Spanish Renaissance Philosophy & Theology School Of Salamanca Spain Rare 1590 For SaleVERYRARE, ORIGINAL 1590 EDITION OF "RELECTIO DE RATIONE TEGENDI ET DETEGENDI SECRETUM". This important 16th century work was written by Domingo de Soto [aka Dominic Soto] and printed by Baptistam a Porta at Venice, Italy. Author was a Spanish-bornDominicanwho was a prominent figure in the School of Salamanca philosophical movement. The present treatise, initially issued at Salamanca, Spain in 1541, contains one of his principal works. This is the first Venetian edition, and a First Edition thus.We could find no other copies of this edition in private hands and WorldCat locates only 5 other known copies institutionally held; with no copies located in the U.S. [OCLC No. 491717826; Cambridge University, Bibliothèque Municipale de Lyon, and Université Rennes at Rennes; OCLC No. 503908317; British National Bibliography at Wetherby, and British Library at London].Domingo de Soto (1494-1560) was a renowned Dominican priest and Scholastic theologian born in Segovia, Spain. He is best known as one of the major figures of the philosophical movement known as the School of Salamanca, together with Francisco de Vitoria. "His first studies were made in his native city. He next studied at the University of Alcalá under St. Thomas of Villanova, and later went to Paris, where he obtained his baccalaureate in philosophy. Having studied theology for a time at Paris, he returned to Alcalá about 1520, and was made professor of Philosophy in the College of San Ildelfonso. In this capacity he distinguished himself by securing a complete triumph of moderate Realism over the errors of Nominalism.Already enjoying a wide reputation as a professor, and apparently destined for higher honours, he was suddenly moved in 1524 to abandon his chair as teacher and join a religious order. Straightway he made a retreat at the Benedictine monastery of Montserrat, and then sought admission into the Order of Preachers at Burgos, where he was received and entered upon his novitiate in the Convent of St. Paul. The following year (23 July, 1525) he was admitted to profession, and was made at once professor of dialects in his convent. In 1529 appeared his first work called 'Summulae', which in simplicity, precision, and clearness was a decided improvement on the manuals of logic then in use.After teaching in his convent for seven years, he was called to a chair of theology in the University of Salamanca on 27 Nov., 1532, and continued to teach there till 1545, when he was chosen by Charles V imperial theologian at the Council of Trent. During his labours at the council he rendered great service in helping to formulate dogmatic decrees and in solving theological difficulties. The general of his order, Albertus Casaus, having died just before the opening of the council, it fell to Soto to represent his order during the first four sessions. In the following sessions he represented the newly-elected general, Franciscus Romaeus. It was at Trent that Soto wrote and dedicated to the fathers of the council his treatise 'De natura et gratia', in which he clearly and ably expounds the Thomistic teaching on original sin and grace.When the council was interrupted in 1547, Soto was summoned by Charles V to Germany as his confessor and spiritual director. He refused the Bishopric of Segovia offered him by the emperor, and in 1550 was permitted to return to his convent at Salamanca, where he was elected prior the same year. Two years later he succeeded Melchior Cano in the principal chair of theology at the University of Salamanca, at that time the metropolis of the intellectual world. In 1556 Soto resigned his professorial chair. Chief among his philosophical works, besides the 'Summulae, are: 'In dialecticam Aristotelis commentarii' (Salamanca, 1544); 'In VIII libros physicorum' (Salamanca, 1545). The following are his best-known theological works: 'De natura et gratia libri III' (Venice, 1547); 'De ratione tegendi et detegendi secretum' (Salamanca, 1541); 'De justitia et jure libri X' (Salamanca, 1556); 'Comment. in Ep. ad Romanos' (Antwerp, 1550); 'In IV sent. libros comment.' (Salamanca, 1555-56)" [See: "Catholic Encyclopedia" online].The School of Salamanca is the Renaissance of thought in diverse intellectual areas by Spanish and Portuguese theologians, rooted in the intellectual and pedagogical work of Francisco de Vitoria. From the beginning of the 16th century the traditional Catholic conception of man and of his relation to God and to the world had been assaulted by the rise of humanism, by the Protestant Reformation and by the new geographical discoveries and their consequences. These new problems were addressed by the School of Salamanca. The name refers to the University of Salamanca, where de Vitoria and others of the school were based.Francisco de Vitoria, Domingo de Soto, Martín de Azpilcueta [or Azpilicueta], Tomás de Mercado, and Francisco Suárez, all scholars of natural law and of morality, founded a school of theologians and jurists who undertook the reconciliation of the teachings of Thomas Aquinas with the new political-economic order. The themes of study centered on man and his practical problems [morality, economics, jurisprudence, etc.], but almost equally on a particular body of work accepted by all of them, as the ground against which to test their disagreements, including at times bitter polemics within the School.The School of Salamanca in the broad sense may be considered more narrowly as two schools of thought coming in succession, that of the Salmanticenses and that of the Conimbricenses from the University of Coimbra. The first began with Francisco de Vitoria (1483-1546), and reached its high point with Domingo de Soto (1494-1560). The Conimbricenses were Jesuits who, from the end of 16th century took over the intellectual leadership of the Catholic world from the Dominicans. Among those Jesuits were Luis de Molina (1535-1600), the aforementioned Francisco Suárez (1548-1617), and Giovanni Botero (1544-1617), who would continue the tradition in Italy.The juridical doctrine of the School of Salamanca represented the end of medieval concepts of law, with a revindication of liberty not habitual in Europe of that time. The natural rights of man came to be, in one form or another, the center of attention, including rights as a corporeal being [right to life, economic rights such as the right to own property] and spiritual rights [the right to freedom of thought and to human dignity]. The School of Salamanca reformulated the concept of natural law: law originating in nature itself, with all that exists in the natural order sharing in this law. Their conclusion was, given that all humans share the same nature, they also share the same rights to life and liberty. Such views constituted a novelty in European thought and went counter to those then predominant in Spain and Europe that people indigenous to the Americas had no such rights.Condition: Rare book remains in good condition [see images]. Volume bound in contemporary vellum; moderate cover wear with faded old hand titling to spine, early manuscript inscriptions inked to title page along with old paper label and institutional stamp to verso, old institutional card pocket to verso of back cover, scattered edge wear, occasional minor spotting, etc., generally clean internally. Text in Latin. Volume numbers 376 pages with separate preliminary index; and measures approx 6" tall x 4.25" wide x 1" thick. 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