre practitioner, nephew of Anton ChekhovAnatoly Efros, famous Russian and Soviet theatre director, collaborated with the stage director Yury LyubimovGerasim Lebedev, pioneer of Indology, founded the first European-style drama theater in IndiaYury Lyubimov, Soviet and Russian stage actor and director associated with the Taganka Theatre which he foundedVladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko, theatre director, writer, pedagogue, playwright, producer, and co-founder of the Moscow Art TheatreKonstantin Stanislavski, famous actor, theatre director, creator of a widely used system of acting, and co-founder of the Moscow Art TheatreYevgeny Vakhtangov, friend and mentor of Michael Chekhov, founded the Vakhtangov TheatreFyodor Volkov, actor and founder of the first permanent Russian theaterFilm directors and animatorsSergei EisensteinEldar RyazanovLadislas StarevichFyodor Bondarchuk, director of the acclaimed film The 9th Company, son of Sergei BondarchukGrigori Chukhrai, Academy Award nominee for Best Original Screenplay for the film Ballad of a SoldierPavel Chukhrai, Academy Award nominee for Best Foreign Language Film for The ThiefGeorgi Daneliya, Soviet/Georgian/Russian film director, among his most popular movies are Mimino and Autumn MarathonAlexander Dovzhenko, often cited as one of the most important early Soviet filmmakersSergei Eisenstein, his work profoundly influenced early filmmakers owing to his innovative use of and writings about montageVasily Goncharov, directed the first Russian feature film Defence of SevastopolLeonid Gaidai, his movies broke theatre attendance records and are still some of the top-selling DVDs in RussiaRoman Kachanov, one of the founders and leaders of Russian stop-motion animationRoman Kachanov Jr., director of the popular comedy Down HouseAndrei Konchalovsky, director of popular movies including Runaway Train and Tango & CashEdmond Keosayan, Armenian Soviet film director and musicianFjodor Khitruk, one of the most influential Russian animators and animation directorsElem Klimov, best known for his film Come and SeeGrigori Kozintsev, known for his silent films and adaptations of ShakespeareLev Kuleshov, taught at and helped establish the world's first film school (the Moscow Film School)Pavel Lungin, awarded the Best Director Prize at the 1990 Cannes Film Festival for the film Taxi BluesAleksandr Petrov, won the Academy Award for Animated Short Film for The Old Man and the SeaYakov Protazanov, one of the founding fathers of Russian cinemaAleksandr Ptushko, referred to as "the Soviet Walt Disney", due to his prominent early role in animation in the Soviet UnionVsevolod Pudovkin, director, screenwriter and actor, developed influential theories of montageMikhail Romm, director and teacher, known for his film Nine Days in One YearEldar Ryazanov, Soviet/Russian director famous for his comediesKaren Shakhnazarov, chairman of Mosfilm, one of the largest and oldest film studios in RussiaLarisa Shepitko, wife of Elem Klimov, best known for her film The AscentVasily Shukshin, actor, writer, screenwriter and movie director who specialized in rural themesAlexander Sokurov, critically acclaimed director, a regular at the Cannes Film FestivalLadislas Starevich, Russian and French stop-motion animator who used insects and animals as his protagonistsAndrei Tarkovsky, internationally renowned director and film theoristDziga Vertov, pioneering documentary film director and writerBallet dancers and choreographersMain article: Russian ballet dancersIrina BaronovaGalina UlanovaIrina Baronova, ballerina, choreographerMikhail Baryshnikov, ballet dancerMaxim Beloserkovsky, dancerSergei Diaghilev, ballet impresarioIrina Dvorovenko, ballet dancerMichel Fokine, choreographer, dancerElizaveta Gerdt, ballerinaPavel Gerdt, dancerAlexander Godunov, ballet dancerVera Karalli, ballerina and actressTamara Karsavina, ballerinaMathilde Kschessinska, prima ballerinaLydia Lopokova, ballerinaNatalia Makarova, ballerinaVaslav