The Wipers Times - Original Libris: Lt. F. Garrett 99 Sqdn, R.a.f. France -rare
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The Wipers Times - Original Libris: Lt. F. Garrett 99 Sqdn, R.a.f. France -rare:
THE WIPERS TIMES - ORIGINAL Libris: Lt. F. GARRETT 99 Sqdn, R.A.F. France -RARE!
THE WIPERS TIMES
FACSIMILE REPRINT OF THE TRENCH MAGAZINES:
THE WIPERS TIMES
THE NEW CHURCH TIMES
THE KEMMEL TIMES
THE SOMME TIMES
THE B.E.F. TIMES
Lieutenant F. Garrett
99 Squadron R.A.F., I.A.F., B.E.F.
10" x 7-1/2" approx
Binding and spine in very acceptable condition. Spine board is missing. Pages well tanned but still very crisp. General vintage ageing commensurate with age, use and shelving.
It is important to note that, despite the title "facsimile reprint", this is the original anthology compiled and printed in and around 1918. Reprints and copies are fairly common, originals are consdidered exceptionally rare. Add to this the inscription and both the rarity and the value increase exponentially. Provenance abounds and in this case a most fortuitous oddity: The spine board is missing, and in this reveals a portion of the binding paper, and it is full of names and dates: 1897 - 1915!!
Some background of interest:
The Wipers Times is one of the trench magazines that was published by soldiers on the front lines of the First World War.
It was produced by English soldiers from the 12th Battalion Sherwood Foresters (Nottingham & Derbyshire Regiment), 24th Division British Army.
In early 1916, the 12th Battalion was stationed in the front line at Ypres, Belgium and came across a printing press abandoned by a Belgian who had, in the words of the editor, "stood not on the order of his going, but got." A sergeant who had been a printer in peacetime salvaged it and printed a sample page.
The names of the staff involved in the paper are mostly unknown. The editor was Captain (later Lieutenant-Colonel) F. J. Roberts, the sub-editor was Lieutenant F. H. Pearson. A notable contributor to the paper was Artilleryman G. Frankau. Also worthy of note are the engravings by E.J. Couzens: his portrait of a chinless platoon commander clutching his cane and wondering "Am I as offensive as I might be?" became the paper's motif.
Most other contributors from the Division used pseudonyms: some now obscure; some intended to satirize contemporary newspaper pundits such as Beach Thomas (Daily Mail) and Hilaire Belloc; and some ironic, such as P.B.I. (Poor bloody Infantry).
The paper consisted of poems, reflections, wry in-jokes and lampoons of the military situation the Division was in. In general the paper maintained a humorously ironic style that today can be recognised in satirical magazines such as Private Eye etc.
World War I
What would later become No. 99 (Madras Presidency) Squadron was originally formed at Yatesbury, Wiltshire in England on 15 August 1917 from elements supplied by No. 13 Training Squadron, RFC. It was equipped with de Havilland DH.9 bombers in 1918, deploying to France to form part of the Independent Air Force, the RAF's strategic bombing force. It flew its first mission on 21 May, and continued to take part in large scale daylight raids against targets in Germany, sustaining heavy losses both due to the unreliable nature of the DH.9 and heavy German opposition. As an example, during one one raid against Saarbrücken on 31 July 1918, seven out of nine aircraft from 99 Squadron were shot down. 99 Squadron was withdrawn from the front line on 25 September to be re-equipped with de Havilland DH.9A bombers, and it was still being in the process of converting when the First World War ended. During the first World War it had taken part in 76 bombing raids, dropping 61 tons of bombs and claiming 12 German aircraft, of which eight alone on the raid of 31 July. In 1919 it was sent to India, flying patrols over the North-West Frontier from Mianwali and Kohat during the Mahsud and Waziristan campaigns. It was disbanded by being renumbered to No. 27 Squadron RAF on 2 April 1920.
The Independent Air Force (IAF), also known as the Independent Force or the Independent Bombing Force and later known as the Inter-Allied Independent Air Force, was a World War I strategic bombing force which was part of the British Royal Air Force and used to strike against German railways, aerodromes and industrial centres without co-ordination with the Army or Navy.
