1960 Jewish ISRAEL Graphic RARE POSTER Judaica SHAVUOT Hebrew CHILDREN - KKL JNF


1960 Jewish ISRAEL Graphic RARE POSTER Judaica SHAVUOT Hebrew CHILDREN - KKL JNF

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1960 Jewish ISRAEL Graphic RARE POSTER Judaica SHAVUOT Hebrew CHILDREN - KKL JNF:
$59.00



DESCRIPTION : Here for sale is a genuine authenticvintage around60 - 70 years old Judaica ZIONIST POSTER , Which was issued by the JNF (Jewish National Fund ) - KKL ( Keren Kayemet Le'Israel ) in ca 1960's to describe , commemorate and celebrate the JEWISH FEAST OF SHAVUOT & BIKKURIM. The Hebrew poster depicts a group of Eretz Israelichildren , Dressed in their typical period cloths , Including the inevitable hat- The KOVA TEMBEL, Celebrating the SHAVUOT with their BIKKURIM BASKETS and beloved PETS and other village animals..SomewhatNAIVEgraphicalDESIGN . Weitten in Hebrew , English , French and Spanish.The poster SIZE is around 18.5" x12.5" ( Not accurate ) . Excellent condition. Absolutely clean , No tears ,stains or creases. ( Pls look at scan for accurate AS IS images )Poster will besent rolled in a special protective rigid sealedtube.AUTHENTICITY :The poster comes from a KKL- JNF old warehouseandis fullyguaranteed ORIGINAL fromca 1950's up to the 1960's. Copies ofthis AUTHENTIC poster were bought WHOLESALE from my store for RESELLING bythe largest and well reputed POSTER GALLERIES in JAFFA ISRAEL and WORLDWIDE. It isNOT a reproduction or a recently made reprint or an immitation ,Itholds alifelong GUARANTEE for itsAUTHENTICITY andORIGINALITY.

PAYMENTS :Payment method accepted : Paypal & All credit cards.

SHIPPING :Shipp worldwide via registeredairmail is $ 25 . Poster will be sentrolled in a special protective rigid sealed tube. Handling around 5 days afterpayment.

The Jewish National Fund(Hebrew: קרן קימת לישראל, Keren KayemetLeYisrael) (abbreviated as JNF, and sometimes KKL) was founded in 1901 tobuy and develop land in Ottoman Palestine (later British Mandate for Palestine,and subsequently Israel and the Palestinian territories) for Jewish settlement.The JNF is a quasi-governmental, non-profit organization. By 2007, it owned 13%of the total land in Israel.Since its inception, the JNF has planted over 240million trees in Israel. It has also built 180 dams and reservoirs, developed250,000 acres (1,000km) of land and established more than1,000 parks. Israelofficially the State of Israel (Hebrew: Shavuot(listen(help·info)), orShavuos(listen(help·info)) in someAshkenaziusage commonly known in English as theFeast of Weeks, is aJewish holidaythat occurs on the sixth day of the Hebrew month ofSivan(it may fall between May 15 and June 14 on the Gregorian calendar). In the Bible, Shavuot marked the wheat harvest in theLand of Israel(Exodus 34:22). In addition, Orthodox rabbinic traditions teach that the date also marks the revelation of theTorahto Moses and theIsraelitesatMount Sinai, which, according to the tradition ofOrthodox Judaism, occurred at this date in 1314BCE.[2]The wordShavuotmeans "weeks", and it marks the conclusion of theCounting of the Omer. Its date is directly linked to that ofPassover; the Torah mandates the seven-week Counting of the Omer, beginning on the second day of Passover, to be immediately followed by Shavuot. This counting of days and weeks is understood to express anticipation and desire for the giving of the Torah. On Passover, the people of Israel were freed from their enslavement to Pharaoh; on Shavuot, they were given the Torah and became a nation committed to serving God.[3]While it is sometimes referred to asPentecost(inKoinē Greek:Πεντηκοστή) due to its timing after Passover, "pentecost" meaning "fifty" in Greek, since Shavuot occurs fifty days after the first day ofPassover, it is not the same as theChristian Pentecost.[4][Note 1][5]One of the biblically ordainedThree Pilgrimage Festivals, Shavuot is traditionally celebrated inIsraelfor one day, where it is a public holiday, andfor two daysin thediaspora.