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United States ArmyFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Us army)United States ArmyDepartment of the Army EmblemActive 14 June 1775 – presentCountry United States of AmericaType ArmySize 561,437 Active personnel566,364 Reserve and National Guard personnel1,127,801 total[1]Part of Department of War (1789–1947)Department of the Army (1947–present)Motto "This We'll Defend"Colors Black & GoldMarch "The Army Goes Rolling Along"Anniversaries Army Day (14 June)Engagements American Revolutionary WarIndian WarsWar of 1812Mexican–American WarUtah WarAmerican Civil WarSpanish-American WarPhilippine-American WarBanana WarsBoxer RebellionBorder WarWorld War IRussian Civil WarWorld War IIKorean WarOperation Power PackVietnam WarOperation Eagle ClawInvasion of GrenadaInvasion of PanamaPersian Gulf WarSomali Civil WarKosovo WarWar in AfghanistanIraq WarWebsite The Honorable John M. McHughChief of Staff Gen. Raymond T. OdiernoVice Chief of Staff Gen. John F. CampbellSergeant Major SMA Raymond F. ChandlerInsigniaUnited States Army Flag Identificationsymbol The United States Army (USA) is the main branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations. It is the largest and oldest established branch of the U.S. military, and is one of seven U.S. uniformed services. The modern army has its roots in the Continental Army which was formed on 14 June 1775,[2] to meet the demands of the American Revolutionary War before the establishment of the United States. The Congress of the Confederation officially created the United States Army on 3 June 1784[3][4] after the end of the Revolutionary War to replace the disbanded Continental Army. The army considers itself to be descended from the Continental Army and thus dates its inception from the origins of that force.[2]The primary mission of the army is "to fight and win our Nation’s wars by providing prompt, sustained land dominance across the full range of military operations and spectrum of conflict in support of combatant commanders."[5] The army is a military service within the Department of the Army, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense. The army is headed by the Secretary of the Army, and the top military officer in the department is the Chief of Staff of the Army. The highest ranking army officer is currently the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. During fiscal year 2011, the Regular Army reported a strength of 561,437 soldiers; the Army National Guard (ARNG) reported 361,561 and the United States Army Reserve (USAR) reported 204,803 putting the combined component strength total at 1,127,801 soldiers.[1]Contents 1 Mission2 History2.1 Origins2.2 19th century2.3 20th century2.4 21st century3 Organization3.1 Army components3.2 Army commands and army service component commands3.3 Structure3.4 Regular combat maneuver organizations3.5 Special operations forces4 Personnel4.1 Commissioned officers4.2 Warrant officers4.3 Enlisted personnel4.4 Training5 Equipment5.1 Weapons5.2 Vehicles5.3 Uniforms5.4 Tents6 Branch establishment6.1 Combat branches6.2 Combat support branches6.3 Combat Service support branches6.4 Special branches7 See also8 References9 Further reading10 External linksMission
The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U.S. Armed Forces. §3062 of Title 10 US Code defines the purpose of the army as:[6]Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United StatesSupporting the national policiesImplementing the national objectivesOvercoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United StatesHistory
Main article: History of the United States Army
This section may need to be cleaned up or summarized. This section has been split to History of the United States Army.OriginsStorming of Redoubt #10 during the Siege of YorktownThe Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Continental Congress as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander.[2] The army was initially led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them. As the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid, resources, and military thinking influenced the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught the army Prussian tactics and organizational skills.The army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South 1780-81 sometimes used the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, hitting where the enemy was weakest, to wear down the British forces. Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles around New York City in 1776 and Philadelphia in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown, and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British.After the war, though, the Continental Army was quickly given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army. The first of these, the Legion of the United States, was established in 1791 and disbanded in 1796.19th centuryThe War of 1812, the second and last American war against Britain, was less successful than the Revolution had been. An invasion of Canada failed, and U.S. troops were unable to stop the British from burning the new capital of Washington, D.C.. However, the Regular Army, under Generals Winfield Scott and Jacob Brown, proved they were professional and capable of defeating a British army in the Niagara campaign of 1814. Two weeks after a treaty was signed, Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and became a national hero. Per the treaty both sides returned to the status quo.The army's major campaign against the Indians was fought in Florida against Seminoles. It took long wars (1818-1858) to finally defeat the Seminoles and move them to Oklahoma. The usual strategy in Indian wars was to seize control of the Indians winter food supply, but that was no use in Florida where there was no winter. The second strategy was to form alliances with other Indian tribes, but that too is no use because the Seminoles had destroyed all the other Indians when they entered Florida in the late eighteenth century.[7]The U.S. Army fought and won the Mexican–American War (1846–1848), which was a defining event for both countries.[8] The U.S. victory resulted in acquisition of territory that eventually became all or parts of the states of California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, Wyoming and New Mexico.The Battle of Gettysburg, the turning point of the American Civil WarThe Civil War was the most costly war for the U.S. in terms of casualties. After most states in the South seceded to form the Confederate States of America, CSA troops opened fire on the Union-held Fort Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina, starting the war. Forces loyal to the United States were commonly called the Union Army during that war.For the first two years Confederate forces solidly defeated the U.S. Army, with a few exceptions.[9] The Confederates had the advantage of defending a very large country in an area where disease caused twice as many deaths as combat. The Union pursued a strategy of seizing the coastline, blockading the ports, and taking control of the river systems. By 1863 the Confederacy was being strangled. Its Eastern armies did very well in combat, but the western armies were defeated one after another until New Orleans was lost in 1862 along with the Tennessee River, the Mississippi River was lost in 1863, and Atlanta fell in 1864.[10] Grant took command of Union forces in 1864 and after a series of battles with very heavy casualties, he had Lee under siege in Richmond. Lee lost his Confederate capital in April 1865 and was captured at Appomatox Courthouse; the other Confederate armies quickly surrendered.The war remains the deadliest conflict in American history, resulting in the deaths of 620,000 soldiers. Based on 1860 census figures, 8% of all white males aged 13 to 43 died in the war, including 6% in the North and 18% in the South.[11]Following the Civil War, the U.S. Army fought a long battle with several western tribes of Native Americans, who refused to stay put on their reservations.By the 1890s the U.S. saw itself as a potential international player. U.S. victories in the Spanish–American War and the controversial and less well known Philippine–American War, as well as U.S. intervention in Latin America and the Boxer Rebellion, gained America more land and power.20th centuryAssault on a German bunker, France, circa 1918Starting in 1910, the army began acquiring fixed-wing aircraft.[12] In 1910, Mexico was having a civil war, peasant rebels fighting government soldiers. The army was deployed to American towns near the border to ensure safety to lives and property. In 1916, Pancho Villa, a major rebel leader, attacked Columbus, New Mexico, prompting a U.S. intervention in Mexico until 7 February 1917. They fought the rebels and the Mexican federal troops until 1918. The United States joined World War I in 1917 on the side of Britain, France, Russia, Italy and other allies. U.S. troops were sent to the front and were involved in the push that finally broke through the German lines. With the armistice in November 1918, the army once again decreased its forces.The U.S. joined World War II after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. On the European front, U.S. Army troops formed a significant portion of the forces that captured North Africa and Sicily. On D-Day and in the subsequent liberation of Europe and defeat of Nazi Germany, millions of U.S. Army troops played a central role. In the Pacific, army soldiers participated alongside U.S. Marines in capturing the Pacific Islands from Japanese control. Following the Axis surrenders in May (Germany) and August (Japan) of 1945, army troops were deployed to Japan and Germany to occupy the two defeated nations. Two years after World War II, the Army Air Forces separated from the army to become the United States Air Force in September 1947 after decades of attempting to separate. Also, in 1948 the army was desegregated.The end of the Second World War set the stage for the East–West confrontation known as the Cold War. With the outbreak of the Korean War, concerns over the defense of Western Europe rose. Two corps, V and VII, were reactivated under Seventh United States Army in 1950 and American strength in Europe rose from one division to four. Hundreds of thousands of U.S. troops remained stationed in West Germany, with others in Belgium, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, until the 1990s in anticipation of a possible Soviet attack.Soldiers of the 2nd Infantry Division man a machine gun during the Korean WarDuring the Cold War, American troops and their allies fought Communist forces in Korea and Vietnam. The Korean War began in 1950, when the Soviets walked out of a U.N. Security meeting, removing their possible veto. Under a United Nations umbrella, hundreds of thousands of U.S. troops fought to prevent the takeover of South Korea by North Korea, and later, to invade the northern nation. After repeated advances and retreats by both sides, and the PRC People's Volunteer Army's entry into the war, the Korean Armistice Agreement returned the peninsula to the status quo in 1953.The Vietnam War is often regarded[by whom?] as a low point for the army due to the use of drafted personnel, the unpopularity of the war with the American public, and frustrating restrictions placed on the military by American political leaders. While American forces had been stationed in the Republic of Vietnam since 1959, in intelligence & advising/training roles, they did not deploy in large numbers until 1965, after the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. American forces effectively established and maintained control of the "traditional" battlefield, however they struggled to counter the guerrilla hit and run tactics of the communist Viet Cong and the North Vietnamese Army. On a tactical level, American soldiers (and the U.S. military as a whole) did not lose a sizable battle.[13]An infantry patrol moves up to assault the last Viet Cong position at Dak To, South Vietnam after an attempted overrun of the artillery position by the Viet Cong during Operation HawthorneDuring the 1960s the Department of Defense continued to scrutinize the reserve forces and to question the number of divisions and brigades as well as the redundancy of maintaining two reserve components, the Army National Guard and the Army Reserve.[14] In 1967 Secretary of Defense McNamara decided that 15 combat divisions in the Army National Guard were unnecessary and cut the number to 8 divisions (1 mechanized infantry, 2 armored, and 5 infantry), but increased the number of brigades from 7 to 18 (1 airborne, 1 armored, 2 mechanized infantry, and 14 infantry). The loss of the divisions did not set well with the states. Their objections included the inadequate maneuver element mix for those that remained and the end to the practice of rotating divisional commands among the states that supported them. Under the proposal, the remaining division commanders were to reside in the state of the division base. No reduction, however, in total Army National Guard strength was to take place, which convinced the governors to accept the plan. The states reorganized their forces accordingly between 1 December 1967 and 1 May 1968.The Total Force Policy was adopted by Chief of Staff of the Army General Creighton Abrams in the aftermath of the Vietnam War and involves treating the three components of the army – the Regular Army, the Army National Guard and the Army Reserve as a single force.