Very Old Folio -manuscript With Plenty Of Court Cases Of German Jews, Anno 1754 For Sale

Very Old Manuscript with plenty of Court Cases of German Jews, ANNO 1754
The book contains court cases from Cologne 1754-1757This is a highly interesting manuscript from the court of Cologne (Köln) in Germany.
Highly interesting, because it contains handwritten court cases of the citizens of the
Erzbistum Köln (Archbishopric Cologne).The most interesting here is, that it shows plenty of court cases of several Jews from that city.
(Please look to the pictures)Here are now the details:360 handwritten pages forming 181 numbered leaves.(every second page is numbered)
The measurement is Folio ca. 31,5 x 18,5 cm
The book contains court cases from Cologne 1754, 1755. 1756, and 1757 written in German interspersed with latin.
The condition of the book is good (stained on some places). The binding is rubbed.The manuscript is highly important concerning the History of the Jews in Cologne (Germany).You'll find a few information about Jewish life in Cologne on the end of this Please feel free to have a look also to my another sale in at the moment! Thank
The manuscripts are located in Germany! 10-day sale, ending on sunday.
s/h to the USA (ca. 9 days) is: $4,-(as always!)
Canada and South-America: $ 4,-
National shipping within Germany is: $4,-
Europe: $4,- Books seen in some pictures, ar not part of this sale. They are just made for comparings of the measurements.
I'm not responsible for customs or Tax! Insurance on request! Payment via Pay-Pal!
I send the parcel with a trackable Number only! sale starts on 0.99 USD ending on sunday. !
Keywords: sehr alten buch,livre ancien,libro signiert,hebrew signature,judaika,judaica, selten und information as promised:
The history of the Jews in Cologne is documented from the year 321 AD, almost as long as the history of Cologne.
Because of this historical continuity, today’s Jewish synagogue community calls itself the "oldest Jewish
congregation North of the Alps".Cologne was an important city in Roman times. H. Nissen assumes a much greater population for Roman Cologne than was to be found
in the Middle Ages, for he estimates it at between thirty and forty thousand. It is reasonable to assume that the spread of
Christianity in any Roman province was preceded and accompanied by the existence there of Jews. The presence of Christians in
Cologne in the second century would therefor argue for the settlement of Jews in the city at that early date.Archaeological funds indicate an immigration of Orientals at about that period, and among them there were Syrians, as is proved
by an Aramaic inscription dug up in 1930. For all these reasons it is not surprising that the Theodosian Code indicates the
existence of a firmly established Jewish community in Cologne in the years 321 and 331. For the appointment to a town office
a person was required to own land and to have a certain reputation. However Jews were refused the access to public offices.Their religion was recognized as a religio licita (permitted religion), and they were for this reason free from the offering to
the Emperor and to the offerings to the Roman state gods. These were however the basic requirements for the access to a public
office.[3] In Late Antiquity, the Roman upper class increasingly refused to participate to these expensive offices. The Roman
administration went into crisis and the emperor had to look around for alternatives. So it was necessary for the Cologne
Council to use a decree of Emperor Constantine the Great of year 321 AD, which permitted Jews to be appointed in the curia,
and this is the first evidence of the existence of a Jewish community in the town of Cologne. The emperor’s decree has been
passed down in the Codex Theodosianus and here is its translation: "We allow all town councils to appoint through general law Jewish people in the Curia. To give them a certain compensation
for the previous rules, we let that always two or three of them enjoy the privilege not to be taken to any office."In another document, from 341 AD, it is recorded that the synagogue was provided with the emperor’s privilege. These decrees of
Constantine remain for some centuries the only accounts of the existence of a Jewish community in Cologne.