[6][7][8]Contents1 Significance1.1 Agricultural (wheat harvest)1.2 Scriptural1.2.1 Names in the Torah1.2.2 In the Talmud2 Ancient observances2.1 Ceremony of First Fruits,Bikkurim2.2 Temple in Jerusalem3 Modern religious observances3.1 Liturgical poems3.1.1 Aqdamut3.1.2 Azharot3.1.3 Yatziv Pitgam3.2 Dairy foods3.3 Book of Ruth3.4 Greenery3.5 All-night Torah study4 Modern secular observance5 Confirmation ceremonies6 Dates in dispute6.1 Giving of the Torah6.2 Counting of the Omer6.3 The Book of Jubilees and the Essenes7 Explanatory notes8 Citations9 General sources10 External linksSignificance[edit]Agricultural (wheat harvest)[edit]Shavuot is not explicitly named in the Bible as the day on which the Torah was revealed by God to the Israelite nation at Mount Sinai, although this is commonly considered to be its main significance.[9][10]What is textually connected in the Bible to the Feast of Shavuot is the season of the grain harvest, specifically of the wheat, in theLand of Israel. In ancient times, the grain harvest lasted seven weeks and was a season of gladness (Jer.5:24,Deut.16:9–11,Isa.9:2). It began with the harvesting of the barley during Passover and ended with the harvesting of the wheat at Shavuot. Shavuot was thus the concluding festival of the grain harvest, just as the eighth day ofSukkot(Tabernacles) was the concluding festival of the fruit harvest. During the existence of theTemple in Jerusalem, anofferingof two loaves of bread from the wheat harvest was made on Shavuot.[5]The one but lastQumran Scrollto be published has been discovered to contain two festival dates observed by the Qumran sect as part of their formally perfect 364-day calendar, and dedicated to "New Wine" and "New Oil", neither of which are mentioned in theHebrew Bible, but were known from another Qumran manuscript, theTemple Scroll. These festivals "constituted an extension of the festival of Shavuot..., which celebrates the New Wheat". All three festivals are calculated starting from the first Sabbath following Passover, by repeatedly adding exactly 50 days each time: first came New Wheat (Shavuot), then New Wine, and then New Oil.[11](See also below, at"The Book of Jubilees and the Essenes".)Scriptural[edit]Names in the Torah[edit]In the Bible, Shavuot is called the "Festival of Weeks" (Hebrew:חג השבועות,Chag "Festival of Reaping" (חג הקציר,Chag HaKatzir,Exodus23:16),[12]and "Day of the First Fruits" (יום הבכורים,Yom HaBikkurim,Numbers28:26).[13]Shavuot, the plural of a word meaning "week" or "seven," alludes to the fact that this festival happens exactly seven weeks (i.e. "a week of weeks") after Passover.[14]In the Talmud[edit]TheTalmudrefers to Shavuot or "holding back",[16]referring to the prohibition against work on this holiday[16]and to the conclusion of the holiday and season of Passover.[17]Since Shavuot occurs 50 days after Passover,Hellenistic Jewsgave it the name "Pentecost" (Koinē Greek:Πεντηκοστή, "fiftiethday").[18]Ancient observances[edit]Ceremony of First Fruits,Bikkurim[edit]Main article:Bikkurim (First-fruits)Shavuot was also the first day on which individuals could bring theBikkurim(first fruits) to theTemple in Jerusalem(Mishnah Bikkurim1:3). TheBikkurimwere brought from theSeven Speciesfor which the Land of Israel is praised: anddates(Deuteronomy 8:8).[18]In the largely agrarian society of ancient Israel, Jewish farmers would tie a reed around the first ripening fruits from each of these species in their fields. At the time of harvest, the fruits identified by the reed would be cut and placed in baskets woven of gold and silver. The baskets would then be loaded on oxen whose horns were gilded and laced with garlands of flowers, and who were led in a grand procession toJerusalem. As the farmer and his entourage passed through cities and towns, they would be accompanied by music and parades.[19]Temple in Jerusalem[edit]At theTemple in Jerusalem, each farmer would present hisBikkurimto aKohenin a ceremony that followed the text ofDeut.26:1–10.This text begins by stating: "An Aramean tried to destroy my father," referring toLaban's efforts to weakenJacoband rob him of his progeny (Rashion Deut. 26:5)—or by an alternate translation, the text states "My father was a wandering Aramean," referring to the fact that Jacob was a penniless wanderer in the land ofAramfor 20 years (Abraham ibn Ezraon Deut. 26:5).The text proceeds to retell the history of the Jewish people as they went into exile inAncient Egyptand were enslaved and oppressed; following whichGod