Nijinsky, ballet dancer, choreographerIvan Novikoff, ballet masterRudolf Nureyev, ballet dancerValery Panov, ballet dancer, choreographerAnna Pavlova, ballerinaMaya Plisetskaya, ballerinaOlga Preobrajenska, ballerinaYuri Soloviev, ballet dancerGalina Ulanova, ballerinaAgrippina Vaganova, ballet teacherVera Volkova, ballerinaClassical composers and musiciansMain article: Russian composersAlexander BorodinValery GergievMikhail RostropovichDmitri ShostakovichPyotr Ilyich TchaikovskyAlexander Vasilyevich Alexandrov, composerAchilles Alferaki, composerAlexander Alyabyev, composerAnton Arensky, composerBoris Asafiev, composerMily Balakirev, composerBoris Berezovsky, pianistAlexander Borodin, composerSergei Bortkiewicz, composerDmytro Bortniansky, composerValeri Brainin, composer, musical scientistCésar Cui, composerAlexander Dargomyzhsky, composerEdison Denisov, composerAndrei Diev, pianistMichael L. Geller, composer, viola playerValery Gergiev, pianist, conductorEmil Gilels, pianistAlexander Glazunov, composerMikhail Glinka, composer of Russlan and LudmillaAlexander Goedicke, composerNikolai Golovanov, conductorAlexander Gretchaninoff, composerVladimir Horowitz, pianistMikhail Ippolitov-IvanovDmitry KabalevskyVasily KalinnikovAram KhachaturianTikhon Khrennikov, composerKyril Kondrashin, conductorLeonid Kogan, violinistAnatoly Konstantinovich Lyadov, composerSergei Lyapunov, composerNikolai Medtner, composer, pianistModest Mussorgsky, composer of Boris Godunov, Pictures at an ExhibitionNikolai Myaskovsky, composerMikhail Pletnev, composerGregor Piatigorsky, composerSergei Prokofiev, composerSergei Rachmaninoff, pianist, composer, conductorVadim Repin, violinistSviatoslav Richter, pianistNikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, composerMstislav Rostropovich, cellist, conductorGennady Rozhdestvensky, composerNikolai Rubinstein, pianist, conductor and composerVasily Ilyich Safonov, composer and music educatorAlfred Schnittke, composerAlexander Scriabin, composer and pianistDmitri Shostakovich, composerIgor Stravinsky, composerAlexander Serov, composerRodion Shchedrin, composerVissarion Shebalin, composerRegina Spektor, musicianGeorgy Sviridov, composerAndrei Sychra, composerAleksandr Taneyev, composerSergey Taneyev, composerMikael Tariverdiev, composerPyotr Tchaikovsky, composerBoris Tchaikovsky, composerAlexander Tcherepnin, composerGalina Ustvolskaya, composerMaxim Vengerov, violinistIvan Vïshnegradsky, composerOpera and choir singersMain article: Russian opera singersFeodor ChaliapinNikolay Baskov, opera singerEvgeny Belyaev, singerFeodor Chaliapin, opera singerAnna Netrebko, opera singerVladimir Rosing, singer, directorElizabeth Sandunova, opera singerDmitri Hvorostovsky, opera singerModern musicians and singersEduard KhilSasha Argov (1914–95), composerEduard Khil, singerYuri Antonov, composer, singerDima Bilan, singerTatyana Bulanova, singerLena Katina, singerSergey Lazarev, vocalistOriga, singer, performs theme songs for various anime seriesNatalia O'Shea, linguist, songwriter, musician (Irish harp, guitar), vocalist and leader of the bands Melnitsa (folk-rock) and Clann Lir (traditional Celtic folk)Aleksandra Pakhmutova, composerAlla Pugacheva, singer and composerRegina Spektor, musicianViktor Tsoy, poet, composer, musician, actor in the 1980sYulia Volkova, singerRadio and TV peopleIgor KirillovIvan UrgantAnatoly WassermanJoe Adamov, journalist and presenter on Radio Moscow and its successor the Voice of Russia for over 60 yearsNikolai Fomenko, musician, comic actor, showman and motor racer, president of Marussia Motors company which produces the first Russian supercar, MarussiaMaxim Galkin, parodist, singer and host for the Russian adaptations of Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? and The Million Pound DropIgor Kirillov, for 30 years a news anchor of the Soviet Central Television's prime time news program VremyaMikhail Leontyev, political pundit on national TV Channel One, host and author