The Middle Ages
Under the Frankish, Saxon and Salian KingsThe first documentary reference to the Jews after 331 occurs during the time of Archbishop Heribert of Cologne (999-1021), the
wise friend of Holy Roman Emperor Otto III. Winheim and Gelenius, basing themselves on the Annual Chronicles of Cologne during
the fourteenth and fifteenth century, report that in 1426 the synagogue was turned into a church. They then remark that this
synagogue had been in existence 414 years. That would place its origin in the time of Heribert. The Jewish Quarter close to
Hohe Straße is mentioned for the first time during the episcopate of Anno II, Archbishop of Cologne, named Anno the Great
(1056–1075) and a report has come down about the Jews joining in lament over the archbishop’s death.The number of Jews in the community during the last quarter of the eleventh century was not less than six hundred. The markets
of Cologne had attracted many Jewish visits who had partly stayed. Italian Jews are mentioned in the stories about the Crusaders
in Cologne. The fact that the Jewish community was important is proved further by the statement in these Hebrew reports that out
of Cologne there went forth "our brethren scattered over the earth support for their life and correct words of judgment". It
means that the community was the center of Jewish life for all the communities of the area.
The Crusades
Plan of the Jewish quarter on RathausplatzDuring the Middle Ages, the Jewish community settled in a quarter near the Rathaus. Still now the name "Judengasse" testifies its
existence. In the 12th and 13th century the anti-Semite attitude of the town citizens became stronger. They were held responsible
for the pestilence. In the night of Saint Bartholemy (between the 23rd and the 24th of August) in 1349 a pogrom took place that
was called the "Slaughter of the Jews" in the history of the town. In that night an enraged mob entered the quarter and killed
most of the inhabitants.In 1424 the Jews were banned from the town "for eternity". This interdiction for settling in Cologne was abolished at the end of
the 18th century. A new Jewish community came into existence under the French administration. At the beginning of the Modern Age
the area of the Jewish quarter was rebuilt and the previous inhabitants forgotten.After the destructions of the Second World War, the Medieval foundations were discovered, among them a synagogue and the
monumental Cologne mikveh (ritual bath). The archeological survey was conducted after the war by Otto Doppelfeld from 1953 to
1956. On the basis of the awareness of history the area has not been reconstructed after the war and has remained as a square
in front of the historical Rathaus. Today, the Jewish quarter is part of the "archeological zone of Cologne".
The Medieval Pogroms in Cologne
Jews burnt in Holy Roman Empire (medieval manuscript now in the Zentral- and Hochschulbibliothek Luzern)In the years before the pogrom of August 1349 the atmosphere in the Cologne area towards the Jewish population was not friendly
at all. During the First Crusade in 1096 there were several pogroms. Although the Crusade started from France, assaults happened
through the Holy Roman Empire. In May 27, 1096 hundreds of Jews were killed in Mainz in the Persecution of Jews in the First
Crusade. The palace of local archbishop Ruthard, where the Jews had found refuge, was stormed by the Crusaders after little
resistance. A similar thing happened in July of the same year in Cologne. The Jews were baptized by force. The permission
of Kaiser Henry IV to let the Jews who had been forcibly baptized to go back to their faith was not ratified by Antipope Clement
III. From those times, small and large assaults were repeated not only in the Rhineland.In year 1146 other Jewish people were killed near Königswinter by a mob of furious Christians, just after the beginning of the
Second Crusade. Also in Andernach, Altenahr, Bonn and Lechenich[14] Jewish people were killed and their houses
plundered. These events are presumably to be associated with a wave of prosecution in 1287/88.Violent assaults to Jews of
Cologne are not reported in this period of time, so it doesn’t seem there was a discrimination.Following the Fourth Council of the Lateran in 1215, all Jews were obliged to display on their clothing a clear sign they were
not Christians. In 1320, some inhabitants of Cologne tried to elude the obligation to pay their debts to Jews appealing to
the legislation of the church. Pope John XXII had started in 1317 a rigorous campaign against the Jews and had publicly
declared that usurious interest should not be paid to Jews. The Cologne council thought it was necessary to come first towards