redeemed themand brought them to the land of Israel.The ceremony ofBikkurimconveys gratitude to God both for the first fruits of the field and for His guidance throughout Jewish history (Scherman, p.1068).Modern religious observances[edit]Asynagoguesanctuary adorned in greenery in honor of ShavuotNowadays in the post-Temple era, Shavuot is the only biblically ordained holiday that has no specificlawsattached to it other than usual festival requirements of abstaining fromcreative work. The rabbinic observances for the holiday include reciting additional prayers, makingkiddush, partaking of meals and being in a state of joy. There are however manycustomswhich are observed on Shavuot.[20]A mnemonic for the customs largely observed in Ashkenazi communities spells the Hebrew wordaḥarit(אחרית‎, "last"):אקדמות‎ –Aqdamut,the reading of apiyyut(liturgical poem) during Shavuot morning synagogue servicesחלב‎ –ḥalav(milk), the consumption of dairy products like milk and cheeseרות‎ –Rut, the reading of theBook of Ruthat morning services (outside Israel: on the second day)ירק‎ –Yereq(greening), the decoration of homes and synagogues with greeneryתורה‎ –Torah, engaging in all-night Torah study.TheyahrzeitofKing Davidis traditionally observed on Shavuot.Hasidic Jewsalso observe theyahrzeitof theBaal Shem Tov.[21]Liturgical poems[edit]Aqdamut[edit]Main is a liturgical poem recited by Ashkenazi Jews extolling the greatness of God, the Torah, and Israel that is read publicly in the synagogue right before the morning reading of the Torah on the first day of Shavuot. It was composed by Rabbi Meir ofWorms, whose son was murdered during theFirst Crusadein 1096. Rabbi Meir was forced to defend the Torah and his Jewish faith in a debate with local priests and successfully conveyed his certainty of God's power, His love for the Jewish people, and the excellence of Torah. Afterwards he wrote theAqdamut, a 90-line poem inAramaicthat stresses these themes. The poem is written in a doubleacrosticpattern according to the order of theHebrew alphabet. In addition, each line ends with the syllableta(תא‎), the last and first letters of the Hebrew alphabet, alluding to the endlessness of Torah. The traditional melody that accompanies this poem also conveys a sense of grandeur and triumph.[22]Azharot[edit]Sephardi Jewsdo not readAkdamut, but before the evening service they sing a poem calledAzharot, which sets out the613 commandments. The positive commandments are recited on the first day and the negative commandments on the second day.Yatziv Pitgam[edit]The liturgical poemYatziv Pitgam(Aramaic:יציב פתגם) is recited by some synagogues in the Diaspora on the second day of Shavuot. The author and his father's name appear in an acrostic at the beginning of the poem's 15 lines.[23]Dairy foods[edit]Cheeseblintzes, typically eaten byAshkenazi Jewson ShavuotDairy foods such ascheesecake, cheeseblintzes,[24]and cheesekreplachamongAshkenazi Jews;[25]cheesesambusak,[26]kelsonnes (cheeseravioli),[27]and atayef (a cheese-filled pancake)[28]amongSyrian Jews; kahee (a dough that is buttered and sugared) amongIraqi Jews;[28]and a seven-layer cake calledsiete cielos(seven heavens) amongTunisianandMoroccan Jews[28][29]are traditionally consumed on the Shavuot holiday.Yemenite Jewsdo not eat dairy foods on Shavuot.[28]In keeping with the observance of otherJewish holidays, there is both a nightmealand a day meal on Shavuot. Meat is usually served at night and dairy is served either for the day meal[25]or for a morningkiddush.[30]Among the explanations given in rabbinic literature for the consumption of dairy foods on this holiday are:[31][32]Before they received the Torah, the Israelites were not obligated to follow its laws, which includeshechita(ritual slaughter of animals) andkashrut. Since all their meat pots and dishes now had to be made kosher before use, they opted to eat dairy foods.The Torah is compared to milk by KingSolomon, who wrote: "Like honey and milk, it lies under your tongue" (Song of Songs4:11).Thegematriaof the Hebrew wordḥalav(חלב‎) is 40, corresponding to the 40 days and 40 nights thatMosesspent onMount Sinaibefore bringing down the Torah.According to theZohar, each day of the year correlates to one of the Torah's365 negative