[15] Believing that no U.S. president should be able to take the United States (and more specifically the U.S. Army) to war without the support of the American people, General Abrams intertwined the structure of the three components of the army in such a way as to make extended operations impossible, without the involvement of both the Army National Guard and the Army Reserve.[16]The 1980s was mostly a decade of reorganization. The army converted to an all-volunteer force with greater emphasis on training and technology. The Goldwater-Nichols Act of 1986 created unified combatant commands bringing the army together with the other four military services under unified, geographically organized command structures. The army also played a role in the invasions of Grenada in 1983 (Operation Urgent Fury) and Panama in 1989 (Operation Just Cause).By 1989 Germany was nearing reunification and the Cold War was coming to a close. Army leadership reacted by starting to plan for a reduction in strength. By November 1989 Pentagon briefers were laying out plans to reduce army end strength by 23%, from 750,000 to 580,000.[17] A number of incentives such as early retirement were used. In 1990 Iraq invaded its smaller neighbor, Kuwait, and U.S. land forces, quickly deployed to assure the protection of Saudi Arabia. In January 1991 Operation Desert Storm commenced, a U.S.-led coalition which deployed over 500,000 troops, the bulk of them from U.S. Army formations, to drive out Iraqi forces. The campaign ended in total victory, as Western coalition forces routed the Iraqi Army, organized along Soviet lines, in just one hundred hours.After Desert Storm, the army did not see major combat operations for the remainder of the 1990s but did participate in a number of peacekeeping activities. In 1990 the Department of Defense issued guidance for "rebalancing" after a review of the Total Force Policy,[18] but in 2004, Air War College scholars concluded the guidance would reverse the Total Force Policy which is an "essential ingredient to the successful application of military force."[19]21st centuryU.S. Army and Iraqi Army soldiers patrol borders in Iraq, in November 2009After the September 11 attacks, and as part of the Global War on Terror, U.S. and NATO forces invaded Afghanistan in 2001, displacing the Taliban government.The U.S. Army led the combined U.S. and allied Invasion of Afghanistan in 2001, and Iraq in 2003. In the following years the mission changed from conflict between regular militaries to counterinsurgency, resulting in the deaths of more than 4,000 U.S service members (as of March 2008) and injuries to thousands more.[20][21] and 23,813 insurgents[22] were killed in Iraq between 2003–2011. The lack of stability in the theater of operations has led to longer deployments for Regular Army as well as Reserve and Guard troops.[citation needed]The army's chief modernization plan was the FCS program. Many systems were canceled and the remaining were swept into the BCT modernization program.[citation needed]Organization
Main article: Structure of the United States Armyorganization chart[23]Army componentsThe task of organizing the U.S. Army commenced in 1775.[24] In the first one hundred years of its existence, the United States Army was maintained as a small peacetime force to man permanent forts and perform other non-wartime duties such as engineering and construction works. During times of war, the U.S. Army was augmented by the much larger United States Volunteers which were raised independently by various state governments. States also maintained full-time militias which could also be called into the service of the army.U.S. generals, World War II, Europe.By the twentieth century, the U.S. Army had mobilized the U.S. Volunteers on four separate occasions during each of the major wars of the nineteenth century. During World War I, the "National Army" was organized to fight the conflict, replacing the concept of U.S. Volunteers.[25] It was demobilized at the end of World War I, and was replaced by the Regular Army, the Organized Reserve Corps, and the State Militias. In the 1920s and 1930s, the "career" soldiers were known as the "Regular Army" with the "Enlisted Reserve Corps" and "Officer Reserve Corps" augmented to fill vacancies when needed.[26]In 1941, the "Army of the United States" was founded to fight World War II. The Regular Army, Army of the United States, the National Guard, and Officer/Enlisted Reserve Corps (ORC and ERC) existed simultaneously. After World War II, the ORC and ERC were combined into the United States Army Reserve. The Army of the United States was re-established for the Korean War and Vietnam War and was demobilized upon the suspension of the draft.[26]Currently, the army is divided into the Regular Army, the Army Reserve, and the Army National Guard.[25] The army is also divided into major branches such as Air Defense Artillery, Infantry, Aviation, Signal Corps, Corps of Engineers, and Armor. Before 1903 members of the National Guard were considered state soldiers unless federalized (i.e., activated) by the President. Since the Militia Act of 1903 all National Guard soldiers have held dual status: as National Guardsmen under the authority of the governor of their state or territory and, when activated, as a reserve of the U.S. Army under the authority of the President.Since the adoption of the total force policy, in the aftermath of the Vietnam War, reserve component soldiers have taken a more active role in U.S. military operations. For example, Reserve and Guard units took part in the Gulf War, peacekeeping in Kosovo, Afghanistan, and the 2003 invasion of Iraq.Army commands and army service component commandsArmy commands Current commander Location of headquartersUnited States Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) GEN David M. Rodriguez Ft. Bragg, NCUnited States Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) GEN Robert W. Cone Ft. Eustis, VAUnited States Army Materiel Command (AMC) GEN Dennis L. Via Redstone Arsenal, ALArmy service component commands Current commander Location of headquartersUnited States Army Africa (USARAF) / Ninth US Army MG Patrick R. Donahue Vicenza, ItalyUnited States Army Central (ARCENT) / Third US Army LTG Vincent K. Brooks[27] Shaw AFB, SCUnited States Army North (ARNORTH) / Fifth US Army LTG William B. Caldwell Joint Base San Antonio, TXUnited States Army South (ARSOUTH) / Sixth US Army MG Frederick S. Rudesheim Joint Base San Antonio, TXUnited States Army Europe (USAREUR) / Seventh Army LTG Donald Campbell Wiesbaden Army Airfield, Wiesbaden, GermanyUnited States Army Pacific (USARPAC) LTG Francis J. Wiercinski[28] Ft. Shafter, HIUnited States Army Special Operations Command (USASOC) LTG John F. Mulholland, Jr. Ft. Bragg, NCSurface Deployment and Distribution Command (SDDC) MG Thomas J.Richardson[29] Scott AFB, ILUnited States Army Space and Missile Defense Command/ Army Strategic Command (USASMDC/ARSTRAT) LTG Richard P. Formica Redstone Arsenal, ALField army headquarters Current commander Location of headquartersEighth Army (EUSA) LTG John D. Johnson Yongsan Garrison, South KoreaDirect reporting units Current commander Location of headquartersUnited States Army Medical Command (MEDCOM) LTG Patricia D. Horoho Joint Base San Antonio, TXUnited States Army Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM) MG Stephen G. Fogarty Ft. Belvoir, VAUnited States Army Criminal Investigation Command (USACIDC) MG David E. Quantock Quantico, VAUnited States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) LTG Thomas P. Bostick Washington, D.C.United States Army Military District of Washington (MDW) MG Michael S. Linnington Ft. McNair, Washington, D.C.United States Army Test and Evaluation Command (ATEC) MG Genaro Dellarocco Alexandria, VAUnited States Military Academy (USMA) LTG David H. Huntoon West Point, NYUnited States Army Reserve Command (USARC) LTG Jeffrey W. Talley Ft. Bragg, NCUnited States Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) LTG Michael Ferriter Joint Base San Antonio, TXUnited States Army Cyber Command (ARCYBER)[30][31] / Second US Army LTG Rhett Hernandez Ft. Belvoir, VASource: U.S. Army organization[32]StructureMain article: Transformation of the United States ArmyThe United States Army is made up of three components: the active component, the Regular Army; and two reserve components, the Army National Guard and the Army Reserve. Both reserve components are primarily composed of part-time soldiers who train once a month, known as battle assemblies or unit training assemblies (UTAs), and conduct two to three weeks of annual training each year. Both the Regular Army and the Army Reserve are organized under Title 10 of the United States Code, while the National Guard is organized under Title 32. While the Army National Guard is organized, trained and equipped as a component of the U.S. Army, when it is not in federal service it is under the command of individual state and territorial governors; the District of Columbia National Guard, however, reports to the U.S. President, not the district's mayor, even when not federalized. Any or all of the National Guard can be federalized by presidential order and against the governor's wishes.[33]Graphic legend of Army TransformationThe army is led by a civilian Secretary of the Army, who has the statutory authority to conduct all the affairs of the army under the authority, direction and control of the Secretary of Defense.[34] The Chief of Staff of the Army, who is the highest-ranked military officer in the army, serves as the principal military adviser and executive agent for the Secretary of the Army, i.e. its service chief; and as a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, a body composed of the service chiefs from each of the four military services belonging to the Department of Defense who advise the President of the United States, the Secretary of Defense, and the National Security Council on operational military matters, under the guidance of the Chairman and Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.[35][36] In 1986, the Goldwater-Nichols Act mandated that operational control of the services follows a chain of command from the President to the Secretary of Defense directly to the unified combatant commanders, who have control of all armed forces units in their geographic or function area of responsibility. Thus, the secretaries of the military departments (and their respective service chiefs underneath them) only have the responsibility to organize, train and equip their service components. The army provides trained forces to the combatant commanders for use as directed by the Secretary of Defense.[37]1st Cavalry Division at the 2007 Rose ParadeThrough 2013, the army is shifting to six geographical commands that will line up with the six geographical unified combatant commands (COCOM):United States Army Central headquartered at Shaw Air Force Base, South CarolinaUnited States Army North headquartered at Fort Sam Houston, TexasUnited States Army South headquartered at Fort Sam Houston, TexasUnited States Army Europe headquartered at Campbell Barracks, GermanyUnited States Army Pacific headquartered at Fort Shafter, HawaiiUnited States Army Africa headquartered at Vicenza, Italy3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment soldiers on patrol in Iraq.The army is also changing its base unit from divisions to brigades. When finished, the active army will have increased its combat brigades from 33 to 48, with similar increases in the National Guard and Reserve forces. Division lineage will be retained, but the divisional headquarters will be able to command any brigade, not just brigades that carry their divisional lineage. The central part of this plan is that each brigade will be modular, i.e. all brigades of the same type will be exactly the same, and thus any brigade can be commanded by any division. There will be three major types of ground combat brigades:Armor brigades will have around 3,700 troops and be equivalent to a mechanized infantry or tank brigade.Stryker brigades will have around 3,900 troops and be based on the Stryker family of vehicles.Infantry brigades will have around 3,300 troops and be equivalent to a light infantry or airborne brigade.In addition, there are combat support and service support modular brigades. Combat support brigades include aviation (CAB) brigades, which will come in heavy and light varieties, fires (artillery) brigades, and battlefield surveillance brigades. Combat service support brigades include sustainment brigades and come in several varieties and serve the standard support role in an army.Regular combat maneuver organizationsThe U.S. Army currently consists of 10 active divisions as well as several independent units. The force is in the process of contracting after several years of growth, with up to eight combat brigades scheduled to deactivate due to budget cuts.Within the Army National Guard and United States Army Reserve there are a further eight divisions, over fifteen maneuver brigades, additional combat support and combat service support brigades, and independent cavalry, infantry, artillery, aviation, engineer, and support battalions. The Army Reserve in particular provides virtually all psychological operations and civil affairs units.Name Headquarters Subunits1st Armored Division Ft. Bliss, TX 2nd & 4th Heavy BCTs, 1st Stryker BCT, 3rd Infantry BCT (Light), and Combat Aviation Brigade (CAB).1st Cavalry Division Ft. Hood, TX 1st, 2nd, 3rd, & 4th Heavy BCTs, & CAB.1st Infantry Division Ft. Riley, KS 1st & 2nd Heavy BCTs, 4th Infantry BCT (Light), & CAB at Ft. Riley; 3rd Infantry BCT (Light) at Ft. Knox, KY.2nd Infantry Division Camp Red Cloud, South Korea 1st Heavy BCT at Camp Casey & CAB at Camp Humphreys, South Korea; 2nd, 3rd, & 4th Stryker BCTs at Joint Base Lewis-McChord, WA.3rd Infantry Division Ft. Stewart, GA 1st & 2nd Heavy BCTs, & 4th Infantry BCT (Light) at Fort Stewart, GA; 3rd Heavy BCT at Ft. Benning, GA, & CAB at Hunter Army Airfield, GA.4th Infantry Division Ft. Carson, CO 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Heavy BCTs, & 4th Infantry BCT (Light). CAB scheduled for activation in 2013.10th Mountain Division Ft. Drum, NY 1st, 2nd, 3rd Infantry BCTs (Light), & CAB at Fort Drum; 4th Infantry BCT (Light) at Ft. Polk, LA.25th Infantry Division Schofield Barracks, HI 1st Stryker BCT at Ft. Wainwright, AK; 2nd Stryker BCT & 3rd Infantry BCT (Light) at Schofield Barracks; CAB at Wheeler Army Airfield, HI; & 4th Infantry BCT (Airborne) at Joint Base Elmendorf-Richardson, AK.82nd Airborne Division Ft. Bragg, NC 1st, 2nd, 3rd, & 4th Infantry BCTs (Airborne), & CAB.101st Airborne Division Ft. Campbell, KY 1st, 2nd, 3rd & 4th Infantry BCTs (Air Assault), & 2 CABs.173rd Airborne Brigade Combat Team Vicenza, Italy Infantry BCT (Airborne): 2 airborne infantry battalions in Vicenza. 