this refusal to repay debts sanctioned by the Church and took action in 1321 against interest due under penalty. In 1327 the
council reiterated this ordinance and appealed directly against a pope decree that was directed specifically against Salomon of
Basel.The same council referred in 1334 to the same letter of the pope and appealed archbishop Walram von Jülich for protection as a
Jewish banker named Meyer of Siegburg demanded payment of money from it. The action finished with the withdrawal of all city
debts and the condemnation of Meyer to death. The council men were in debt with Meyer and Walfram kept the confiscated
property of the condemned person. Besides the archbishop had also debts with Meyer and could cancel them in the same course.Altogether the Jews of Cologne between 1096 and 1349 appeared indeed to have been relatively safe regarding life and physical
condition as "fellow citizens (Mitbürger)". However, there are enough references that offences have been taken against
them. So it is famous the so-called Jewish sow on a wooden seat of the Cologne Cathedral choir, that was made presumably
around 1320.In the decades before the Cologne pogrom the condition of local Jews became worse. In 1300 a piece of wall was built around
the Jewish Quarter. Presumably this project was carried out by the Jewish Community itself. Council decisions document the
worsening of the climate between Christians and Jews. Decisions between 1252 and 1320 address legal status, protection and
taxation of the Cologne Jews. The pogrom wave affected also other towns of the Empire. There is a letter of the Cologne
Council to the council of Strasbourg where the Cologne Council expresses concern about an incident in Strasbourg and warns
insistently about an escalation. The Jews and their possessions were protected by letters of protection or consolation, this
had to be considered. In addition there was the accusation that the Jews had poisoned the springs and so caused the pestilence,
unproved in any single case. In the same letter the Cologne Council make clear that they will decidedly protect Cologne Jews.
In the years towards 1320 we know by sure of hostility of the Cologne clergy against the Jews for religious reasons, that gets
particularly excited by the privileges of the Cologne Jews. The reason for this can be seen in the change of the Schutzjude.
The Cologne clergy took no more profit for itself from the loan transactions of the Jews. Increasingly the town council
participated in the business, and this provoked additional frictions between the Archbishop and the Council.
In 1266 the Archbishop Engelbert II von Falkenburg had the "Judenprivileg" carved in stone.The latter played an important role in the persecution of the Cologne Jews in 1349. From 1266 the Cologne Jews had the exclusive
privilege to lend money. The Archbishop Engelbert II von Falkenburg had the "Judenprivileg" carved in stone on the outside of the
Dom treasury room.[29] In the struggle for power, the Cologne Jews could also be used to a certain extent as pressure medium.
The protectors of the Cologne Jews, the Archbishop and the King, could sell the Schutzjude. There was a legal fight between the
clergy, the king and the Cologne Council, so the council could take from the others a profitable source of revenue if he got
rid of the Jews. Additionally some debts could be cancelled.In 1340 a terrible pestilence arrived in Europe. The Black Death had not reached Cologne before December 1349,[30] also the first
month after the hard August pogrom. However news about its devastating impact arrived on the Rhine from the south considerably
earlier. Possibly the news were made worse from the population and provoked an eschatological agitation. In this overall
situation fell the devastating pogrom of 23/24 August 1349 in Cologne.
Preparation of the pogromThe Jews' persecution at the time of the Black Pestilence belongs to the fiercest in the whole Middle Ages and had its origin in
South West Europe. Echoes can be found certainly in the German Empire.The pogrom wave hit many towns even before the pestilence reached them. Very common were the accusations upraised for poisoning
of springs. The pogroms spread like snowballs. It is unlikely that they were spontaneous and they originated from low population.
Rather they show signs of a certain plan, that in its imprint shows the involvement of the leading social levels, or at least part
of them.[32] So the already mentioned events in Strassbourg, that the Cologne Council watched closely, suggest a clear plan. They
previously formed an alliance with all that could have an advantage from the killing or expulsion of the Jews, to be able to
make a point towards their protectors. Especially King Charles IV and the Habsburgher reeves and settled Jews in their domains.