Through late 1916 and early 1917 the Royal Naval Air Service had attempted a co-ordinated series of bombing raids on German held targets. Whilst the attacks were generally unsuccessful the principle of deep penetration bombing raids against strategic targets was proved. General Jan Smuts, a member of the War Cabinet, prepared a report which recommended that a separate Air Ministry and Air Force should be set up, independent of the Army and Navy, and that a strategic bomber force should be formed whose sole purpose was to attack Germany.
Following the perceived success in bombing Germany of the VIII Brigade, and its antecedent formation the 41st Wing, the British Government decided that it should be expanded into an independent force. Before the creation of the Independent Air Force, the VIII Brigade was under the tactical command of Field Marshal Haig
After Parliamentary approval in November 1917, the Royal Air Force was born on 1 April 1918, and the forthcoming creation of the Independent Air Force was announced on 13 May 1918 with its General Officer Commanding Major-General Trenchard who had recently stepped down as Chief of the Air Staff. Trenchard had only agreed to serve as GOC after he received criticism for resigning his position as professional head of the RAF during a time of war. The deputy commander was Brigadier-General Cyril Newall who had previously been the commander of the VIII Brigade.
The Independent Air Force came into being on 6 June 1918 with its headquarters situated near Nancy in France. Trenchard took over tactical command of the VIII Brigade from Haig on 5 June 1918 and complete control on 15 June 1918 when Newall became the deputy commander of the Independent Force.As commander, Trenchard reported directly to Sir William Weir the British Air Minister, thus bypassing the then Chief of the Air Staff Frederick Sykes
The Independent Air Force eventually consisted of nine squadrons of aircraft which were equipped with:
de Havilland DH4s
de Havilland DH9s and de Havilland DH.9As
Handley Page 0/400s
Royal Aircraft Factory FE2bs
Sopwith Camels for escort duties
In effect, No 41 Wing was split into two wings to form VIII Brigade and comprised Nos 55, 99 and 104 Squadrons responsible for day-bombing, with the 83rd Wing consisted of two night-bombing Squadrons, (No 100 and No 216.) Additional squadrons were added to the IAF before the Armistice; Nos 97, 115 and 215 Squadrons (equipped with the new Handley-Page 0/400 bomber) and No 110 Squadron with the DH-9A operational through the summer of 1918.
The IAF commenced operations in June 1918 when 12 DH4s of No 55 Squadron were despatched to bomb targets around Coblenz and 11 DH4s of No 99 Squadron attacked rail targets at Thionville. During the last five months of World War I, Independent Air Force aircraft dropped a total of 550 tons of bombs (for 109 aircraft lost) including 390 tons of bombs dropped by night.Over 220 tons were dropped on German aerodromes, which Trenchard justified by pointing out that while the Germans were stronger than the British in the air, their aircraft might be destroyed on the ground. Trenchard argued that his policy was vindicated by the fact the during the period 5 June to ll November 1918, German attacks on British aerodromes were minimal and no British aircraft were destroyed on the ground by bombing
In addition to the bombing of aerodromes, the Independent Forces attacked, amongst others, the following targets:
The Black Forest
A considerable portion of the Independent Air Force’s efforts was in tactical support of the Allied armies, and the war ended before the IAF could conduct any sustained strategic bombing. Thus The Independent Force achieved little material effect on the German war industries, in return for heavy losses in men and machines.
inter-Allied Independent Air Force
Just before the end of the War, on 26 October 1918, the Independent Air Force was re-designated the Inter-Allied Independent Air Force. This force comprised British, French, Italian and American squadrons. Trenchard remained the commander-in-chief but he now came under the command of Marshal Foch who was the supreme commander of Allied forces. On the 14 November, the Inter-Allied Independent Air Force was dissolved and its British squadrons (still titled as the Independent Air Force) were assigned to John Salmond, the commander of the RAF in the field. Brigadier-General Christopher Courtney succeeded Trenchard as commander of the Independent Air Force.The Independent Air Force was disbanded in late 1918 or early 1919.
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