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Ussuriysk Cossack Mutiny List Russian Revolution American Exp. Force Aef Siberia For Sale

Ussuriysk Cossack Mutiny List Russian Revolution American Exp. Force Aef Siberia




The Chairman: What is your full name?

Colonel Morrow: Charles H. Morrow.

The Chairman: Are you an officer In the Regular Army?

Colonel Morrow: An officer in the Regular Army with the rank of lieutenant colonel.

The Chairman: Were you in Siberia?

Colonel Morrow: I was. I commanded the Twenty-seventh Infantry.

The Chairmanl: When did you arrive in Siberia?

Colonel Morrow: In August, 1918.

The Chairman: When did you leave there?

Colonel Morrow: In March, 1920.

The Chairman: Who was your superior officer?

Colonel Morrow: Gen. William S. Graves.

The Chairman: In what part of the country were you located?

Colonel Morrow: I took part in the first campaign from Vladivostok to Ushman, on the Amur River.

The Chairman: We are inquiring here with reference to the activities of General Semeuoff. State In your own way what you know, what came under your observation, and what you have learned In your official position with reference to General Semenoff—who he is. what he did. and what you know about him.

Colonel Morrow: General Semenoff had moved, in the first movement of the allied forces, with the Japanese Army from Harbin to Chita. He declared himself to be the hetinan or ataman of the Cossacks, making his capital at Chita. He operated from Chita to Irkutsk and the west. From Chita to the eastward he controlled the railroad and entire country to Manchuria. Eastward along the Amur River, with his lieutenant, General Kalmykov, he commanded the Ussuri Cossacks and controlled as far as Khabarovsk, a distance of some 1,200 miles. This gave him 1,000 miles of railroad in Eastern Siberia and 1.000 miles of the Amur Railroad.

I first came in contact with Semenoffs power through his lieutenant, Kalmykov. Kalmykov recognized no superior save Semenoff.

Kalmykov, through his executions and his killings of several thousand Russians and his supposed execution of others, came in contact with my force at Khabarovsk. On Kalmykovs entry into Khabarovsk he had killed 11 musicians taken from what was known as the Teacup Inn. Their bodies were left in front of the cathedral.

His killings continued, dead bodies being found all over the town and wherever the American troops were marching.

About six days after our entry into and capture of Khabarovsk, the Swedish representative of the Swedish Red Cross came to our headquarters and asked for protection for himself and his staff, which consisted of three men and one woman, stating that Kalmykov was going to seize their place for the purpose of robbery. He was referred by Colonel Styer to the commanding general of the Japanese forces.

Two days later the Swedish Red Cross mission was raided by Kalmykovs forces, some 3,000,000 rubles were taken from their treasury, and all the goods and stores that they had, also. One day after that time these three representatives, including one woman, were killed by Kalmykovs men, on Kalmykovs order.

One week after this time about 60 women appeared at our headquarters, stating that their fathers and sons and brothers were going to be executed by Kalmykov without any form of trial. Colonel Styer protested against these executions, and asked a delay. Despite his protests, 5 men were taken out of the jail and executed that night. They were cut all to pieces by saber blows and bayonet wounds. Their bodies, half naked, were left on the ground for several days, and were viewed by a large crowd of Russians and Americans,

An allied guard, after this incident, at the request of Colonel Styer. was placed over the prison of Kalmykov to prevent his executions. Despite this Kalmykov merely used other prisons, and continued his executions by the hundreds.

Feeling between Kalmykovs forces, the forces under his command, and the Americans, became very intense. There were frequent clashes between his officers and the American officers, and between his Cossacks and the American soldiers.

Senator Stkklino: "What was the reason, for killing these people? Was it because they were bolsheviks? Was that the claim?"

Colonel Morrow: The bolsheviks had been driven entirely, in any force, from that country. The only reason we could find by the use of our intelligence section was that they were generally killed for the purpose of robbery, and largely to create a terror government In that country which would force obedience to Kalmykovs will.

On the night of January 27, 1919, a force of 500 Cossacks of Kalmykovs command mutinied against Kalmykov and invaded the American compound. These men were fully armed and mounted, with their machine guns and artillery with them. I took these mutineers over and disarmed them and removed them from the city of Khabarovsk to the war prison camp on Red River, about 7 miles from Khabarovsk. A convention of the Cossack's was called and a committee from the Cossack convention visited these mutineers and took there the testimony of their reasons for the mutiny. Kalmykov laid this mutiny at the door of the Americans, claiming, to cover the mutiny of his own troops, that the Americans had incited them to it. There was absolutely no truth in this statement, as the Americans had nothing whatever to do with the mutiny of Kalmykovs forces in any way.