The council of Straßburg invoked the public peace and called on all the citizens to kill the Jews in their territory. So this
pogrom was finally aimed against the Habsburgs and exploited the hysteria of the population simply to reach its goals of
political power.The archbishop of Cologne Walram von Jülich, who had left the city at the end of June 1349 to go to France, died in Paris after a
short time. King Charles IV had stayed in Cologne until June 19 and had left with his entourage. He had succeeded to take Cologne
to his side giving benefits in crown disputes. Probably the negotiations were not successful for all groups of interests. The
extermination of the Jewish community could have the aim to weaken Charles IV and the clergy. Already before the transition of
the archbishop had led to persecution. This happened after the Battle of Worringen on 8 June 1288 when the defeated Cologne
archbishop was imprisoned. For days afterwards a persecution of Jews happened in the surroundings of Cologne.[34] In August 1349
not only the seat of the Cologne archbishop was vacant but also Charles IV was not nearby to take action. So came the excesses
that peaked on 24 August with the so-called "Cologne night of Bartholomew". On 23–24 August the somewhat secure for Jewish
Cologne came to death. After violent assaults in the surroundings the Jews were killed also in Cologne.
The night of Bartholomew and its consequencesThe actual outcome of the pogrom is not well known. In the course of the night of Bartholomew in 1349 the Jewish quarter near
the Rathaus was attacked, whereat killing, plundering of Jewish properties and fire followed. Fugitives were followed and killed.
The Council didn’t intervene. Many sources report about the fire even if they are partly contradictory. Some report that the Jews
themselves put fire to their houses not to fall into the hands of the looters.[36] Another version is that the Jews burned
themselves in their Synagogue, which is rather improbable. Archeological excavations in the area of the medieval Jewish
quarter have suggested that the Synagogue itself was standing without damages after the night, but that it was plundered later.
In the escape a family buried its belongings and merchandise. The treasury of coins was discovered in 1954 excavations and is
exhibited in the Kölnisches Stadtmuseum.The account of the chronicler Gilles Li Muisis, in which he tells of a regular battle against more than 25.000 Jews and credits
the victory of the Cologne people to a stratagem of a butcher is considered not reliable. The account of Gilles Li Muisis
coined the term "Judenschlacht" (battle of the Jews) for the event of that night. Equally obscure is the involvement of Flagellant
who, in accordance to sources, should have been in Cologne in 1349.[39] The Council of Cologne and the new archbishop Wilhelm von
Gennep condemned the pogrom with all their acrimony. The names of the real wire pullers and of the violent invaders of the Jewish
quarter remained unknown. It can only be declared that it was then tried to leave the culprits unknown. A communication of the
Cologne Council says that it was an out-of-town mob followed by a few have-not from Cologne. A few expelled survivors from
the town looked for refuge across the Rhine. Around ten years after the 1349 pogrom wave Jewish settlements are documented in
Andernach and Siegburg.They came back in a documented way only in 1369, although already Archbishop Boemund II von Saarbrücken during his charge from
1354 to 1361 tried to force the return of the Jews. But first under Engelbert III von der Mark and particularly under his
coadjutor Kuno von Falkenstein the strained relation between the Archbishop and the Municipality improved so much that the
protection of Jews looked again reasonably assured. In 1372 a small Jewish community in Cologne is again proven.[43]Under the request of Archbishop Friedrich they were admitted to the town and they obtained a temporary protection privilege for
10 years. To this the Council attached however some conditions. For the moving-in there was a tax between 50 and 500 Gulden and a
new sum specifiable every year to be paid as a general contribution. After other extensions of the right of residence the Council
proclaimed in 1404 a tightened Judenordnung. It was ordered to the Jews to be recognized through a pointed Jewish hat and they
were banned from any kind of luxury. In 1423 the Cologne Council decided not to extend the temporary right of residence for the
Jews which expired on October 1424.[44] However it is notable that one could immediately re-establish a full community and not
first, as it was done by many other large towns, only a few Jews at a time.