of the program OdnakoVladislav Listyev, arguably the most renown Russian journalist and TV anchor in the 1980s and 1990s, the first director of the Channel One, founder of the Pole Chudes and other popular TV showsAlexander Maslyakov, for over 45 years the host for the humour game show KVNYevgeny Petrosyan, popular stand-up comedian and host of a number of humour TV showsVladimir Posner, political pundit and host on radio and TV, for many years working in the United States, Soviet Union and RussiaYuri Senkevich, participant of Thor Heyerdahl's voyages, anchorman of the Travelers' Club show for the record 30 yearsKseniya Sobchak, TV celebrity, host for a number of popular programs, Russia's "It girl" and "Russia's Paris Hilton"Roman Trakhtenberg, actor, popular host of humour shows on radio and TV, an expert on Russian jokesVladimir Turchinsky, bodybuilder, TV and radio presenter, actor and singerIvan Urgant, showman and actor, host of many popular Russian TV shows and ceremonies, such as Projectorparishilton and 2009 Eurovision Song ContestVladimir Voroshilov, author, producer and anchorman of the intellectual game show What? Where? When?Leonid Yakubovich, actor and TV anchorman, the host for the Pole Chudes show for 20 yearsAnatoly Wasserman, erudite, journalist and political pundit, a frequent winner of intellectual TV games such as What? Where? When? and Svoya Igra (Russian version of Jeopardy!), Russian internet memeMikhail Zadornov, stand-up comedian and writer, particularly famous for his satirical comparisons of Russians and nationals of other countries, especially AmericansFashion modelsOxana FedorovaNatalia VodianovaIrina Antonenko, Miss Russia 2010Oxana Fedorova, Miss UniverseKsenia KahnovichPolina KouklinaTatiana KovylinaIrina KulikovaElena MelnikIrina PantaevaColette PechekhonovaSasha Pivovarova, SupermodelNatasha Polevshchikova, SupermodelVlada RoslyakovaAnna SeleznevaIrina ShaykhlislamovaKatja ShchekinaNatasha Stefanenko, model and actressDaria StrokousTatiana Sorokko, SupermodelTatiana UsovaNatalia Vodianova, SupermodelEugenia VolodinaAnne VyalitsynaValentina ZelyaevaInna ZobovaSportspeople Main article: List of Russian sportspeopleBoxersNatascha RagosinaLouis Kaplan ("Kid Kaplan"), world champion featherweight boxer, Hall of FameOleg Maskaev, professional boxer, former WBC Heavyweight ChampionNatascha Ragosina, boxing world championAlexander Povetkin, Olympic Gold medalistShamil Sabirov, Russia, Olympic Gold medalist light flyweightKostya Tszyu, professional boxer, former Undisputed Junior Welterweight championNikolai Valuev, professional boxer, former two-time WBA Heavyweight championChess playersMain article: Russian chess playersAlexander AlekhineYuri AverbakhLiudmila BelavenetsMark BluvshteinVitaly ChekhoverMikhail ChigorinMikhail BotvinnikMaxim DlugyYakov EstrinSemen FurmanIlya GurevichAnatoly KarpovGarry KasparovAlexander KhalifmanVictor KorchnoiAlexander KotovVladimir KramnikVladimir KramnikLjuba KristolAlla KushnirAnatoly LeinGrigory LevenfishIrina LevitinaVladimir LiberzonAndor LilienthalVadim MilovJacob MureyAlexander PetrovLev PsakhisIlya RabinovichVyacheslav RagozinMichael RoizPeter RomanovskyEmmanuel SchiffersLeonid ShamkovichVasily SmyslovBoris SpasskyPeter SvidlerMark TaimanovLeonid YudasinFencersMaria Mazina, épée fencer, Olympic Gold medalist, bronzeMark Midler, foil fencer, 2-time Olympic championMark Rakita, saber fencer, 2-time Olympic champion, 2-time silverYakov Rylsky, saber fencer, Olympic championSergey Sharikov, sabre fencer, two-time Olympic Gold medalist, silver, bronzeEduard Vinokurov, sabre fencer, 2-time Olympic Gold medalist, silverFigure skatersEvgeny PlushenkoIrina SlutskayaIlya Averbukh, ice dancer, Olympic silverLudmila Belousova, two-time Olympic pairs championEkaterina Gordeeva, two-time Olympic pairs championAleksandr Gorelik, pair skater, Olympic silver, World Championship 2-time silver, bronzeSergei Grinkov, two-time Olympic pairs championGennadi Karponossov, Olympic champion, 