1 cavalry squadron in Schweinfurt, Germany. 1 special troops battalion, 1 airborne field artillery battalion & 1 support battalion at Warner Barracks in Bamberg, Germany.2nd Cavalry Regiment Vilseck, Germany Stryker BCT: 6 squadrons: 1st, 2nd & 3rd (Stryker Infantry), 4th (RSTA), Fires Squadron (3x6 155mm towed artillery), & Regimental Support Squadron; 5 troops: Regimental HQ, Military Intelligence, Signal, Engineer & Anti-Armor.3rd Cavalry Regiment Ft. Hood, TX Stryker BCT: 6 squadrons: 1st, 2nd & 3rd (Stryker Infantry), 4th (RSTA), Fires Squadron (3x6 155mm towed artillery), & Regimental Support Squadron; 5 troops: Regimental Headquarters, Military Intelligence, Signal, Engineer & Anti-Armor.11th Armored Cavalry Regiment Ft. Irwin, CA Heavy BCT. Two heavy combined arms sqaudrons and one support squadron augmented by a National Guard Artillery and Cavalry squadron. Also serves as Opposing Force (OPFOR) at National Training Center (NTC).Special operations forcesUS Army Special Operations Command (Airborne):Name Headquarters Structure and purposeSpecial Forces (Green Berets) Ft. Bragg, NC Seven groups (five active, two National Guard) capable of unconventional warfare, foreign internal defense, special reconnaissance, direct action, and counter-terrorism.John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Center and School Ft. Bragg, NC Selection & training for Special Forces, Civil Affairs & Military Information Support Operations Soldiers.75th Ranger Regiment (Rangers) Ft. Benning, GA Three maneuver battalions and one special troops battalion of elite airborne infantry specializing in direct action raids and airfield seizures.160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (Night Stalkers) Ft. Campbell, KY Four battalions, providing helicopter aviation support for general purpose forces and special operations forces.4th Military Information Support Group Ft. Bragg, NC Psychological operations unit, three battalions.8th Military Information Support Group Ft. Bragg, NC Psychological operations unit, three battalions.95th Civil Affairs Brigade Ft. Bragg, NC Four battalions.528th Sustainment Brigade (Special Operations) (Airborne) Ft. Bragg, NC1st Special Forces Operational Detachment-Delta (Delta Force) Ft. Bragg, NC Elite special operations & counter-terrorism unit.Personnel
Main articles: Ranks and Insignia of NATO, United States Army officer rank insignia, and United States Army enlisted rank insigniaThese are the U.S. Army ranks authorized for use today and their equivalent NATO designations. Although no living officer currently holds the rank of General of the Army, it is still authorized by Congress for use in wartime.Commissioned officersMain article: Commissioned OfficersThere are several paths to becoming a commissioned officer[38] including the United States Military Academy, Reserve Officers' Training Corps, and Officer Candidate School. Regardless of which road an officer takes, the insignia are the same. Certain professions, including physicians, pharmacists, nurses, lawyers, and chaplains are commissioned directly into the army and are designated by insignia unique to their staff community.Most army commissioned officers are promoted based on an "up or out" system. The Defense Officer Personnel Management Act of 1980 establishes rules for timing of promotions and limits the number of officers that can serve at any given time.Army regulation call for addressing all personnel with the rank of general as 'General (last name)' regardless of the number of stars. Likewise, both colonels and lieutenant colonels are addressed as 'Colonel (last name)' and first and second lieutenants as 'Lieutenant (last name).'[39]US DoD Pay Grade O-1 O-2 O-3 O-4 O-5 O-6 O-7 O-8 O-9 O-10 SpecialInsignia Title SecondLieutenant FirstLieutenant Captain Major LieutenantColonel Colonel BrigadierGeneral MajorGeneral LieutenantGeneral General General of theArmyAbbreviation 2LT 1LT CPT MAJ LTC COL BG MG LTG GEN GANATO Code OF-1 OF-2 OF-3 OF-4 OF-5 OF-6 OF-7 OF-8 OF-9 OF-10Note: General of the Army is reserved for wartime.[40]Warrant officersMain article: Warrant officersWarrant officers[38] are single track, specialty officers with subject matter expertise in a particular area. They are initially appointed as warrant officers (in the rank of WO1) by the Secretary of the Army, but receive their commission upon promotion to chief warrant officer two (CW2).By regulation, warrant officers are addressed as 'Mr. (last name)' or 'Ms. (last name).'[39] However, many personnel address warrant officers as 'Chief (last name)'. Enlisted soldiers say "sir" or "ma'am" when addressing them.US DoD pay grade W-1 W-2 W-3 W-4 W-5Insignia Title Warrant Officer 1 Chief Warrant Officer 2 Chief Warrant Officer 3 Chief Warrant Officer 4 Chief Warrant Officer 5Abbreviation WO1 CW2 CW3 CW4 CW5NATO Code WO-1 WO-2 WO-3 WO-4 WO-5Enlisted personnelMain article: Enlisted personnelSergeants and corporals are referred to as NCOs, short for non-commissioned officers[38][41]. This distinguishes them from specialists who might have the same pay grade, but not the leadership responsibilities.Privates (E1 and E2) and privates first class (E3) are addressed as 'Private (last name)', specialists as 'Specialist (last name), corporals as 'Corporal (last name)', and sergeants, staff sergeants, sergeants first class, and master sergeants all as 'Sergeant (last name).' First sergeants are addressed as 'First Sergeant (last name)' and all sergeants-major as 'Sergeant-Major (last name)'.[39]US DoD Pay grade E-1 E-2 E-3 E-4 E-5 E-6 E-7 E-8 E-9Insignia No Insignia Title Private Private PrivateFirst Class Specialist Corporal Sergeant StaffSergeant SergeantFirst Class MasterSergeant FirstSergeant SergeantMajor CommandSergeant Major Sergeant Majorof the ArmyAbbreviation PVT ¹ PV2 ¹ PFC SPC ² CPL SGT SSG SFC MSG 1SG SGM CSM SMANATO Code OR-1 OR-2 OR-3 OR-4 OR-4 OR-5 OR-6 OR-7 OR-8 OR-8 OR-9 OR-9 OR-9¹ PVT is also used as an abbreviation for both private ranks when pay grade need not be distinguished² SP4 is sometimes encountered in lieu of SPC for specialist. This is a holdover from when there were additional specialist ranks at higher pay grades.TrainingMarksmanship trainingTraining in the United States Army is generally divided into two categories – individual and collective.Basic training consists of 10 weeks for most recruits followed by AIT (Advanced Individualized Training) where they receive training for their MOS (military occupational specialties). While the length of AIT school varies by the MOS, some individuals MOS's range anywhere from 14–20 weeks of One Station Unit Training (OSUT), which combines Basic Training and AIT. The length of time spent in AIT depends on the MOS of the soldier. Depending on the needs of the army, Basic Combat Training is conducted at a number of locations, but two of the longest-running are the Armor School and the Infantry School, both at Fort Benning, Georgia. Following these basic and advanced training schools, soldiers may opt to continue with their training and apply for an "ASI" which stands for "additional skill identifier". The ASI allows the army to take a wide ranging MOS and taper it into a more unique MOS. For instance, take a combat medic whose duties are to provide pre-hospital emergency care. With an ASI the medic can receive additional training and become a cardiovascular specialist, a dialysis specialist or even a licensed practical nurse. For officers this training includes pre-commissioning training either at USMA, ROTC, or OCS. After commissioning, officers undergo branch specific training at the Basic Officer Leaders Course, (formerly called Officer Basic Course) which varies in time and location based on their future jobs. Further career development is available through the Army Correspondence Course Program.Collective training takes place both at the unit's assigned station, but the most intensive collective training takes place at the three combat training centers (CTC); the National Training Center (NTC) at Fort Irwin, California, the Joint Readiness Training Center (JRTC) at Fort Polk, Louisiana, and the Joint Multinational Training Center (JMRC) at the Hohenfels Training Area in Hohenfels, Germany. ARFORGEN is the Army Force Generation process approved in 2006 to handle the need for continuous replenishment of forces for deployment, at unit level, and for other echelons as required by the mission.Equipment
Main article: Equipment of the United States ArmyWeaponsWeapons from Vietnam and Desert Storm at the National Firearms Museum.[42]Individual weaponsThe army employs various individual weapons to provide light firepower at short ranges. The most common weapons used by the army are the compact variant of the M16 rifle, the M4 carbine,[43] as well as the 7.62x51 mm variant of the FN SCAR for Army Rangers. The primary sidearm in the U.S. Army is the 9 mm M9 pistol.[44]Many units are supplemented with a variety of specialized weapons, including the M249 SAW (squad automatic weapon), to provide suppressive fire at the fire-team level.[45] Indirect fire is provided by the M203 grenade launcher. The M1014 Joint Service Combat Shotgun or the Mossberg 590 Shotgun are used for door breaching and close-quarters combat. The M14EBR is used by long-range marksmen, and the M107 Long Range Sniper Rifle, the M24 Sniper Weapon System, and the M110 Semi-Automatic Sniper Rifle are used by snipers. Hand grenades, such as the M67 fragmentation grenade and M18 smoke grenade, are also used.Crew served weaponsThe army employs various crew-served weapons to provide heavy firepower at ranges exceeding that of individual weapons.The M240 is the army's standard medium machine gun.[46] The M2 heavy machine gun is generally used as a vehicle-mounted machine gun. In the same way, the 40 mm MK 19 grenade machine gun is mainly used by motorized units.[47]The army uses three types of mortar for indirect fire support when heavier artillery may not be appropriate or available. The smallest of these is the 60 mm M224, normally assigned at the infantry company level.[48] At the next higher echelon, infantry battalions are typically supported by a section of 81 mm M252 mortars.[49] The largest mortar in the army's inventory is the 120 mm M120/M121, usually employed by mechanized units.[50]Fire support for light infantry units is provided by towed howitzers, including the 105 mm M119A1[51] and the 155 mm M777 (which will replace the M198).[52]The army utilizes a variety of direct-fire rockets and missiles to provide infantry with an anti-armor capability. The AT4 is an unguided rocket that can destroy armor and bunkers at ranges up to 500 meters. The FIM-92 Stinger is a shoulder-launched, heat seeking anti-aircraft missile. The FGM-148 Javelin and BGM-71 TOW are anti-tank guided missiles.VehiclesHumveeThe army's most common vehicle is the High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV), commonly called the Humvee, which is capable of serving as a cargo/troop carrier, weapons platform, and ambulance, among many other roles.[53] While they operate a wide variety of combat support vehicles, one of the most common types centers on the family of HEMTT vehicles. The M1A2 Abrams is the army's main battle tank,[54] while the M2A3 Bradley is the standard infantry fighting vehicle.