EmigrationFollowing the medieval pogroms and the irrevocable expulsion of 1424 many Jews of Cologne decided to emigrate to East European
countries like Poland and Lithuania, in which as a consequence Yiddish emerged as a colloquial language between the Jewish,
Germans and Slavs. The offspring of these emigrants returned to Cologne at the beginning of the nineteenth century and lived
mainly in the area of Thieboldsgasse on the southeast side of Neumarkt. Only a few Jews remained near Cologne and settled
predominantly on the Eastern bank of the Rhine (Deutz, Mühlheim, Zündorf). Later new communities developed, that got larger with
the years. The first community in Deutz lived in the area of nowadays "Mindener Straße". There the Jews felt themselves safe under
the protection of archbishop Dietrich von Moers (1414–1463).
Cultural life in Middle Ages
Clipping from an engraving from Friedrich W. Delkeskamp (1794-1872)In Cologne there was one of the largest Jewish library of Middle Ages. After the massacre of the Jews in York, England in 1190,
a number of Hebrew books from there were brought to and sold in Cologne. There are a number of remarkable manuscripts and
illuminations prepared by and for Jews of Cologne during the twelfth to the fifteenth centuries and now kept in various
libraries and museums throughout the world.
Distinguished Cologne JewsAccordig to the Jewish Encyclopedia Cologne was a center of Jewish learning, and the "wise of Cologne" are frequently
mentioned in rabbinical literature. A characteristic of the Talmudical authorities of that city was their liberality. Many
liturgical poems still in the Ashkenazic ritual were composed by poets of Cologne.Here are the names of many rabbis and scholars of the eleventh and twelfth century: the legendary Amram, traditional founder of
the Talmudic school in the tenth century; R. Jacob ben Yaḳḳar, disciple of Gerson Meor ha-Golah (1050); the liturgist Eliakim ben
Joseph; Eliezer ben Nathan (1070–1152), the chronicler of the First Crusade; the poet Eliezer ben Simson, who, together with the
last named, took part in the famous assembly of French and German rabbis about the middle of the twelfth century; the Tosafist
Samuel ben Natronai and his son Mordecai; the liturgist Joel ben Isaac ha-Levi (d. 1200); Uri ben Eliakim (middle of the twelfth
century); R. Eliakim ben Judah; Ephraim ben Jacob of Bonn (b. 1132), the chronicler of the Second Crusade. The last lost at
Cologne, in 1171, his son Eliakim, a promising youth, who was murdered in the street. His tombstone is still to be seen in the
cemetery of Cologne.Among the rabbis and scholars of the thirteenth century were: Eliezer ben Joel ha-Levi; Uri ben Joel ha-Levi; Jehiel ben Uri,
father of R. Asher; Isaac ben Simson (martyred in 1266); Isaac ben Abraham, brother of the Tosafist Simson ben Abraham of Sens
(martyred in 1266 at Sinzig); R. Isaiah ben Nehemiah (also martyred in 1266 at Sinzig); the liturgist Eliezer ben Ḥayyim;
Ḥayyim ben Jehiel (d. 1314) and Asher ben Jehiel (b. c. 1250; d. 1327); Yaḳḳar ben Samuel ha-Levi; Reuben ben Hezekiah of Boppard;
Abraham ben Samuel; Judah ben Meïr; Samuel ben Joseph; Ḥayyim ben Shaltiel; Nathan ben Joel ha-Levi; Jacob Azriel ben Asher
ha-Levi; Meïr ben Moses; Eliezer ben Judah ha-Kohen, most of whom are known as commentators on the Bible.The rabbis and scholars of the fourteenth century include: Samuel ben Menahem, Talmudist and liturgist; Jedidiah ben Israel,
disciple of Meïr of Rothenburg; and Mordecai ben Samuel. These three are called in the municipal sources "Gottschalk," "Moyter,"
and "Süsskind." The rabbi who officiated at the time of the banishment was Jekuthiel ben Moses Möln ha-Levi.In Middle Ages there were in Cologne the following buildings, synagogues, mikvehs, schools, hospices and cemeteries:
JudenbüchelIn 1174 a document of Saint Engelbert, at the time provost of the monastery of Saint Severin in Cologne, mentions that from 38
years Knight Ortliv had given back five jugerum of land that he had received from the monastery as a fief near the Jews cemetery,
and the land had been let to the Jews against a yearly payment of four denarii and Ortliv couldn’t have any claim on it.[48] In
1266 Archbishop Engelbert II von Falkenburg assured the lawful management and undisturbed usage of their cemetery on Bonner Strasse.