commandments. Shavuot corresponds to the commandment "Bring the first fruits of your land to the house of God your Lord; do not cook a kid in its mother's milk" (Exodus34:26). Since the first day to bringBikkurim(the first fruits) is Shavuot, the second half of the verse refers to the custom to eat two separate meals – one milk, one meat – on Shavuot.ThePsalmscall Mount SinaiHar Gavnunim(הר גבננים‎, mountain of majestic peaks, Psalm 68:16–17/15–16 ), which is etymologically similar togevinah(גבינה‎, cheese).Book of Ruth[edit]RuthinBoaz's Field byJulius Schnorr von Carolsfeld, oil on canvas, 1828; National Gallery, LondonThere are five books inTanakhthat are known asMegillot(Hebrew:מגילות‎, "scrolls") and are publicly read in the synagogues of some Jewish communities on different Jewish holidays.[33]TheBook of Ruth(מגילת רות‎,Megillat Ruth) is read on Shavuot because:King David, Ruth's descendant, was born and died on Shavuot (Jerusalem TalmudHagigah2:3);Shavuot is harvest time [Exodus 23:16], and the events of Book of Ruth occur at harvest time;Thegematria(numerical value) of Ruth is 606, the number of commandments given at Sinai in addition to theSeven Laws of Noahalready given, for a total of 613;Because Shavuot is traditionally cited as the day of the giving of the Torah, the entry of the entire Jewish people into the covenant of the Torah is a major theme of the day. Ruth's conversion to Judaism, and consequent entry into that covenant, is described in the book. This theme accordingly resonates with other themes of the day;Another central theme of the book isḥesed(loving-kindness), a major theme of the Torah.[34]Greenery[edit]According to theMidrash, Mount Sinai suddenly blossomed with flowers in anticipation of the giving of the Torah on its summit. Greenery also figures in the story of the babyMosesbeing found among thebulrushesin awatertight cradle(Ex.2:3) when he was three months old (Moses was born on 7 Adar and placed in theNile Riveron 6 Sivan, the same day he later brought the Jewish nation to Mount Sinai to receive the Torah).[31]For these reasons, many Jewish families traditionally decorate their homes andsynagogueswith plants, flowers and leafy branches in honor of Shavuot.[35]Some synagogues decorate thebimahwith a canopy of flowers and plants so that it resembles achuppah, as Shavuot is mystically referred to as the day the matchmaker (Moses) brought the bride (the nation of Israel) to the chuppah (Mount Sinai) to marry the bridegroom (God); theketubah(marriage contract) was the Torah. Some Eastern Sephardi communities read out aketubahbetween God and Israel, composed by RabbiIsrael ben Moses Najaraas part of the service. This custom was also adopted by some Hasidic communities, particularly fromHungary.[36]TheVilna Gaoncancelled the tradition of decorating with trees because it too closely resembles the Christian decorations for their holidays.[35]All-night Torah study[edit]The practice of staying up all Shavuot night to study Torah – known asTiqun Leyl Shavuot(Hebrew:תקון ליל שבועות) ("Rectification for Shavuot Night") – is linked to aMidrashwhich relates that the night before the Torah was given, the Israelites retired early to be well-rested for the momentous day ahead. They overslept andMoseshad to wake them up because God was already waiting on the mountaintop.[37]To rectify this perceived flaw in the national character, many religious Jews stay up all night to learn Torah.[38]The custom of all-night Torah study goes back to 1533 when RabbiJoseph Caro, author of theShulchan Aruch, then living inOttomanSalonika, invited RabbiShlomo Halevi Alkabetzand otherKabbalisticcolleagues to hold Shavuot-night study vigils for which they prepared for three days in advance, just as the Israelites had prepared for three days before the giving of the Torah. During one of those study sessions, an angel appeared and taught themJewish law.[39][40][41]It has been suggested that the introduction ofcoffeethroughout theOttoman empiremay have attributed to the "feasibility and popularity" of the practice of all-night Torah study.[42][43]Any subject may be studied on Shavuot night, althoughTalmud,Mishnah, andTorahtypically top the list. People may learn alone or with achavruta(study partner), or attend late-nightshiurim(lectures) and study groups.