[55] Other vehicles include the M3A3 Bradley, the Stryker,[56] and the M113 armored personnel carrier,[57] and multiple types of Mine Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) vehicles.The U.S. Army's principal artillery weapons are the M109A6 Paladin self-propelled howitzer[58] and the M270 Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS),[59] both mounted on tracked platforms and assigned to heavy mechanized units.While the U.S. Army operates a few fixed-wing aircraft, it mainly operates several types of rotary-wing aircraft. These include the AH-64 Apache attack helicopter,[60] the OH-58D Kiowa Warrior armed reconnaissance/light attack helicopter,[61] the UH-60 Black Hawk utility tactical transport helicopter,[62] and the CH-47 Chinook heavy-lift transport helicopter.[63]Fixed wing aircraft used by the US Army are for non-front line combat and light transport roles. The army relies on the United States Air Force for airlift capabilities.UniformsMain article: Uniforms of the United States ArmyThe Army Combat Uniform, or ACU, currently features a digital Universal CamouFlage Pattern (UCP) and is designed for use in woodland, desert, and urban Environments. However, Soldiers operating in Afghanistan are being issued a fire-resistant ACU with the "MultiCam" pattern, officially known as Operation Enduring Freedom CamouFlage Pattern or "OCP".[64]A US Army Ranger performing MOUT training in ACU combat gear.The standard garrison service uniform is known as Army Greens or Class-As and has been worn by all officers and enlisted personnel since its introduction in 1956 when it replaced earlier olive drab (OD) and khaki (and tan worsted or TW) uniforms worn between the 1950s and 1985. The Army Blue uniform, dating back to the mid-19th century, is currently the Army's formal dress uniform, but in 2014, it will replace the Army Green and the Army White uniforms (a uniform similar to the Army Green uniform, but worn in tropical postings) and will become the new Army Service Uniform, which will function as both a garrison uniform (when worn with a white shirt and necktie) and a dress uniform (when worn with a white shirt and either a necktie for parades or a bow tie for after six or black tie events). The beret (having been permanently replaced with the patrol cap) is no longer worn with the new ACU for garrison duty. After years of complaints that it wasn't suited well for most work conditions, Army Chief of Staff General Martin Dempsey eliminated it for wear with the ACU in June 2011 with exception to soldiers who are currently in an airborne unit (maroon beret), Rangers (tan beret), and Special Forces (green beret) and with the Army Service Uniform for non-ceremonial functions. Unit commanders may still direct the wear of patrol caps in these units in training Environments or motorpools.Personal armor in most units is the Improved Outer Tactical Vest and the Advanced Combat Helmet.TentsMain article: TentA DRASH maintenance facility in Iraq.The army has relied heavily on tents to provide the various facilities needed while on deployment. The most common tent uses for the military are as temporary barracks (sleeping quarters), DFAC buildings (dining facilities), forward operating bases (FOBs), after action review (AAR), tactical operations center (TOC), morale, welfare, and recreation (MWR) facilities, and security checkpoints. Furthermore, most of these tents are set up and operated through the support of Natick Soldier Systems Center.The U.S. military is beginning to use a more modern tent called the deployable rapid assembly shelter or DRASH. In 2008, DRASH became part of the Army's Standard Integrated Command Post System.[65]Branch establishment
The U.S. Army was officially founded on 14 June 1775, when the Continental Congress authorized enlistment of riflemen to serve the United Colonies for one year. Each branch of the army has a different branch insignia.Combat branchesInfantry, 14 June 1775Ten companies of riflemen were authorized by a resolution of the Continental Congress on 14 June 1775. However, the oldest Regular Army infantry regiment, the 3rd Infantry Regiment, was constituted on 3 June 1784, as the First American Regiment.Armor, 12 June 1776The Armor Branch traces its origin to the Cavalry. A regiment of cavalry was authorized to be raised by the Continental Congress Resolve of 12 December 1776. Although mounted units were raised at various times after the Revolution, the first in continuous service was the United States Regiment of Dragoons, organized in 1833. The Tank Service was formed on 5 March 1918. The Armored Force was formed on 10 July 1940. Armor became a permanent branch of the army in 1950.Field Artillery, 17 November 1775The Continental Congress unanimously elected Henry Knox "Colonel of the Regiment of Artillery" on 17 November 1775. The regiment formally entered service on 1 January 1776.Air Defense Artillery, 20 June 1968The Air Defense Artillery branch descended from the Anti-Aircraft Artillery (part of the U.S. Army Coast Artillery Corps) into a separate branch on 20 June 1968.Aviation, 12 April 1983Following the establishment of the U.S. Air Force as a separate service in 1947, the army began to develop further its own aviation assets (light planes and rotary wing aircraft) in support of ground operations. The Korean War gave this drive impetus, and the war in Vietnam saw its fruition, as army aviation units performed a variety of missions, including reconnaissance, transport, and fire support. After the war in Vietnam, the role of armed helicopters as tank destroyers received new emphasis. In recognition of the growing importance of aviation in army doctrine and operations, aviation became a separate branch on 12 April 1983.Special Forces, 9 April 1987The first special forces unit in the Army was formed on 11 June 1952, when the 10th Special Forces Group was activated at Fort Bragg, North Carolina. A major expansion of special forces occurred during the 1960s, with a total of eighteen groups organized in the Regular Army, Army Reserve, and Army National Guard. As a result of renewed emphasis on special operations in the 1980s, the Special Forces Branch was established as a basic branch of the army effective 9 April 1987, by General Order No. 35, 19 June 1987. Special forces are part of U.S. special operations forcesCombat support branchesCorps of Engineers, 16 June 1775Continental Congress authority for a "Chief Engineer for the Army" dates from 16 June 1775. A corps of engineers for the United States was authorized by the Congress on 11 March 1789. The Corps of Engineers as it is known today came into being on 16 March 1802, when the President was authorized to "organize and establish a Corps of Engineers … that the said Corps … shall be stationed at West Point in the State of New York and shall constitute a Military Academy." A Corps of Topographical Engineers, authorized on 4 July 1838, was merged with the Corps of Engineers on March 1863.Signal Corps, 21 June 1860The Signal Corps was authorized as a separate branch of the army by act of Congress on 3 March 1863. However, the Signal Corps dates its existence from 21 June 1860, when Congress authorized the appointment of one signal officer in the army, and a War Department order carried the following assignment: "Signal Department – Assistant Surgeon Albert J. Myer to be Signal Officer, with the rank of Major, 27 June 1860, to fill an original vacancy."Chemical Corps, 28 June 1918The Chemical Warfare Service was established on 28 June 1918, combining activities that until then had been dispersed among five separate agencies of government. It was made a permanent branch of the Regular Army by the National Defense Act of 1920. In 1945, it was re-designated the Chemical Corps.Military Police Corps, 26 September 1941A Provost Marshal General's Office and Corps of Military Police were established in 1941. Prior to that time, except during the Civil War and World War I, there was no regularly appointed Provost Marshal General or regularly constituted Military Police Corps, although a "Provost Marshal" can be found as early as January 1776, and a "Provost Corps" as early as 1778.Military Intelligence Corps, 1 July 1962Intelligence has been an essential element of army operations during war as well as during periods of peace. In the past, requirements were met by personnel from the Army Intelligence and Army Security Reserve branches, two-year obligated tour officers, one-tour levies on the various branches, and Regular Army officers in the specialization programs. To meet the army's increased requirement for national and tactical intelligence, an Intelligence and Security Branch was established effective 1 July 1962, by General Order No. 38, on 3 July 1962. On 1 July 1967, the branch was re-designated as Military Intelligence.Combat Service support branchesAdjutant General's Corps, 16 June 1775The post of Adjutant General was established 16 June 1775, and has been continuously in operation since that time. The Adjutant General's Department, by that name, was established by the act of 3 March 1812, and was redesignated the Adjutant General's Corps in 1950.Finance Corps, 16 June 1775The Finance Corps is the successor to the old Pay Department, which was created in June 1775. The Finance Department was created by law on 1 July 1920. It became the Finance Corps in 1950.Quartermaster Corps, 16 June 1775The Quartermaster Corps, originally designated the Quartermaster Department, was established on 16 June 1775. While numerous additions, deletions, and changes of function have occurred, its basic supply and service support functions have continued in existence.Ordnance Corps, 14 May 1812The Ordnance Department was established by act of Congress on 14 May 1812. During the Revolutionary War, ordnance material was under supervision of the Board of War and Ordnance. Numerous shifts in duties and responsibilities have occurred in the Ordnance Corps since colonial times. It acquired its present designation in 1950. Ordnance soldiers and officers provide maintenance and ammunition support.Transportation Corps, 31 July 1942The history of the Transportation Corps starts with World War I. Prior to that time, transportation operations were chiefly the responsibility of the Quartermaster General. The Transportation Corps, essentially in its present form, was organized on 31 July 1942. The Transportation Corps is headquartered at Fort Lee, Virginia.[66]Civil Affairs Corps, 16 October 2006The Civil Affairs/Military Government Branch in the Army Reserve Branch was established as a special branch on 17 August 1955. Subsequently redesignated the Civil Affairs Branch on 2 October 1955, it has continued its mission to provide guidance to commanders in a broad spectrum of activities ranging from host-guest relationships to the assumption of executive, legislative, and judicial processes in occupied or liberated areas. Became a basic branch effective 16 October 2006 per General Order 29, on 12 January 2007.Psychological Operations, 16 October 2006Established as a basic branch effective 16 October 2006 per General Order 30, 12 January 2007.Logistics, 1 January 2008Established by General Order 6, 27 November 2007. Consists of multi-functional logistics officers in the rank of captain and above, drawn from the Ordnance, Quartermaster and Transportation Corps.Special branchesArmy Medical Department, 27 July 1775The Army Medical Department and the Medical Corps trace their origins to 27 July 1775, when the Continental Congress established the army hospital headed by a "Director General and Chief Physician." Congress provided a medical organization of the army only in time of war or emergency until 1818, which marked the inception of a permanent and continuous Medical Department. The Army Organization Act of 1950 renamed the Medical Department as the Army Medical Service. In June 1968, the Army Medical Service was re-designated the Army Medical Department. The Medical Department has the following branches:Medical Corps, 27 July 1775Army Nurse Corps, 2 February 1901Dental Corps, 3 March 1911Veterinary Corps, 3 June 1916Medical Service Corps, 30 June 1917Army Medical Specialist Corps, 16 April 1947Chaplain Corps, 29 July 1775The legal origin of the Chaplain Corps is found in a resolution of the Continental Congress, adopted 29 July 1775, which made provision for the pay of chaplains. The Office of the Chief of Chaplains was created by the National Defense Act of 1920.Judge Advocate General's Corps, 29 July 1775The Office of Judge Advocate of the army may be deemed to have been created on 29 July 1775, and has generally paralleled the origin and development of the American system of military justice. The Judge Advocate General Department, by that name, was established in 1884. Its present designation as a corps was enacted in 1948.See also
United States Army portal Military of the United States portalAmerica's Army (Video games for recruitment)Army National GuardComparative military ranksList of active United States military aircraftList of former United States Army medical unitsOfficer Candidate School (United States Army)ROTC / JROTCTimeline of United States military operationsTransformation of the United States ArmyUnited States Military AcademyUnited States Army Basic TrainingUnited States Army Center of Military HistoryU.S. Soldier's CreedUnited States VolunteersVehicle markings of the United States militaryWarrant Officer Candidate School (United States Army)References