On the 27th of February the mutineers as a body addressed the following letter [reading]:

"To the Sixth Military Krug of the Ussuri Cossacks:

"We. Russian citizens, belonging formerly to Ataman Kalmykovs division, not being desirous of taking any part in the bioodshed, have left Ataman Kalmykovs despotic yoke, for the purpose of taking refuge with the American commandant. The reasons by which we came to the decision to leave Ataman Kalmykov are the following:

"Every person knows that more than 2,000 men were shot dead by Ataman Kalmykov. All these were killed without being sentenced or tried. All these murders can not be explained by trying to protect the country or patriotic schemes; they served only the selfish purpose of a terror government. Some examples may enlighten the brutality evidenced in carrying out this bloodshed.

"1. Eleven men shot dead, without reason, were left on the spot. Their naked corpses, unburied, were left to the prey of beasts. The sight of them was so horrid that American and Japanese soldiers took photographs of these horrid scenes.

"2. Sixteen Austrian musicians, who were playing in the Chaska Chai, were executed in the public gardens in full daylight and the remains left there for public show. These musicians had not committed any crime deserving such bestial treatment.

"3. By order of Ataman Kalmykov some employees of the Swedish Red Cross, among them one lady, have been shot. Ataman Kalmykov wanted to rectify this murder by charging them with espionage, but the real reason was that he got a chance to get hold of 3,000,000 rubles and of a large stock of different goods.

"4. Prisoners of war, who are detailed to work in town, have been forced to deal the last death-bringing stroke to wounded citizens for Cossacks.

"All the examples mentioned above prove the horrible terror which was exercised by Ataman Kalmykov. Many women were left without husbands, mothers without sons, and children without parents. This went so far that the allied commandants were obliged to place a guard on the prison in order to prevent further murder of Russian citizens.

"Under the pretext of being bolsheviks peaceful Russians have been killed, with sole purpose of robbing them.

"Further, we want to describe the situation of the Cossacks. More than six months we have lived without money and without fuel. The food, which was without any nutritive power, was so little that it did never still our hunger. And worst of all was the treatment by the officers, chiefly by Ataman Kalmykov.

"Beating and constant use of the nagaika were everyday occurrences. To all this came the worries for our families, left without means to keep them living, so that we left Ataman Kalmykov and looked for protection at the American commandant. We are not partisans to bolshevik ideas, we were never bolsheviks, and we have no longing to become such. We are ready at any moment to defend Russia against the enemies who threaten her. We simply sought the protection of the American commandant, as we did not want to serve the command of such officers, who, while we are suffering, lavish our money on women and get drunk from champagne, for which they pay 350 rubles a bottle.

"We deeply regret that Colonel Birukoff was killed, but we are not guilty, as out of the 800 men who mutinied only 450 are here. We could have killled that night Ataman Kalmykov and his officers and massacred the peaceful citizens of the town, but not wanting to do such a thing we went to the American commandant to find such a protection which no other nation would have given us.'

"The present moment is such that in order to save the country Ataman Kalmykov, who causes such terrible bloodshed and robberies, must be forced to give up his power and relinquish it to his betters.

"Nobody but he and his officers are responsible for the happenings which took place on that memorable night. Hunger, ill-treatment, massacres forced us to mutiny. Ataman Kalmykov makes every effort to explain the occurrences by saying that we are on the side of the bolsheviks, and he ventures to mix in this affair the Americans, our protectors. This is nothing else but a lie, and we are glad to avail ourselves of the opportunity to declare openly to the Krug that no American had anything to do with that mutiny. Not only that, they did not incite this mutiny, but they were unaware of what was to happen, and when we surrendered to them they took charge of us only for the reasons of humanity and to prevent further bloodshed. The treatment we receive in Krasnaya Rechka is good. We are well fed: our quarters are clean and warm, and everything is done to keep us in perfect, condition. We owe every gratitude to Colonel Styer and Lieutenant Colonel Morrow and to his officers, who are treating us as soldiers. Our parents, wives, and children may be tranquil; our present condition of living is more than satisfactory.

"Hunger, bad treatment, and cold do not make a man better, but worse. We, who are loyal subjects of Russia, could not stand any more to he in the service of Ataman Kalmykov and left him. We who know his conduct, his deeds, declare openly to the Krug that an usurper, a butcher of this kind, can not remain any longer in power. He discredited the name of Cossack. His hands are covered with the innocent blood that he has shed."

The killings of Kahnykov continued, and the hostility between the American forces and Kalmykovs continued and grew worse as Kalmykovs killings grew worse...


Ussuriysk Cossack Mutiny List Russian Revolution American Exp. Force Aef Siberia

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