1939 Henrietta Szold Vintage Photo Famous Jewish & Leader Founder Of Hadassah
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1939 Henrietta Szold Vintage Photo Famous Jewish & Leader Founder Of Hadassah:
HENRIETTASZOLDFamous Jewish & Leader Founder of Hadassah vintage original approximately 5 1/4 x 7 inch photo from in 1853 by twenty-one young German Jews, Temple Oheb Shalom was originally located on Hanover Street near present day Camden Yards. “Oheb Shalom” means “Lover of Peace.” It was founded as a religious home for the majority of Jews in Baltimore who did not want to attend the Orthodox Baltimore Hebrew Congregation (1830) or the radical Reform Har Sinai (1846). When the Jewish population moved northwest, our congregation relocated to its second home in 1892 and became known as the "Eutaw Place Temple." Modeled after the Great Synagogue of Florence, Italy, this magnificent building still anchors Baltimore's Westside. During our centennial year, 1953, we acquired the present site in Pikesville and completed the move to Park Heights Avenue in 1960. Our building was designed by the world renowned founder of the Bauhaus school of architecture, Walter Gropius. Recognized as an example of great synagogue architecture, our facility was completely renovated by Levin-Brown Architects in 2002. The American Institute of Architects gave Oheb Shalom its award for Interior Religious Design in 2004 for the Greenebaum Sanctuary ark.
Temple Oheb Shalom is note worthy in that only five senior rabbis and six cantors have served the congregation during its entire existence. Its clergy are among the most eminent in American Jewish life. Our first senior rabbi, Rabbi Benjamin Szold (1859-1892), was one of the leaders of 19th century American Jewish community. His daughter, Henrietta Szold, was the founder of Hadassah and one of the most distinguished Jews our country has ever produced. Rabbi William Rosenau (1892-1940), Rabbi Abraham Shaw (1940-1976), Rabbi Donald Berlin (1976-1999), and Rabbi Steven M. Fink (1999-) have each added to the legacy of this historic congregation. Our cantors, Alois Kaiser (1866-1908), Jacob Schuman (1908-1941), Benjamin Grobani (1941-1967), Melvin Luterman (1967-2003), Lisa Levine (2003-2006), and Renata Braun (2007-) have added immeasurably to the body of American synagogue music. They have brought beauty and meaning to our worship throughout their more than a century and a half of service.
Temple Oheb Shalom prides itself on its history and tradition while concurrently being among the most innovative congregations in the country.
Street signs in Israel bear names of individuals, past and present, who have contributed significantly to the nation’s development. Using street signs as direction, this series will briefly introduce the leading personalities in Israeli history.
Had Henrietta Szold been born in 1960 instead of 1860, she probably would have become a rabbi. One of eight daughters of a Baltimore rabbi, Henrietta Szold was a passionate and accomplished student of Judaism. She won permission to study Jewish texts at the then male-only Jewish Theological Seminary, on condition that she never agitate to be granted rabbinic ordination.
Szold was a forerunner of Jewish women's liberation. When her mother died in 1916, a close male friend, Haym Peretz, volunteered to say the Mourner's Kaddish. Szold graciously refused the offer. "I believe," she wrote him, "that the elimination of women from such duties was never intended by our law and custom - women were freed from positive duties when they could not perform them [because of family responsibilities] but not when they could."
Szold's outstanding contribution to Jewish life was the creation of the largest Jewish organization in American history, Hadassah. Although Zionist, Hadassah particularly involved itself in meeting the health needs of both Jews and Arabs in Palestine. Today, the foremost hospital in Israel and the entire Middle East is the Hadassah Hospital in Jerusalem. Szold insisted that the most up-to-date medical treatment be extended to the Arabs of Palestine as well as to the Jews, and Hadassah played a major role in lowering Arab infant mortality. The Hadassah spirit of volunteerism and nondiscrimination was unfortunately rejected by the Arab leadership.
During the 1930s, Szold involved Hadassah in a program to rescue Jewish youth from Germany, and later from all of Europe. It is estimated that the program she created, "Youth Aliyah," saved some 22,000 Jewish children from Hitler's concentration camps.