It was located outside the walls of Cologne towards the south near Severinstores, called Judenbüchel or Toten Juden. This name
remained to the area also after the removal of the cemetery until the construction of the supermarket in this place.The cemetery measured 29.000 square meters. In 1096 Salomon ben Simeon mentions the tombstones of the Jews buried there. In 1146
Rabbi Simeon of Treves was buried in the cemetery by the leaders of the Cologne Jewish community. The earliest tombstone still in
existence dates from the year 1152. After 1349 the tombstones were considered owner-less, some of them were torn out of their
places and used by Archbishop William de Gunnep for the construction of the fortress of Lechenig or in Huelchrath. After 1372
the Jews of Cologne again were granted the use of the cemetery and it was used until 1693 mainly by the Jews of Deutz.
By excavations of the area of the Cologne Rathaus in 1953 two fully conserved tombstones were found on the north-west corner of
the building in a large bomb crater. They probably came from the Jewish cemetery of Judenbüchel and were used as building material.
The inscription of the tombstone of Rachel said:"Rachel, daughter of R. Schneior, died on Tuesday, the 16 Elul of the year 83 of the sixth millennium. Her soul be tied in the
union of eternal life. Amen. Sela"Modern times
After the expulsion
Joseph Clemens of Bavaria grants privileges to the JewsThe few Jews who remained in the city, began to re-establish a community in right-Rhenish Deutz, whose rabbi called himself later
"Country Rabbi of Cologne" (Landesrabbiner). Rabbi Vives was known by this title during the mid-15th century.In 1634, there were 17 Jews in Deutz, in 1659 there were 24 houses inhabited by Jews and in 1764 the community was made of 19 people.
Towards the end of the 18th century the municipality remained at a number of 19 people.The community was located in a small Jewish "quarter" in the area of Mindener and Hallenstraße. There was also a synagogue, first
mentioned in 1426, which was damaged by the immense ice drift of the Rhine in 1784. The mikveh associated to the synagogue is
probably still now existing under the embankment of the Brückenrampe (Deutzer Bridge).[51] This first synagogue was then replaced
by a new small building on the west end of "Freiheit", the today’s street "Deutzer Freiheit" (1786–1914).In those times, the Jews of the Deutz community lived like all the others of the Electorate of Cologne under the legal and society
conditions, that were provided by the state from the end of the 16th century through a so-called "Judenordnung". The last issue of
this laws for the Jews was the Order of 1700 by Kurfürst Joseph Clemens. They were kept until new legislation came also in Deutz,
with the adoption of the Napoleonic code.Due to the construction of the Deutzer Hängebrücke in 1913/14, which was named after German President Paul von Hindenburg, the
synagogue was abandoned and demolished.[53] In December 1913, thanks to works to remove the "Schiffsbrückenstraßenbahnlinie" in
Deutz on the "Freiheitsstraße", a mikveh was found under the old synagogue of the Jewish community. The bath had a link to the
water of the Rhine.
Deutz Cemetery
Tombstones and tombs aligned towards north-eastIn contrast to the building evidence in Innenstadt, the history of the Jewish communities outside the city center is revealed above
all through the remains of the Jewish cemeteries. There are right-Rhenish Jewish cemetery in Mülheim, "Am Springborn", in Zündorf
between "Hasenkaul" and the "Gartenweg", and one in Deutz im "Judenkirchhofsweg". The latter was given to the Jews of Deutz by
Archbishop Joseph Clemens of Bavaria in 1695 as a rented land. The first burials took place in 1699. When in 1798 the Jews were
again permitted to settle within the old city walls of Cologne, the cemetery was also used by this community until 1918.