Keep reading from some additional info about Freemasonry...



Freemasonry is the premier fraternal organization in the world, with lodges in almost every country in the free world.It is open to men of adult age of any color, any religion, nationality or social standing. The only requirement of its members is a belief in a Supreme Being. The goal of Freemasonry is to enhance and strengthen the character of the individual man by providing opportunities for fellowship, charity, education, and leadership based on the three ancient Masonic tenets, Brotherly Love, Relief and Truth.

Freemasonryhas a long and praiseworthy tradition, dating back centuries. The first lodge in North America was the Provincial Grand Lodge of Masons in Massachusetts, organized under the Henry Price, who met at the Bunch of Grapes Tavern in Boston. North American Freemasons have been helping to build better communities ever since. Many of America’s early Patriots were Masons. General Joseph Warren, who gave his life at Bunker Hill and Paul Revere were both Grand Masters of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts. Others are listed below in the "famous Freemasons section".

Quick History of Freemasonry

Although the actual origins of Freemasonry are clouded in the mists of antiquity, it is widely agreed that Masonry dates back to the late fourteenth century and flourished during the middle ages when guilds of Masons traveled throughout Europe building the great gothic cathedrals. Apprentices were taken in and taught the craft by Master Masons who passed on the secrets of the trade. As building declined, the guilds began to accept members who were not actually stone Masons. From these roots evolved Masonry, as we know it today.

Click on the drawing for a larger picture of the Masonic family. ^

[ Quote source: Information "located here between the blue lines" is from:Freemasonryfrom Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved October 19,2005, The following is a deriviation from and is used with permission and in accordance with Wikipedia's copyright policy and licensing requirements under the GFDL. Text in Wikipedia has been released under theGNU Free Documentation License(or is in thepublic domain), and can therefore be reused only if you release any derived work under the GFDL. This requires that, among other things, you attribute the authors and allow others to freely copy your work.