The personal tragedy of Henrietta Szold's life was that she never married; this woman, whose life was devoted to saving the lives of children, never had children of her own. While in her forties, she did fall passionately in love with the great Talmud scholar Louis Ginzberg. He was thirteen years her junior, and returned her feelings only platonically. Shortly after their relationship ended, she wrote: "Today it is four weeks since my only real happiness was killed." Many years later, she confided to a friend: "I would exchange everything for one child of my own."
To this day Henrietta Szold is regarded as one of the genuine heroic figures of American-Jewish history. She was one of the few women to play a foundational role in creating meaningful American Jewish culture. Szold, however, was constrained by the limited opportunities that the Jewish world of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries could offer a woman of her brilliance, organizational abilities and vision. Yet, her influence extended beyond the United States, to the Jewish people. She helped shape the political, cultural and social worlds of Jews, creating a new world of opportunity for Jewish women. Even before her death in l945, she had become an icon for the practical idealism that could build a Jewish state.
She was born in Baltimore, Maryland a little more than a year after her parents arrived in the United States in l859 from Nemiskert Hungary where the family owned land. Rabbi Benjamin Szold, her father, had been appointed rabbi of Congregation Ohev Shalom in Baltimore.
To Henrietta, the eldest of eight daughters, three of whom died in infancy, her father gave the attention and education usually reserved for an eldest son. In the private school conducted in the basement of Ohev Shalom, Henrietta learned the elements of German, English, secular studies and Judaism. In addition to German, the household language, her father taught her French and Hebrew. Her mother, Sophie Schaar Szold, saw to it that all her daughters also learned sewing, cooking and gardening, while botany became a passionate family hobby.
In l877, Henrietta Szold graduated from Western Female High School, where her record was never excelled. For nearly fifteen years she taught at the Misses Adam’s School, an elegant female academy in Baltimore, while at the same time teaching classes at the Ohev Shalom religious school and gave Bible and history courses for adults. To advance her own education, she attended public lectures at the newly founded Johns Hopkins University and the Peabody institute.
From the year she graduated from high school she began writing for publication. She served as Baltimore correspondent of the New York Jewish Messenger, signing her articles ‘Sulamith’. Although some dismissed her female voice as irrelevant, Szold’s observations and critique of American Jewish culture garnered attention among American Judaism’s intellectual leaders. Szold became the only woman elected to the publication committee of the newly formed Jewish Publication Society in l888 and was one of only two women invited to speak at the Jewish Congress held at Chicago’s 1893 Columbian Exposition.
A crucial event in establishing the future direction of Henrietta Szold’s life, second only to her home Environment, was the influx of Russian Jews. In the late 1870’s, Henrietta and her father began to go down to the Baltimore docks to assist Jewish immigrants arriving from Eastern Europe and Russia. They found an intellectual and spiritual community among the advanced thinkers of the Russian community that they sorely missed among the members of the refined congregation that Benjamin Szold served as Rabbi. Henrietta imbibed the nationalist hopes of the Russian intellectual community who believed that the creation of Jewish community in Palestine could also preserve Judaism as a meaningful way of life in the Diaspora.
In 1888 she established a system of evening adult classes in Baltimore, which gave these immigrants practical knowledge of their new country. These schools were to develop into a model for the Americanization of all new immigrants. By 1898, when the school was taken over by the city, more than 5,000 pupils, Christian as well as Jews had received instruction. This period had given her life a new focus and had made her a Zionist.
Zionism, she wrote was “the balm for wounds inflicted by history upon the Jewish people … an ideal that can be embraced by all, no matter what their attitude may be to other Jewish questions.” Szold became active in Zionist circles in the late 1800’s, particularly among Jewish women. In addition, she became known for her literary accomplishments. From 1893 to l916, she served as literary secretary for the Jewish Publication Society of America, giving expression to her interest in Jewish scholarship through editing and translating. She collaborated in the compilation of the Jewish Encyclopedia.
After the death of her father in l902, Henrietta and her mother moved to New York, where Henrietta devoted her spare time to the study of Hebrew and Talmud at the Jewish Theological Seminary of America. A few years later in l907, she became a member of the Hadassah Study Circle, where issues of concern to Jews were discussed at length. She encouraged the group to become involved in improving the quality of health care in Eretz Yisrael. This study circle became the first chapter of the National Women’s Zionist Organization, which Szold founded in l912, and was elected as the first president. The Hadassah organization later grew into the largest Zionist organization in the world.