First page of the first edition of the French Code Civil of 1804Until the French annexion of Cologne in 1794, following the French Revolution, no Jew was permitted to settle in Cologne. The
Napoleonic Code included equality before the law, rights of individual freedom and the separation of church and state. The
Government Commissioner Rudler, in his proclamation of June 21, 1798 to the inhabitants of the conquered territory announced: "Whatever smacks of slavery is abolished. Only before God will you have to give an accounting of your religious beliefs.
Your civic rights will no longer depend upon your creeds. Whatever these are, they will be tolerated without distinctions and
enjoy equal protection."A few months earlier, Joseph Isaac of Mühlheim on the Rhine had sought civic rights from the Magistracy of Cologne. Since he
presented favorable evidence of his previous conduct and also proved that he would not become a burden to the city because of
poverty, permission was granted to him on March 16, 1798 to settle in Cologne. The rest of his requests for civic rights were
refused because French regulations had not yet come into force. He was followed by Samuel Benjamin Cohen of Bonn, son of
the Chief Rabbi Simha Brunem. At the same time, the 17-years old Salomon Oppenheim, Jr. moved his businesses from Bonn to
Cologne. He belonged to the families who built the first Cologne community of Modern Times. Oppenheim, Jr. traded with cotton,
linen, oil, wine and Tobacco but his main activity was banking. Already in 1810 his bank was the second largest in Cologne after
"Abraham Schaffhausen". Within the new Cologne Jewish community, Oppenheim, Jr. took an outstanding position in the social and
political life. He was in charge of the community school but he was also the deputy of the Cologne community, who sent him to
the congress of Jewish Notables in Paris in 1806–1807.A modest hall of prayer was built inside the court of the former Monastery of St. Clarissa in Glockengasse. The land was bought
by Benjamin Samuel Cohen, one of the Jewish communal leaders in the early 1800s, taking advantage of a property sale by the
French tax-office.[60] Even if in those times a row of Jewish business people experienced an economic and social rise —
Oppenheim Jr. was elected unanimously to be a member of the Chamber of Commerce and had for the first time as a Jew a public
office — their legal status was unsecure.The Prussian Jews Edict of March 11, 1912 didn’t apply everywhere. It lasted until the Prussian Jewish Law of 1847 and finally
until 1848, with the adoption of the constitutional charter for the Prussian State, the special status of the Jews was definitely
abolished and a complete equality of rights with all other citizens was attained.[61] During the Revolutions of 1848 in the
German states in 1848/49 there were strong anti-Jewish excesses in Eastern and South-Eastern German regions and towns like
Berlin, Prag and Vienna - but also Cologne[citation needed].Due to the growth of the community and the disrepair of the prayer hall in the former Monastery of St. Clarissa, the
Oppenheim family donated a new synagogue building at Glockengasse 7. The number of the members of the community was now about
of 1,000 adults. While in Medieval times the "quarter" had been built close to the synagogue in Cologne "Judengasse", by now the
Jews lived in a decentralized area among the rest of the population. Many lived in the new periphery quarters near the city walls.Due to further growth of the Jewish population, more new constructions followed the one in Glockengasse. The orthodox synagogue in
St. Apern Straße was dedicated on January 16, 1884; the liberal synagogue in Roonstraße was dedicated on March 22, 1899.In the face of historical experiences in Europe, the Jews started initiatives to create their own state. The head office of the
Zionist Organization for Germany was based in Richmodstraße near Neumarkt square, Cologne, and was founded by lawyer Max
Bodenheimer together with merchant David Wolffsohn. Bodeheimer was president until 1910 and worked for Zionism with Theodor
Herzl. The "Kölner Thesen" developed under Bodenheimer for Zionism were — with few adjustments — adopted as the "Basel Program"
by the first Zionist Congress. The goal of the organization was to obtain the foundation of a distinct state of Israel in
Palestine for all the Jews of the world.
Source: Wikipedia
Very Old Folio -manuscript With Plenty Of Court Cases Of German Jews, Anno 1754

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Snoopy And The Red Baron - Schulz - 1966 1st Edition Hardcover picture
Snoopy And The Red Baron - Schulz - 1966 1st Edition Hardcover

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