2-time World Champion, silver, 2-time bronze, ice dancer & coachEvgeny Plushenko, 2006 Olympic championOleg Protopopov, two-time Olympic pairs championIrina Slutskaya, two-time World Champion, 3-time silver, bronze, Olympic silver, bronzeMaxim Staviski, World Champion ice dancer, silver, bronzeAlexei Urmanov, 1994 Olympic championAlexei Yagudin, 2002 Olympic championGymnastsAlina KabaevaNikolai Andrianov, gymnast, world record for men for most Olympic medalsYanina Batyrchina, Olympic silver gymnastYelena Davydova, Olympic gymnastMaria Filatova, Olympic gymnastAlina Kabaeva, Olympic gymnastSvetlana Khorkina, Olympic gymnast. Known for her diva-like behavior. She is the most decorated gymnast though.Yevgeniya Kanayeva, Olympic gymnast.Sofia Muratova, Olympic gymnastAlexei Nemov, Olympic gymnastNatalia Shaposhnikova, Olympic gymnastYelena Shushunova, Olympic gymnastIrina Tchachina, Olympic gymnastAlexander Tkachyov, Olympic gymnastIce hockey playersViacheslav FetisovMaxim Afinogenov, NHL starYevgeny Babich, Olympic gold medalistIlya Bryzgalov, Phoenix Coyotes Goalie. Current NHL star.Pavel Bure, NHL starValeri BurePavel Datsyuk, NHL starVitaly Davydov, 3-time Olympic gold medalist, World & European champion 1963–71, runner-up 1972Sergei Gonchar, NHL starSergei Fedorov, NHL starViacheslav FetisovNikolai Khabibulin, NHL star goalieValeri KharlamovValeri Kharlamov, international ice hockey playerVladimir KonstantinovIlya Kovalchuk, NHL starAlexei KovalevVyacheslav KozlovAlfred Kuchevsky, Olympic champion 1956, bronze 1960; twice world champion.Oleg KvashaIgor LarionovVladislav TretiakEvgeni Malkin, NHL superstarSergei MakarovAndrei MarkovAlexander Ovechkin, NHL superstarAlexander Radulov, KHL superstarSemyon Varlamov, NHL GoalieVladimir Vladimirovich PetrovAlexei PonikarovskyAlexander Semin, NHL starVladislav Tretiak, goalieAlexander YakushevAlexie Yashin forwardYevgeni Zimin Olympic champion 1968–72, World & European champion 1968–69, 1971Viktor Zinger, Olympic champion 1968; world champion 1965–69Sergei ZubovSoccer playersAndrei ArshavinIgor Akinfeev, goalkeeperDmitri Alenichev, midfielderAndrei Arshavin, midfielder, strikerVladimir Beschastnykh, strikerKonstantin Beskov, striker, coachValentin Bubukin, midfielder, coachValentin Ivanov Sr., striker, coachGavriil Kachalin, midfielder, coachAndrei Kanchelskis, midfielderValery Karpin, midfielder, coachDmitri Kharine, goalkeeperAleksandr Mostovoi, midfielderLev YashinIgor Netto, defender, coachViktor Onopko, defenderSergei Ovchinnikov, goalkeeper, coachRoman Pavlyuchenko, strikerBoris Razinsky, goalkeeper/striker, Olympic Gold medal, managerOleg Salenko, strikerMordechai Spiegler, strikerEduard Streltsov, midfielder, strikerAndrey Tikhonov, midfielderLev Yashin, voted the best goalkeeper of the 20th century by the IFFHS.Valery Voronin, midfielderYuri Zhirkov, defender, midfielderTennis playersAnna KournikovaAndrei Chesnokov, former top 10 playerNikolay Davydenko, former consistent top 10 playerElena Dementieva, reached 2 Grand Slam finals in 2004 (French Open and U.S. Open), Silver Medal at the 2000 Summer Olympics and Gold Medal at the 2008 Summer OlympicsYevgeny Kafelnikov, former world no. 1 tennis playerMaria Kirilenko, winner of 5 WTA TitlesAnna Kournikova, former top 10 tennis player, celebrity, and modelSvetlana Kuznetsova, former world no. 2 tennis player. Won the 2004 U.S. Open and 2009 French OpenOlga Morozova, former world top 10 tennis player, reached 2 Grand Slam finals in 1974 (French Open and Wimbledon), winner of French Open doubles in the same yearAnastasia Myskina, former world no. 2 tennis player. Won the 2004 French Open (becoming the first Russian woman to win a grand slam title)Maria SharapovaNadia Petrova, former top 3 tennis playerMarat Safin, former world no. 1 tennis player. Won 2000 U.S. Open and 2005 Australian Open.Dinara Safina, former world no. 1 ladies tennis playerMaria Sharapova, former world no. 1 tennis player. Won 2004 Wimbledon at age of 17 as well