Meeting Jewish Theological Seminary professor Louis Ginzberg in l903 awakened Szold, at age 42, to feelings of sexual attraction that she had never before experienced. Szold had long accepted the difference in their ages - she being thirteen years his senior, yet, despite herself, she wondered if Ginzberg’s intensifying attention and affection might result in a marriage proposal. In the summer of l903, Ginzberg traveled to Europe for his customary research and family visit. While there, he was introduced to eighteen-year-old Adele Katzenstein. On their third meeting, he proposed marriage. Ginzberg’s engagement proved devastating. The heartbreak resulted in a grieving process that lasted for years and together with arduous work, brought Henrietta to nervous exhaustion and to a sense of futility, both personal and professional.
At age 48, in l909, Szold visited Palestine for the first time, moving there in l920, making her one of the only American Jewish Zionist leaders to choose Jerusalem as home. There she directed the Hadassah Medical Organization for the next three years. The creation of Hadassah as a Zionist women’s organization dedicated to practical work in Palestine transformed Szold’s future course and the lives of hundreds of thousands of women who joined this work. Largely under Szold’s leadership, Hadassah created the infrastructure for a modern medical system in Palestine that would serve both Jews and Arabs.
In l917, she was charged with organizing the American Zionist Medical Unit, which, in June 1918 set out for Palestine. She became director, ran the newly established Nurses’ Training School now known as the Henrietta Szold Hadassah School of Nurses and directed health work in Jewish Schools.
Szold spent most of the last twenty-five years of her life in Palestine, overseeing numerous health, educational and social service institutions that would become an integral part of the State of Israel. In her seventies, under the shadow of the Nazi threat in Europe, Szold directed Youth Aliyah, an organization that brought thousands of children from Germany and Europe to agricultural settlements in Palestine to facilitate their absorption as well as the development of the yishuv. Perhaps because she herself was childless, she considered saving young refugees her most memorable project.
The success of Hadassah resulted in Szold becoming a symbol of the Zionist dream and of the commitment and vision that animated the Hadassah organization. When she was in her 70s and 80s, American Hadassah leaders craved visits from Szold both for the inspiration that she provided and so that they might honor her in ways that could benefit the organization financially. She became the recipient of numerous honors including honorary degrees from the Jewish Institute of Religion and Boston University 1944, (because of failing health she was unable to receive the honor, - it was awarded via a two-way radio broadcast.) She was mentioned by The Nation magazine as one of the most significant Americans in l936, and nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize.
Szold tried to deflect those who celebrated her special leadership or inspirational qualities. Rather, she claimed her talent was in being a ‘hard worker’, and in an interview conducted when she was 75 years old, she noted that her greatest assets were “a strong constitution, a devotion to duty and a big conscience,” together with “a pretty big capacity for righteous indignation.” Despite her public modesty, even in her 80s, she was loathe to yield decisions about Youth Aliyah to any but her most trusted assistants and co-workers.
Szold’s work in Youth Aliyah continued to absorb her energies into her 84th year. When she fell ill in July 1943, she took up residence in the residential quarters of the Henrietta Szold Nursing School at Hadassah Hospital. When she died, thousands attended her funeral, and a boy from one of the last European transports of Youth Aliyah read Kaddish.
In her life and career, Henrietta Szold posed questions and faced challenges that Jewish women in North America and around the world continue to explore. Szold spent little time fighting for women’s rights or pleading women’s grievances. Yet, in following what seemed to her, her duty, she proved the power of women’s activism. When she finally realized that she could never give full expression to her energies if she stayed within the sphere allowed her within male-led Jewish organizations, she founded one of her own. The members of Hadassah took up the challenge raised and modeled by Henrietta Szold, showing that women could indeed change the Jewish world.