[44]In keeping with the custom of engaging in all-night Torah study, leading 16th centurykabbalistIsaac Luriaarranged a recital consisting of excerpts from the beginning and end of each of the 24 books ofTanakh(including the reading in full of several key sections such asthe account of the days of creation,the Exodus, the giving of theTen Commandmentsand theShema) and the 63 tractates of Mishnah,[45][46]followed by the reading ofSefer Yetzirah, the 613 commandments as enumerated byMaimonides, and excerpts from theZohar, with opening and concluding prayers. The whole reading is divided into thirteen parts, after each of which aKaddish d-Rabbananis recited when theTiqunis studied with aminyan. Today, this service is held in many communities, with the notable exception ofSpanish and Portuguese Jews. The service is printed in a book calledTiqun Leyl Shavuot.[47]There exist similar books for the vigils before the seventh day ofPesachandHosha'ana Rabbah.InJerusalem, at the conclusion of the night time study session, tens of thousands of people walk to theWestern Wallto pray with sunrise. A week after Israel captured theOld Cityduring theSix-Day War, over 200,000 Jews streamed to the site on Shavuot, it having been made accessible to Jews for the first time since1948.[44][48][49][50]Modern secular observance[edit] This sectiondoes notciteanysources.Please helpimprove this sectionbyadding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged andremoved.(June 2020)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)Bikkurim ceremonyat KibbutzGivat Haim, 1951Shavuot'sBikkurim festivalinGiv'at Shmuel, Israel, 2009In secular agricultural communities in Israel, such as mostkibbutzimandmoshavim, Shavuot is celebrated as a harvest and first-fruit festival including a wider, symbolic meaning of joy over the accomplishments of the year. As such, not just agricultural produce and machinery is presented to the community, but also the babies born during the preceding twelve months.Confirmation ceremonies[edit]In the 19th century, several Orthodox synagogues in Britain and Australia held confirmation ceremonies for 12-year-old girls on Shavuot, a precursor to the modernBat Mitzvah.[51]The earlyReformmovement made Shavuot into a religious school graduation day.[6]Today, Reformsynagoguesin North America typically hold confirmation ceremonies on Shavuot for students aged 16 to 18 who are completing their religious studies. The graduating class stands in front of an openark, recalling the standing of theIsraelitesatMount Sinaifor the giving of the Torah.[52]Dates in dispute[edit]Since the Torah does not specify the actual day on which Shavuot falls, differing interpretations of this date have arisen both in traditional and non-traditional Jewish circles. These discussions center around two ways of looking at Shavuot: the day it actually occurs (i.e., the day the Torah was given on Mount Sinai), and the day it occurs in relation to the Counting of the Omer (being the 50th day from the first day of the Counting).[53]Giving of the Torah[edit]While most of theTalmudic Sagesconcur that the Torah was given on the sixth ofSivanin theHebrew calendar, Rabbi Jose holds that it was given on the seventh of that month. According to the classical timeline, the Israelites arrived at the wilderness of Sinai on the new moon (Ex.19:1) and theTen Commandmentswere given on the following Shabbat (i.e., Saturday). The question of whether the new moon fell on Sunday or Monday is undecided (Talmud, tractate Shabbat 86b). In practice, Shavuot is observed on the sixth day of Sivan inIsrael[54]and a second day is added in the Jewish diaspora (in keeping with a separate rabbinical ruling that applies to all biblical holidays, calledYom tov sheni shel galuyot,Second-Day Yom Tov in theDiaspora).