Ritual and symbols

The Freemasons rely heavily on the architectural symbolism of the medieval operative Masons who actually worked in stone. One of their principal symbols is the square and Compasses, tools of the trade, so arranged as to form a quadrilateral. The square is sometimes said to represent matter, and the compasses spirit or mind. Alternatively, the square might be said to represent the world of the concrete, or the measure of objective reality, while the compasses represent abstraction, or subjective judgment, and so forth (Freemasonry being non-dogmatic, there is no written-in-stone interpretation for any of these symbols). Often the compasses straddle the square, representing the interdependence between the two. In the space between the two, there is optionally placed a symbol of metaphysical significance. Sometimes, this is a blazing star or other symbol of Light, representing Truth or knowledge. Alternatively, there is often a letter G placed there, usually said to represent God and/or Geometry.
The square and compasses are displayed at all Masonic meetings, along with the open Volume of the Sacred Law (or Lore) (VSL). In English-speaking countries, this is usually a Holy Bible, but it can be whatever book(s) of inspiration or scripture that the members of a particular Lodge or jurisdiction feel they draw on—whether the Bible, the Qur'an, or other Volumes. A candidate for a degree will normally be given his choice of VSL, regardless of the Lodge's usual VSL. In many French Lodges, the Masonic Constitutions are used. In a few cases, a blank book has been used, where the religious makeup of a Lodge was too diverse to permit an easy choice of VSL. In addition to its role as a symbol of written wisdom, inspiration, and spiritual revelation, the VSL is what Masonic obligations are taken upon.
Much of Masonic symbolism is mathematical in nature, and in particular geometrical, which is probably a reason Freemasonry has attracted so many rationalists (such as Voltaire, Fichte, Goethe, George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, Mark Twain and many others). No particular metaphysical theory is advanced by Freemasonry, however, although there seems to be some influence from the Pythagoreans, from Neo-Platonism, and from early modern Rationalism.
In keeping with the geometrical and architectural theme of Freemasonry, the Supreme Being (or God, or Creative Principle) is sometimes also referred to in Masonic ritual as the Grand Geometer, or the Great Architect of the Universe (GAOTU). Freemasons use a variety of labels for this concept in order to avoid the idea that they are talking about any one religion's particular God or God-like concept.


There are three initial degrees of Freemasonry:

  • Entered Apprentice
  • Fellow Craft
  • Master Mason

As one works through the degrees, one studies the lessons and interprets them for oneself. There are as many ways to interpret the rituals as there are Masons, and no Mason may dictate to any other Mason how he is to interpret them. No particular truths are espoused, but a common structure—speaking symbolically to universal human archetypes—provides for each Mason a means to come to his own answers to life's important questions. Especially in Europe, Freemasons working through the degrees are asked to prepare papers on related philosophical topics, and present these papers in an open Lodge, where others may judge the suitability of the candidates' ascension through the higher degrees.

History of Freemasonry -Main article:History of Freemasonry

Freemasonry has been said to be an institutional outgrowth of the medieval guilds of stonemasons (1), a direct descendant of the "Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and the Temple of Solomon in Jerusalem" (the Knights Templar) (2), an offshoot of the ancient Mystery schools (1), an administrative arm of the Priory of Sion (3), the Roman Collegia (1), the Comacine masters (1), intellectual descendants of Noah (1), and many other various and sundry origins. Others claim that it dates back only to the late 17th century in England, and has no real connections at all to earlier organizations. These theories are noted in numerous different texts, and the following are but examples pulled from a sea of books:Much of the content of these books is highly speculative, and the precise origins of Freemasonry may very well be lost in either an unwritten or a created history. It is thought by many that Freemasonry cannot be a straightforward outgrowth of medieval guilds of stonemasons. Amongst the reasons given for this conclusion, well documented in Born in blood, are the fact that stonemasons' guilds do not appear to predate reasonable estimates for the time of Freemasonry's origin, that stonemasons lived near their worksite and thus had no need for secret signs to identify themselves, and that the "Ancient Charges" of Freemasonry are nonsensical when thought of as being rules for a stonemasons' guild.Freemasonry is said by some, especially amongst Masons practising the York Rite, to have existed at the time of King Athelstan of England, in the 10th century C.E. Athelstan is said by some to have been converted to Christianity in York, and to have issued the first Charter to the Masonic Lodges there. This story is not currently substantiated (the dynasty had already been Christian for centuries).A more historically reliable (although still not unassailable) source asserting the antiquity of Freemasonry is the Halliwell Manuscript, or Regius Poem, which is believed to date from ca. 1390, and which makes reference to several concepts and phrases similar to those found in Freemasonry. The manuscript itself refers to an earlier document, of which it seems to be an elaboration.There is also the Cooke Manuscript, which is said to be dated 1430 and contained the Constitution of German stonemasons(4), but the first appearance of the word 'Freemason' occurs in the Statutes of the Realm enacted in 1495 by Henry VII, however, most other documentary evidence prior to the 1500s appears to relate entirely to operative Masons rather than speculative ones.1583 is the date of the Grand Lodge manuscript(4), and more frequent mention of lodges is made in documents from this time onwards. The Schaw Statues of 1598-9(4) are the source used to declare the precedence of Kilwinning Lodge in Edinburgh, Scotland over St. Mary's (or Principal) Lodge. As a side note, Kilwinning is called Kilwinning #0 because of this very conundrum. Quite soon thereafter, a charter was granted to Sir William St. Clair (later Sinclair) of Roslin (Rosslyn), allowing him to purchase jurisdiction over a number of lodges in Edinburgh and environs (4), which is the basis of the Templar myth surrounding Rosslyn Chapel.Another key figure in Masonic history was Elias Ashmole (1617-1692), who was made a Mason in 1646, although Speculative Masons were being admitteed into Lodges as early as 1634. There appears to be a general spread of the Craft during this time, but the next key date is 1717.In 1717, four Lodges which met, respectively, at the "Apple-Tree Tavern, the Crown Ale-House near Drury Lane, the Goose and Gridiron in St. Paul's Churchyard, and the Rummer and Grapes Tavern in Westminster" in London, England (as recounted in (2)) joined together and formed the first Grand Lodge, the Grand Lodge of England (GLE). The years following saw new Grand Lodges open throughout England and Europe, as the new Freemasonry spread rapidly. How much of this was the spreading of Freemasonry itself, and how much was the public organization of pre-existing secret Lodges, is not possible to say with certainty. The GLE in the beginning did not have the current three degrees, but only the first two. The third degree appeared, so far as we know, around 1725.

Concordant and Appendant Bodies

Freemasonry is associated with severalappendant bodies, such as the:

  • Scottish Rite-The Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite is a worldwide Masonic fraternity. The Scottish Rite is one of the two main branches of Freemasonry in which a Master Mason may decide to join for further exposure to Masonic knowledge. The other main branch is the York Rite. The Scottish Rite claims to build upon the ethical teachings and philosophy of Blue Lodge Masonry through dramatic presentation. To this end, the Rite confers twenty-nine degrees, from the fourth through the thirty-second. Notable members of this order include Albert Pike, Buzz Aldrin, Bob Dole, John Wayne, and Michael Richards.The Degrees

    Difficult for non-Masons to comprehend, completion of the first three Masonic degrees represents the attainment of the highest rank in all of Masonry. Any third degree Master Mason stands as an equal before every other Master Mason, regardless of position, class, or degree. For this reason, the higher degrees are sometimes referred to as appendent degrees. Appendent degrees represent a lateral movement in Masonic Education rather than an upward movement.

    The core of the Scottish Rite is a series of 29 degrees, numbered from 4 to 32, which expand upon the morals, teachings, and philosophy of the first three degrees. These are not degrees of rank, but rather degrees of instruction.

    The 33rd degree is an honorary degree in recognition of outstanding service. It is conferred on brethren who have made major contributions to society or to Masonry in general.

    The titles of the degrees are as follows:

    • Blue Lodge or Craft Lodge
    1° Entered Apprentice2° FellowCraft3° Master Mason
    • Lodge of Secret Master5° Perfect Master6° Intimate Secretary7° Provost and Judge8° Intendant of the Building9° Elu of the Nine10° Elu of the Fifteen11° Elu of the Twelve12° Grand Master Architect13° Royal Arch of Solomon (Knight of the Ninth Arch)14° Perfect Elu (Grand Elect, Perfect and Sublime Mason)
      • Rose Knight of the East, of the Sword or the Eagle16° Prince of Jerusalem17° Knight of the East and West18° Knight of the Rose Croix
        • Council of Grand Pontiff20° Master of the Symbolic Lodge21° Noachite, or Prussian Knight22° Knight of the Royal Axe (Prince of Libanus)23° Chief of the Tabernacle24° Prince of the Tabernacle25° Knight of the Brazen Serpent26° Prince of Mercy27° Knight Commander of the Temple28° Knight of the Sun (Prince Adept)29° Scottish Knight of Saint Andrew30° Knight Inspector Inquisitor32° Master of the Royal Secret
          • Supreme Inspector General

            Charitable Work

            The Scottish Rite fully operates, and pays for all patient care, for theTexas Scottish Rite Hospital for Childrenand theScottish Rite Children's Medical Center in Atlanta, Georgia

          • York Rite -The York Rite is one of the two main branches of Freemasonry in the United States which a Master Mason may decide to join for further exposure to Masonic knowledge, the other branch being the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. Some obediences of the Scottish Rite may confer some of these degrees in countries where the York Rite is not active. The divisions within the York Rite and the requirements for membership differ from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, but the essentials are the same. In all the workings the one requirement is that all applicants be in possession of the third degree, that of Master Mason.As in other Masonic bodies, the York Rite uses drama to demonstrate the lessons and special qualities of the degrees and has several various means of identification, such as grips or tokens (handshakes), signs and words.The bodies of the York Rite are:
            • Royal Arch Masonry
            • Cryptic York Rite Sovereign College
            • Knight of York
            • Order of the Red Cross of Constantine

            Royal Arch Masonry
            The Chapter works the following degrees:Mark Master Mason:In some jurisdictions this degree is conferred in a Fellow Craft Lodge, that is, the second degree of the Blue Lodge.
            Past Master (Virtual):this degree is conferred because of the traditional requirement that only Past Masters of a Blue Lodge may be admitted to Holy Royal Arch. Because there are so many applicants for this degree, Virtual Past Master is required to qualify them for it. Much of the secret work is the same given to the new Worshipful Master of a Blue Lodge.
            Most Excellent Master:In this degree the building of King Solomon's Temple which figures so prominently in Craft Masonry, has been completed.
            Holy Royal Arch:Possibly the most beautiful degree in all of Freemasonry. In the UK it is conferred in a 'chapter' attached to a Craft Lodge which is in keeping with an article in the Constitutions of the United Grand Lodge of England. The constitutions describe the Royal Arch being part of ‘pure and ancient Masonry’ this is defined as the three degrees of the Craft viz. Entered Apprentice, Fellow Craft and Master Mason with the additon of the Supreme Order of the Holy Royal Arch.Cryptic Masonry
            The Council of Royal and Select Masters is not required for membership in the Commandery that follows, so it is frequently skipped. It is called Cryptic Masonry because a crypt or underground room figures prominently in the degrees. This Body is also called the Cryptic Rite. The degrees are:Royal Master
            Select Master
            Super Excellent Master:Actually the legend of this degree has nothing to do with a crypt. It is an optional degree.