Kfar Szold, on the Eastern outskirts of the Huleh Valley, was founded in l942 by pioneers from Hungary, Austria and Germany, later joined by new members from South American and other countries. Until the Six Day War in l967, Kfar Szold was a constant target for the Syrian artillery position on the Golan slopes. Its farming is intensive, mixed and fully irrigated. The kibbutz also operates a metal factory, specializing in heat-and fluid conducting instruments.
The Henrietta Szold Institute, (Mossad Szold), in Kfar Szold, the National Institute for Research in the Behavioral Sciences. Established in l941, the Institute, a non-profit organization, devises and carries out research and experimental educational [projects, undertakes follow-up surveys and studies, mainly in the field of education, and provides public bodies and private concerns with advice and training in the fields of the Institute’s expertise. The Institute publishes the quarterly behavioral sciences journal ‘Megamot’. Contact: Elba Gasser, 9 C
The Henrietta Szold School of Nursing and Nurses’ Residence, at the Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School: The first in Palestine, the first graduating class was November 1921. Henrietta Szold, arrived in Palestine in l920 to serve on the executive committee of the Hadassah Medical Organization. She laid the foundations for Hadassah’s continuing approach, based on education and professional standards, with the ultimate aim of turning its programs over to the people of the country. By the late l960’s many of these special endeavors were run by Israel’s municipalities or by the government.
Henrietta Szold (/zoʊld/ ZOHLD, Hungarian: [ˈsold]; December 21, 1860 – February 13, 1945) was a U.S. Jewish Zionist leader and founder of Hadassah, the Women's Zionist Organization of America. In 1942, she co-founded Ihud, a political party in Mandatory Palestine dedicated to a binational solution.Contents1 Early life and education2 Career3 Personal life4 Death5 Legacy6 Awards and honors7 See also8 References8.1 Citations8.2 Bibliography9 External linksEarly life and educationHenrietta Szold was born in Baltimore, Maryland, December 21, 1860. She was the daughter of Rabbi Benjamin Szold of Hungarian birth, who was the spiritual leader of Baltimore's Temple Oheb Shalom. She was the eldest of eight daughters. In 1877, she graduated from Western High School. For fifteen years she taught at Miss Adam’s School and Oheb Shalom religious school, and gave Bible and history courses for adults. Highly educated in Jewish studies, she edited Professor Marcus Jastrow's Talmudic Dictionary. To further her own education, she attended public lectures at Johns Hopkins University and the Peabody Institute.
CareerSzold established the first American night school to provide English language instruction and vocational skills to Russian Jewish immigrants in Baltimore. Beginning in 1893, she worked as the first editor for the Jewish Publication Society, a position she maintained for over 23 years. "The sole woman at the JPS, Szold's duties included the translation of a dozen works, writing articles of her own, editing the books, and overseeing the publication schedule.
In 1896, one month before Theodor Herzl published his magnum opus, Der Judenstaat, Szold described her vision of a Jewish state in Palestine as a place to ingather Diaspora Jewry and revive Jewish culture. In 1898, the Federation of American Zionists elected Szold as the only female member of its executive committee. During World War I, she was the only woman on the Provisional Executive Committee for General Zionist Affairs.
In 1899 she took on the lion's share of producing the first American Jewish Year Book, of which she was sole editor from 1904 to 1908." She also collaborated in the compilation of the Jewish Encyclopedia.
In 1902, Szold took classes in advanced Jewish studies at the Jewish Theological Seminary of America. However, its rabbinic school was for men only. Szold begged the school's president, Solomon Schechter, to allow her to study, he did only with the provision that she not seek ordination. Szold did well at the seminary, earning the respect from other students and faculty alike. 
Her commitment to Zionism was heightened by a trip to Palestine in 1909, at age 49. Here, she discovered her life's mission: the health, education and welfare of the Yishuv (pre-state Jewish community of Palestine). Szold joined six other women to found Hadassah, which recruited American Jewish women to upgrade health care in Palestine. Hadassah's first project was the inauguration of an American-style visiting nurse program in Jerusalem. Hadassah funded hospitals, a medical school, dental facilities, x-ray clinics, infant welfare stations, soup kitchens and other services for Palestine's Jewish and Arab inhabitants. Szold persuaded her colleagues that practical programs open to all were critical to Jewish survival in the Holy Land. She founded Hadassah in 1912 and served as its president until 1926.Henrietta Szold at her home in Jerusalem, ca. 1922In the 1920s and 1930s she was a supporter of Brit Shalom, a small organization dedicated to Arab-Jewish unity and a binational solution. In 1933 she immigrated to Palestine and helped run Youth Aliyah, an organization that rescued 30,000 Jewish children from Nazi Europe. In October 1934 Szold laid the cornerstone of the new Rothschild-Hadassah-University Hospital on Mount Scopus. In 1942, she was one of the co-founders of the Ihud party which advocated the same program.