[55]Counting of the Omer[edit]Main article:Counting of the OmerThe Torah states that the Omer offering (i.e., the first day of counting the Omer) is the first day of the barley harvest (Deut.16:9). It should begin "on the morrow after theShabbat", and continue to be counted for seven Sabbaths. (Lev.23:11).The Talmudic Sages determined that "Shabbat" here means a day of rest and refers to the first day of Passover. Thus, the counting of the Omer begins on the second day of Passover and continues for the next 49 days, or seven complete weeks, ending on the day before Shavuot. According to this calculation, Shavuot will fall on the day of the week after that of the first day of Passover (e.g., if Passover starts on a Thursday, Shavuot will begin on a Friday).The Book of Jubilees and the Essenes[edit]This literal interpretation of 'Shabbat' as the weekly Shabbat was shared by the second-century BCE author of theBook of Jubileeswho was motivated by the priestly sabbaticalsolar calendarof the third and second centuries BCE, which was designed to have festivals and Sabbaths fall on the same day of the week every year. On this calendar (best known from the Book of Luminaries in theBook of Enoch), Shavuot fell on the 15th of Sivan, a Sunday. The date was reckoned fifty days from the first Shabbat after Passover (i.e. from the 25th of Nisan). Thus, Jub. 1:1 claims that Moses ascended Mount Sinai to receive the Torah "on the sixteenth day of the third month in the first year of the Exodus of the children of Israel from Egypt".In Jub. 6:15–22 and 44:1–5, the holiday is traced to the appearance of the first rainbow on the 15th of Sivan, the day on which God made his covenant with Noah.TheQumrancommunity, commonly associated with theEssenes, held in its library several texts mentioning Shavuot, most notably a Hebrew original of theBook of Jubilees, which sought to fix the celebration of this Feast of Weeks on 15 of Sivan, following their interpretation of Exodus 19:1.[56](See also above, at"Agricultural (wheat harvest)".) ***Jump to navigationJump to searchPart ofa seriesonJewsandJudaismEtymologyWho is a firstfruit of the season.InAncient Israel, a type of offering that were akin to, but distinct from,terumah gedolah. Whileterumah gedolahwas an agricultural tithe, the First-fruits, discussed in theBikkurim tractateof theTalmud, were a sacrificial gift brought up to the altar (Bikkurim3:12). The major obligation to bring First Fruits (henceforthBikkurim) to the Temple began at the festival ofShavuotand continued until the festival ofSukkot(Bikkurim1:6). This tithe was limited tothe traditional seven agricultural products(wheat,barley,grapesin the form ofwine,figs,pomegranates,olivesin the form ofoil, anddates) grown in theLand of Israel.[2][3]This tithe, and the associated festival of Shavuot, is legislated by theTorah.[4]Textual criticsspeculate that these regulationswere imposed long afterthe offerings and festival had developed.[5]By the time ofclassical antiquity, extensive regulations regardingBikkurimwere recorded in theclassical rabbinical literature.[6]According to Jewish law, the corners of fields, wild areas, left-overs after harvesting (gleanings), and unowned crops were not subjected to (and could not be used as) the tithe of First Fruits (they were intended to be left as charityforthe poor, and othermendicants);[2]plants from outside Israel were also prohibited from inclusion in the tithe,[2]as was anything belonging to non-Jews.[7]The rules also specify that each type of product had to be individually tithed, even if the numbers were balanced so that there was no difference in amount between this situation and using just some types of First Fruit as the tithe, and retaining others in their entirety.[2]Fruit which was allocated to the tithe could not be swapped for fruit which wasn't, to the extent that wine couldn't be swapped for vinegar, and olive oil couldn't be replaced by olives; furthermore, fruits were not allowed to be individually divided if only part went to the tithe (small whole pomegranates had to be used rather than sections from a large pomegranate, for example).[2]The separation of tithed produce from untithed produce was also subject to regulation. The individual(s) separating one from the other had to beritually clean, and had to include the best produce in the tithe if akohen(priest) lived nearby.[2]During the act of separation, the produce was not permitted to be counted out to determine which fell under the tithe, nor to be weighed for that purpose, nor to be measured for the same reason, but instead the proportion that was to become the tithe had to be guessed at.