            Knights Templar

            (This body is called a Commandery in the United States and a Preceptory in Canada) It has three orders:

            • Illustrious Order of the Red Cross Knight of York
            • Order of Malta
            • Order of the Temple, consisting of three York Rite Sovereign College

              An invitational Masonic body open to members who are members of all four York Rite Bodies and who have shown exceptional proficiency in them. The College confers only one degree:

              • Knight of York

              The following is outside the system of degrees of the York Rite, but is considered closely allied to it.Order of the Red Cross of Constantine
              The Conclave is an invitational Masonic body open to members of York Rite Masonry and by special dispensation to Sublime Princes of the Royal Secret, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite.

              • Knight of the Red Cross of Constantine
              • Knight of the Holy Sepulchre
              • Knight of Saint John the style="font-family: Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: small;">Another large, important body is:

                • Shriners- The Shriners, or Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, are an Order appendant to Freemasonry. Until 2000, one had to complete the Scottish Rite or York Rite degrees of Masonry to be eligible for Shrine membership, but now any Master Mason can join.The Shrine was established in New York City in the 1870s as the fun part of the Masonic movement. The group adopted a theme of the Middle East and soon established "Temples" meeting in "Mosques" across the continent. Another Masonic group, the Mysterious Order of the Veiled Prophet of the Enchanted Realm (known colloquially as the "Grotto") had adopted a similar theme in 1890. The theme was the rage at the time and alluded to the mystery and ceremony of the "Arabian Nights" with its elaborate parties and frolic. The basic idea was an organization of fun.The Shrine shares the basic requirement with the Freemasons that a petitioner must profess a belief in a supreme being. Therefore, men of countless creeds and nations have joined the fraternity throughout its history. However, the word "Temple" has now been replaced by "Shriners" when refering to the local Shrine Centers. (Example: Mahi Temple is now Mahi Shriners) This is to help the public understand that the Shrine is a men's fraternity rather than a religion or religious group. There are 500,000 Nobles belonging to 191 Shrine Centers in the United States, Canada, Mexico and Panama.

                The Shriners often participate in local parades riding comedy versions of cars and motorcycles. They are recognizable by their elaborate red fezzes. If one researches further, it will be discovered that the Shrinershave been instrumental in community projects throughout its domain. Countless public projects have been supported by the local Shriners who are committed to community service.Once a year, the fraternity meets for the Imperial Council Session in a major North American city. It is not uncommon for these conventions to have 20,000 participants or more, which generates a handsome revenue contribution to the local economy.The Shrine's charitable arm is the Shriners Hospitals for Children, a network of twenty-two hospitals in the United States, Mexico and Canada. They were formed to treat young victims of polio, but as that disease was controlled they broadened their scope. They now deal with all pediatric cases, most especially with orthopedic injuries and disease and the damage caused by burns. The Shrine has pioneered new treatments for these conditions.There is never any charge for treatment at a Shriners Hospital. There is no requirement for religion, race, or relationship to a Freemason. Patients must be under the age of eighteen and treatable. Local Shrine temples most often provide free transportation to the nearest hospital.Until 2003–4, the Oscars were held at the Shriners temple/auditorium in Hollywood / Los Angeles. Legendary silent film comedian Harold Lloyd was a Shriner and served as Imperial Potentate in 1949. He did much to promote the fraternity within the entertainment industry.Some famous Shriners include:

                • Buzz Aldrin

                • Miguel Alemán Valdés

                • Ernest Borgnine

                • Millard F. Caldwell

                • John Diefenbaker

                • Porfirio Diaz

                • Gerald Ford

                • Clark Gable

                • Barry Goldwater

                • Warren G. Harding

                • Hubert Humphrey

                • Jack Kemp

                • Harold Lloyd

                • Douglas MacArthur

                • Sam Nunn

                • Pascual Ortiz-Rubio

                • Arnold Palmer

                • Michael A. Richards

                • Albelardo L. Rodriguez

                • Roy Rogers

                • Will Rogers

                • Franklin D. Roosevelt

                • Red Skelton

                • Dave Thomas

                • Strom Thurmond

                • Harry S. Truman

                • Earl Warren

                In 2002, a mascot named Fez Head Fred debuted, primarily to visit their children's hospitals.

                • Grotto,The Mystic Order of Veiled Prophets of the Enchanted Realm align="left">Tall Cedars of align="left">Others, all of which tend to expand on the teachings of Craft or Blue Lodge Freemasonry—often with additional so-called higher degrees—while improving their members and society as a whole. The Shrine and Grotto tend to emphasise fun and philanthropy and are largely a North American phenomenon.
                  Different jurisdictions vary in how they define their relationship with such bodies, if at all. Some may give them some sort of formal recognition, while others may consider them wholly outside of Freemasonry proper. Not all such bodies will be universally considered as appendant bodies, some being simply considered as more or less separate organizations that happen to require Masonic affiliation for membership. Some of these organizations may have additional religious requirements, compared to Freemasonry proper (or "Craft Masonry"), since they approach Masonic teachings from a particular perspective.
                  There are also certain youth organizations (mainly North American) which are associated with Freemasonry, but are not necessarily Masonic in their content, such as the Order of DeMolay (for boys aged 12–21), Job's Daughters (for girls aged 10-20 with proper Masonic relationship) and the International Order of the Rainbow for Girls (for girls 11–20 who have Masonic sponsorship). The Boy Scouts of America is not a Masonic organization, but was first nationally commissioned by Freemason Daniel Carter Beard. Beard exemplified the Masonic ideals throughout the Scouting program

                Famous Masons

                U.S. Presidents


                Buchanan, James - President of the U.S.

                Ford, Gerald R. - President of the U.S.

                Garfield, James A. - President of the U.S.

                Harding, Warren G. - President of the U.S.

                Jackson, Andrew - President of the U.S.

                Johnson, Andrew - President of the U.S.

                McKinley, William - President of the U.S.

                Monroe, James - President of the U.S.

                Polk, James Knox - President of the U.S.

                Roosevelt, Franklin D. - President of the U.S.

                Roosevelt, Theodore - President of the U.S.

                Taft, William Howard - President of the U.S.

                Truman, Harry S. - President of the U.S.

                Washington, George - President of US, 1st

                Supreme Court Justices


                Black, Hugo L. - Supreme Court Justice

                Blair, Jr., John - Supreme Court Justice

                Blatchford, Samuel - Supreme Court Justice

                Baldwin, Henry - Supreme Court Justice

                Burton, Harold H. - Supreme Court Justice

                Byrnes, James F. - Supreme Court Justice

                Catton, John - Supreme Court Justice

                Clark, Thomas C. - Supreme Court Justice

                Clarke, John H. - Supreme Court Justice

                Cushing, William - Supreme Court Justice

                Devanter, Willis Van - Supreme Court Justice

                Douglas, William O. - Supreme Court Justice

                Ellsworth, Oliver - Supreme Court Justice

                Field, Stephen J. - Supreme Court Justice

                Harlan, John M. - Supreme Court Justice

                Jackson, Robert H. - Supreme Court Justice

                Lamar, Joseph E. - Supreme Court Justice

                Marshall, John - Chief Justice U.S. Supreme Court 1801 - 1835

                Marshall, Thurgood - Supreme Court Justice

                Mathews, Stanley - Supreme Court Justice

                Minton, Sherman - Supreme Court Justice

                Moody, William H. - Supreme Court Justice

                Nelson, Samuel - Supreme Court Justice

                Paterson, William - Supreme Court Justice

                Pitney, Mahlon - Supreme Court Justice

                Reed, Stanley F. - Supreme Court Justice

                Rutledge, Wiley B. - Supreme Court Justice

                Stewart, Potter - Supreme Court Justice

                Swayne, Noah H. - Supreme Court Justice

                Todd, Thomas - Supreme Court Justice

                Trimble, Robert - Supreme Court Justice

                Vinson, Frederick M. - Supreme Court Justice

                Warren, Earl - Supreme Court Justice

                Woodbury, Levi - Supreme Court Justice

                Woods, William B. - Supreme Court Justice



                Arnold, General Henry "Hap" - Commander of the Army Air Force

                Bradley, Omar N. - Military leader

                Byrd, Admiral Richard E. - Flew over North Pole

                Doolittle, General James - Famous Air Force Pilot

                Jones, John Paul - First Admiral of the U.S. Navy

                Lafayette, Marquis de - Supporter of American Freedom

                Lindbergh, Charles - Aviator

                MacArthur, General Douglas - Commander of Armed Forces in Philillines

                Marshall, George - General of the Armies

                McClellan, General George B. - Army of the Potomac, Presidential candidate against Abe Lincoln, faced General Robert E. Lee at the battle of Antietam and twice Governor of New Jersey.