as 2006 U.S. Open and 2008 Australian OpenMikhail Youzhny, tennis playerVera Zvonareva, 2 time Grand Slam finalistWeightliftersVasily Alexeev, Olympic weightlifter, set 80 World RecordsYuri Vlasov, weightlifter, 1960 Olympic Gold medalistArkady Vorobyov, weightlifter, two-time Olympic Gold medalistLeonid Zhabotinsky, weightlifter, two-time Olympic Gold medalistOther sportspeopleFedor EmelianenkoEvgeny Abalakov, mountaineer, made the first ascent of the highest point of the Soviet Union – Stalin Peak (later renamed)Vitaly Abalakov, mountaineer, given several Soviet sporting awardsInga Artamonova, 4-time world all-around speed skating championSemyon Belits-Geiman (born 1945), Olympic freestyle swimmerDavid Blatt, US college & Israeli professional guard; coach in Israel & Russia, Russian national basketball teamYuriy Borzakovskiy, track and field athlete, 2004 Olympic Gold medalistAnatoli Boukreev, mountaineer, 18 successful ascents on peaks above 8000 mIvan Demidov, professional poker player with over 6,000,000$ in tournament winningsFedor Emelianenko, The Heavyweight Champion of the W.A.M.M.A and the last holder of the Heavyweight champion of Pride Fighting ChampionshipsAlexander KarelinAlexander Gomelsky, head coach of USSR national team for 30 years, including victory in 1988 Summer Olympics, Naismith Basketball Hall of Fame, FIBA Hall of FameBoris Maksovich Gurevich, Olympic wrestling champion (Greco-Roman flyweight), 2-time world championYelena Isinbayeva, pole vaulter, two-time Olympic Gold medalistMaria Leontyavna Itkina, world-record-holding runnerAnastasiya Kapachinskaya, sprinter, 2008 Olympic Silver medalistSvetlana Kapanina, six times Champion in aerobatics at World Air Games, more than any other womanAlexander Karelin, Greco-Roman wrestling, championAndrei Kirilenko, NBA basketball playerAlex Kravchenko, professional poker player, first Russian to win a World Series of Poker braceletSvetlana Krivelyova, shot putter, 1992 Olympic Gold medalistJoe Magidsohn, American football halfbackMikhail Mamistov, powered and glider aerobatic pilotNatalya Nazarova, sprinter, winner of two Olympic medalsVitaly Petrov, Formula 1 driver, currently drives for Lotus Renault GPKirill Pishchalnikov, PBL, NCAA, basketball playerRoho (Soslan Boradzov), Sumo wrestler, obtained the rank of KomusubiNina Romashkova, discus thrower, the first Soviet Olympic ChampionLidia Skoblikova, speed skater, most Olympic medals in speed skatingLev Vainshtein, Olympic-medal-winning shooterLegendary and folk heroes Dobrynya Nikitich, Ilya Muromets and Alyosha PopovichAlyosha Popovich, young and cunning bogatyr of priest origin, defeated the dragon Tugarin Zmeyevich by trickeryBaba Yaga, a witch-like character in Russian folklore, flies around on a giant mortar and lives in the cabin on chicken legsDobrynya Nikitich, bogatyr of noble origin, defeated the dragon Zmey GorynychIlya Muromets, bogatyr of peasant origin, saint, the greatest of all the legendary bogatyrs, defeated the forest-dwelling monster Nightingale the Robber, defended Rus' from numerous attacks by the steppe peopleIvan Tsarevich, typical noble protagonist of Russian fairy tales, often engaged in a struggle with Koschei and rescuing young girlsIvan the Fool, typical simple-minded but lucky protagonist of Russian fairy talesKoschei "the Deathless", chief male antagonist of Russian fairy tales, an ugly senile sorceror and kidnapper of young maids, possesses immortalityNikita the Furrier, a town craftsman who released the daughter of Prince Vladimir the Fair Sun from the dragon's captivitySadko, musician and merchant from Veliky Novgorod, procured wealth and wife from the Sea Tsar by playing gusliSvyatogor, giant "sacred mountain" bogatyr, passed his strength to Ilya MurometsVasilisa the Beautiful, young, attractive and often cunning heroine of Russian fairy tales
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Lenin Coin Stamp Russian Ussr Cccp Cold Soviet Union World War I Ii Vintage Old: $3