[2]In certain situations, such as when tithed produce became mixed with non-tithed produce (or there was uncertainty as to whether it had), the tithed produce had to be destroyed.[2]Anyone who made mistakes in the separation of tithed produce, and anyone who consumed any of the tithe, was required to pay compensation as aguilt offering.[2]The pilgrims that brought theBikkurimto the Temple were obligated to recite a declaration, also known as the Avowal, set forth in Deuteronomy 26:3-10 (cf.Mishnah,Bikkurim3:6). Native-born Israelites andproselyteswould bring theBikkurimand would say the Avowal, but women who brought theBikkurimwere not permitted to say the Avowal, since they were unable to claim inheritance in the Land bequeathed unto the tribes by their male lineage.[a]This Avowal was incorporated into a beautiful and grand festive celebration with a procession of pilgrims marching up to Jerusalem and then the Temple with gold, silver or willow baskets to which live doves were tied. (Bikkurim3:3,5 and 8). The pilgrims were led by flutists to the city of Jerusalem where they were greeted by dignitaries (Bikkurim3:3). The procession would then resume with the flutist in lead until theTemple Mountwhere the Levites would break out in song (Bikkurim3:4). The doves were given as sacrificial offerings and the declaration would be made before apriestwhile the basket was still on the pilgrim's shoulder (Bikkurim3:5-6). After the basket was presented to the priest, it was placed by the Altar and the pilgrim would bow and leave (Bikkurim3:6).A prerequisite for bringing theBikkurimis that the person who brings them is the legal property owner of the land on which the fruits were grown, for which reason,share-croppersandusurping occupantswere not permitted to bring them.[9]Contents1 Ceremonial ritual2 See also3 References4 Explanatory notesCeremonial ritual[edit]Offering of the first fruits, illustration from a Bible cardThe following was the method of selecting fruits for the offering: Upon visiting his field and seeing a fig, or a grape, or a pomegranate that was ripe, the owner would tie a cord of reed-grass or similar fiber around the fruit, saying, "This shall be among thebikkurim." According to Simeon, he had to repeat the express designation after the fruit had been plucked from the tree in the orchard (Mishnah,Bikkurim3:1). The fruits were carried in great state to Jerusalem. Stations (Heb.ma'amadot), with deputations representing the people of all the cities in the district, assembled in the chief town of the district, and stayed there overnight in the open squares, without going into the houses. At dawn the officer in charge (Heb.memunneh) called out: "Arise, let us ascend to Zion, the house of the Lord our God." Those from the neighborhood brought fresh figs and grapes, those from a distance dried figs and raisins.The bull destined for the sacrifice, his horns gilded and his head wreathed with olive-leaves, led the procession, which was accompanied with flute-playing. When they arrived near the Holy City, the pilgrims sent messengers ahead while they decorated the Firstfruits. The Temple officers came out to meet them, and all artisans along the streets rose before them, giving them the salutation of peace, and hailing them as brothers from this or that town. The flute kept sounding until they reached theTemple mount. Here even King Agrippa, following the custom, took his basket on his shoulder, and marched in the ranks, until they came to the outer court and hall. There they were welcomed by the Levites, singing Psalm 30:2. The doves which had been carried along in the baskets were offered for burnt offerings, and what the men had in their hands they gave to the priests. But before this, while still carrying his basket, each man recited Deuteronomy 26:3et seq.; at the words "an oppressed Aramæan was my father,"[10]the basket was deposed from the shoulder, but while the owner was still holding its handles or rims, a priest put his hand under it and "swung it" (lifted it up), and repeated the words "an oppressed Aramæan was my father," etc., to the close of the Deuteronomic section. Then placing the basket by the side of the altar, the pilgrim bowed down and left the hall. 5655


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