                Montgomery, Richard Major General - Fist General Officer of the Continental Army killed in the Battle for Quebec on Dec 31, 1775.

                Murphy, Audie - Most decorated soldier of WW11.

                Peary, Robert E. - First man to reach the North Pole (1909)

                Pershing, John Joseph - Decorated American Soldier

                Rickenbacker, Eddie - Great American Air Force Ace

                Tirpitz, Alfred Von - German Naval officer responsible for submarine warfare


                FAMOUS MASONS- SPORTS

                Cobb, Ty - An original member of the Baseball Hall of Fame

                Combs, Earle Bryan - Baseball Hall of Fame

                Dempsey, Jack - Sports

                Hornsby, Rogers - A member of the Baseball Hall of Fame

                Naismith, James - Inventor of Basketball

                Palmer, Arnold - Golf Pro



                Autry, Gene - Actor

                Borgnine, Ernest - Actor

                Burns, Robert - The National Poet of Scotland

                Casanova - Italian Adventurer, writer and entertainer

                Clemens, Samuel L. - Mark Twain - writer

                Cohan, George M. - Broadway star

                Collodi, Carlo - Writer of Pinocchio

                Doyle, Sir Author Conan - Writer - Sherlock Holmes

                Fairbanks, Douglas - Silent film actor

                Fields, W.C. - Actor

                Gable, Clark - Actor

                Gibbon, Edward - Writer - Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire

                Godfrey, Arthur - Actor

                Gray, Harold Lincoln - Creator of "Little Orphan Annie

                Hardy, Oliver - Actor - Comedian

                Kipling, Rudyard - Writer

                Lincoln, Elmo - First actor to play Tarzan of the Apes (1918)

                Mix, Tom - U.S. Marshal turned actor. Stared in over 400 western films

                Murphy, Audie - Most decorated American Soldier of WWII

                Pushkin, Aleksander - Russian Poet

                Rogers, Roy - American cowboy and screen star

                Rogers, Will - Actor

                Scott, Sir Walter - Writer

                Sellers, Peter - Actor

                Shakespeare, William - Writer

                Swift, Jonathan - Wrote Gulliver's Travels

                Voltaire - French writer and philosopher

                Wallace, Lewis - Wrote "Ben Hur"

                Wayne, John - Actor

                Musicians\ Entertainers


                Basie, William "Count" - Orchestra leader/composer

                Berlin, Irving - Entertainer

                Clark, Roy - Country Western Star

                Dickens, Little Jimmy - Grand Ole Opry Star

                Ellington, Duke - Composer, Arranger and Stylist

                Jolson, Al - Fame as the first 'talking picture' the Jazz Singer

                Key, Francis Scott - Wrote U.S. National Anthem

                Lloyd, Harold C. - Entertainer

                Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus - Composer

                Sax, Antoine Joseph - Invented the Saxophone (1846)

                Sibelius, Jean - Composer (Finland)

                Skelton, Red - Entertainer

                Smith, John Stafford - Wrote the music that became the US National Anthem.

                Sousa, John Philip - Led the U.S. Marine Band from 1880 - 1892

                Stratton, Charles "Tom Thumb" - Entertainer

                Tillis, Mel - Country Singer

                Whiteman, Paul - "King of Jazz"

                Government Leaders


                Abbott, Sir John J.C. - Prime Minister of Canada 1891-92

                Bennett, Viscount R.B. - Prime Minister of Canada 1930-35

                Borden, Sir Robert L. - Prime Minister of Canada 1911-1920

                Bowell, Sir Mackenzie - Prime Minister of Canada 1894-96

                Churchill, Winston - British Leader

                Diefenbaker, John G. - Prime Minister of Canada 1957-63

                Edward VII - King of England

                Edward VIII - King of England who abdicated the throne in less than 1 year

                George VI - King of England during W.W. II

                MacDonald, Sir John A. - Prime Minister of Canada 1867-73 & 1878-91

                Nunn, Sam - U.S. Senator



                Aldrin, Edwin E. - Astronaut

                Armstrong, Neil - Astronaut

                Glenn, John H. - First American to orbit the earth in a space craft

                Grissom, Virgil - Astronaut

                Early American Pioneers


                Austin, Stephen F. - Father of Texas

                Bowie, James - Alamo

                Brant, Joseph - Chief of the Mohawks 1742 - 1807

                Burnett, David G. - 1st President of the Republic of Texas

                Carson, Christopher "Kit" - Frontiersman, scout and explorer

                Clark, William - Explorer

                Cody, "Buffalo Bill" William - Indian fighter, Wild West Show

                Colt, Samuel - Firearms inventor

                Crockett, David - American Frontiersman and Alamo fame

                Henry, Patrick - Patriot

                Houston, Sam - 2nd&4th President of the Republic of Texas

                Jones, Anson - 5th President of the Republic of Texas

                Lamar, Mirabeau B. - 3rd President of the Republic of Texas

                Lewis, Meriwether - Explorer

                Livingston, Robert - Co-Negotiator for purchase of Louisiana Territory

                Revere, Paul - Famous American

                Travis, Colonel William B. - Alamo

                Signers of the Declaration of Independence


                Franklin, Benjamin - 1 of 13 Masonic signers of Constitution of the U.S.

                Hancock, John - 1of 9 Masonic signers of Declaration of Independence

                Other Famous Masons

                OTHER FAMOUS MASONS

                Balfour, Lloyd - Jewelry

                Bartholdi, Frederic A. - Designed the Statue of Liberty

                Baylor, Robert E. B. - Founder Baylor University

                Beard, Daniel Carter - Founder Boy Scouts

                Bell, Lawrence - Bell Aircraft Corp.

                Borglum, Gutzon & Lincoln - Father and Son who carved Mt. Rushmore

                BuBois, W.E.B. - Educator/scholar

                Calvo, Father Francisco - Catholic Priest who started Freemasonry in Costa Rica 1865

                Chrysler, Walter P. - Automotive fame

                Citroen, Andre - French Engineer and motor car manufacturer

                Desaguliers, John Theophilus - Inventor of the planetarium

                Dow, William H. - Dow Chemical Co.

                Drake, Edwin L - American Pioneer of the Oil industry

                Dunant, Jean Henri - Founder of the Red Cross

                Ervin Jr, Samual J. - Headed "Watergate" committee

                Faber, Eberhard - Head of the famous Eberhard Fabor Pencil Company

                Fisher, Geoffrey - Archbishop of Canterbury 1945 - 1961

                Fitch, John - Inventor of the Steamboat

                Fleming, Sir Alexander - Invented Penicillin

                Ford, Henry - Pioneer Automobile Manufacturer

                Gatling, Richard J. - Built the "Gatling Gun"

                Gilbert, Sir William S. - Was the librettis for "Pirates of Penzance"

                Gillett, King C. - Gillett Razor Co.

                "Grock - Swiss Circus Clown

                Guillotin, Joseph Ignace - Inventor of the "Guillotin"

                Hedges, Cornelius - "Father" of Yellowstone National Park

                Henson, Josiah - Inspired the novel "Uncle Tom's Cabin"

                Hilton, Charles C. - American Hotelier

                Hoban, James - Architect for the U.S. Captial

                Hoe, Richard M. - Invented the rotory press, revolutinizing newspaper printing

                Hoover, J. Edgar - Director of FBI

                Houdini, Harry - Magician

                Jenner, Edward - Inventor - Vaccination

                Jones, Melvin - One of the founders of the Lions International

                Lake, Simon - Built first submarine successfull in open sea.

                Land, Frank S. - Founder Order of DeMolay

                Lipton, Sir Thomas - Tea

                Marshall, James W. - Discovered Gold at Sutter's Mill California 1848

                Mayer, Louis B. - Film producer who merged to form Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM)

                Mayo, Dr. William and Charles - Began Mayo Clinic

                Maytag, Fredrick - Maytag

                Menninger, Karl A. - Psychiatrist famous for treating mental illness

                Michelson, Albert Abraham - Successfully measured the speed of light in 1882

                Montgolfier, Jacques Etienne - Co-developer of the first practical hot-air balloon

                New, Harry S. - Postmaster General who established Airmail

                Newton, Joseph Fort - Christian Minister

                Olds, Ransom E. - American automobile pioneer

                Otis, James - Famous for "Taxations without Representation is Tyranny"

                Papst, Charles F. - Coined the term "Athletes Foot"

                Peale, Norman Vincent - Founder of "Guidepost"

                Penny, James C. - Retailer

                Poinsett, Joel R. - U.S. Minister to Mexico who developed the flower: Poinsettia

                Pullman, George - Built first sleeping car on train.

                Ringling Brothers - All 7 brothers and their father were Masons.

                Salten, Felix - Creator of Bambi

                Sarnoff, David - Father of T.V.

                Schoonover, George - Founder of "The Builder"

                Stanford, Leland - Drove the gold spike linking the intercontinetal railroad

                Stanford, Leland - Railroads & Stanford University

                Still, Andrew T. - American Physician who devised treatment of Osteopathy

                Teets, John W. - Chairman and Presiden of Dial Corporation

                Thomas, Dave - Founder of Wendys Restaurant

                Thomas, Lowell - Brought Lawrence of Arabia to public notice

                Wadlow, Robert Pershing - Tallest human on record being almost 9 feet tall

                Warner, Jack - Warner Brothers Fame

                Webb, Matthew - First man to swim the English Channel (1875)

                Wyler, William - Director of "Ben Hur"

                Zanuck, Darryl F. - Co-founder of 20th Century Productions in 1933

                Ziegfeld, Florenz - His Ziegfeld's Follies began in 1907.

                THANKS FOR LOOKING!!!

                Blue Hill Lodge


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