Personal lifeSzold never married and never had children of her own. While she was in her forties, she had an unrequited relationship with Talmudic scholar Rabbi Louis Ginzberg. He was fifteen years her junior, and he returned her feelings only platonically. After their relationship ended, she expressed her sadness: "Today it is four weeks since my only real happiness was killed." Years afterward, she said: "I would exchange everything for one child of my own."
Szold was the oldest of eight daughters, and had no brothers. In Orthodox Judaism, it was not the norm for women to recite the Mourners' Kaddish. In 1916, Szold's mother died, and a friend, Hayim Peretz, offered to say Kaddish for her. In a letter, she thanked Peretz for his concern, but said she would do it herself.
I know well, and appreciate what you say about the Jewish custom; and Jewish custom is very dear and sacred to me. And yet I cannot ask you to say Kaddish after my mother. The Kaddish means to me that the survivor publicly and markedly manifests his wish and intention to assume the relation to the Jewish community, which his parent had, and that so the chain of tradition remains unbroken from generation to generation, each adding its own link. You can do that for the generations of your family, I must do that for the generations of my family.Szold's answer to Peretz is cited by "Women and the Mourners' Kaddish," a responsum written by Conservative Rabbi David Golinkin. This responsum, adopted unanimously by Conservative Judaism's Va'ad Halakhah (Law Committee) of the Rabbinical Assembly of Israel, permits women to recite the Mourners' Kaddish in public when a minyan is present. Szold was religiously traditional, but advocated a larger role for women in Rabbinic Judaism.
DeathOn February 13, 1945, at age 84, Henrietta Szold died in the same Hadassah Hospital she helped to build in Jerusalem. She was buried in the Jewish Cemetery on the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem.
From 1948 to 1967, the Mount of Olives was cut off from the rest of Jerusalem by the 1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine and the 1949 Armistice Agreements. After Israel regained the region in the Six-Day War, Kalman Mann, then-director general of Hadassah Medical Center, went with a group of rabbis to the cemetery to assess the condition of Szold's grave. They found that it had been paved over by a road built by the Jordanians, who had also vandalized many grave markers. They were able to locate Szold's burial site using a cemetery chart and "counting the indentations in the ground". The grave was later rebuilt and remarked with a new stone marker in an official ceremony.
LegacyKibbutz Kfar Szold, in Upper Galilee is named after her. The Palmach, in recognition of her commitment to "Aliyat Hanoar" Youth Aliyah, named the illegal immigration (Ha'apalah) ship "Henrietta Szold" after her. The ship, carrying immigrants from the Kiffisia orphanage in Athens, sailed from Piraeus on July 30, 1946, with 536 immigrants on board, and arrived on August 12, 1946. The passengers resisted capture, but were transferred to transport for Cyprus.
In 1949, Hadassah inaugurated the Henrietta Szold prize, which was awarded that year to Eleanor Roosevelt.
The Henrietta Szold Institute, National Institute for Research in the Behavioral Sciences, located in Jerusalem, is named after her. The institute is Israel's foremost planner of behavioral science intervention and training programs.
Public School 134 on Manhattan's Lower East Side in New York City is also named after her.
In Israel, Mother's Day is celebrated on the day that Szold died, on the 30th of Shevat.
In the northwest corner of Szold's home city of Baltimore, Szold Drive, a short street in a residential neighborhood with homes built in the 1950s, is named after her as well. The northernmost part of the street is in Baltimore County.
In New York City, Szold Place, formerly Dry Dock Street runs from East 10th Street to East 12th Street in the East Village neighborhood of Manhattan.
Awards and honorsIn 2007, Szold was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame in Seneca Falls, New York.